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162 M \Ki:VAT'> (IF.) Residence in Jutland, 

I ,„. | , mi .,, [dea and Copenhagen, 2 rolfl, > ustra- 

tedwUh a map and 36 engravings,*™* Edition, 

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IN TWO VOLUMES.— Vol. I. -f< 



i in right oj Translation is reserved. 




Hamburg — The Alster Lake — Lubec — Epitapliia — Drinklage 
family — Schifferhaus — ■ Travemiinde — North German table-d'hote 
and cuisine — Sea-baths of Diisternbrook — German economy — 
"Weasel called the King's Daughter — Kiel — ■ Danebrog — Adolf of the 
Milk-can — Kendsburg — Merodeurs — John Kantzau — A Holstein 
farm — Chateaux of the nobility . . . . . . . . Page 1 


The stuhlwagen — Mediaeval corona at Gettorf — The hero of Eckern- 
fiorde — Altarpiece — Louisenlund — Legend of the murder of St. 
Erik — ■ Kunic stones — Portrait of Queen Caroline Matilda . . 23 


Slesvig — Palace of Gottorp — Murder of St. Niels — Lord Molesworth 
the English envoy — Splendour of the Danish funerals — the Liig- 
predicaner — Skue penge — Costly interment of Christopher Mogensen 

— Silver coffin of a Keventlow Countess — Tomb of Frederic I. — 
St. Erik's chest — Eestless spirit of Abel — Anscarius, Apostle of the 
North — Synod of Haddeby — Danevirke of Queen Thyre— Death 
of Queen Margaret — Krock, " pictor regius " — The Sidney of Flens- 
borg .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 33 


Island of Als — Speech of Mogens Mormand — Dungeon of S0nderborg 

— Imprisonment of Christian II. — Aabenraa — Haderslev — Merry- 
go-rounds — Old palace — Metal fonts — Moravians at Christiansfeldt 

— High-stepping horses — Kolding Castle the prison of Albert of 
Sweden — Pearl-fishing of a Greenlander .. .. .- 4-7 

vol. I. a 



Constitution of Veile — Queen Thyre the pride of the Danes — King 
Christian and Mogens Munk — Tradition of Queen Gunhild — Scotch 
right of pit and gallows — Peter, the Friesland Corsair — Cattle 
fair — Jellinge —Stones of King Gorm the Old and his Queen — Reign 
of King Frode the Good — Valley of the Greis — Russian princesses 
at Horsens — Torfeus the Icelander — Family sobriquets Page 62 


Death of Queen Dagmar at Skanderborg — Christian IV. a naval com- 
mander — Hans the princes' chastiser — A wife of Harald Blue-Tooth 
— St. Clement patron of Aarhuus — Reformation in Denmark — • 
Superstition of the clergy — Legend of St. Niels . . . . 78 


Island of Sams0 — Denmark's only duke — Entombed Berssercks — 
Amateur ploughing of Clmstian IV. — The witches on St. John's Eve 
— Sprog0 the Danish Jericho — Kors0r — Peter Skram and the mer- 
maid — Legend of the two church-towers — Absalon the warrior 
archbishop and statesman — University and royal tombs at Sor0 — 
Ringsted, the "Westminster of the Valdemars — Sepulchral brass of 
Erik and Ingeborg — Tombs of Queen Dagmar and Berengaria 90 


Roeskilde — Bishop William and King Svend — Tombs of Queen Mar- 
garet and her successors — Dorothea, wife of two kings — Queen Ju- 
liana of Brunswick — Pilgrimage of James I. to Roeskilde . . 110 


Copenhagen — Slagheck, the barber archbishop — Sigbrit, the maitresse 
mere — Education of Christian II. — Yule pig or money - box — 
Foundation of Copenhagen — Marriage of Queen Margaret — Her 
governess and castigatrix — Queen Philippa of England — Her 
gallant defence of the city — Palace of Christiansborg — The Ex- 
change .. .. . .. 121 



Monuments of Juel and Tordenskiold — Death of Frederic VI. — Street 
of Coffins — Barsel of Queen Elizabeth — The Eound Tower— The 
True kirche — University — Bombardment of Copenhagen — Car- 
nival in the island of Amak — City ramparts — Legend of the buried 
child — Golden House of the King's alchymist — The Gr0nland - 
gade .. .. .. .. •• .. .. Page 138 


Notice of Thorvaldsen — His Museum — Genius of the New Year — 
His illustrations of Anacreon — The Mercury, Adonis, and Hyrde- 
dreng — The Hall of Christ — The Guardian Angel — The Angel of 
Baptism — The last cabinet, with relics of Thorvaldsen . . 163 


Who's who in Denmark — Creation of the titled nobility by King Chris- 
tian V. — Danish patronymics — Simplicity of the Danish names — 
Surnames only recently adopted — Antiquity of the name of Grubbe 
— Families of Scotch extraction — Boyal Picture Gallery — Kantzau 
le Beau — Zeemann, the sailor artist — Journal of Albert Diirer — 
Portraits of Prince Henry and Charles I. — Carl v. Mander and A. 
Wuchter — Pastels of Professor Juel .. .. .. .. 182 


How we lived in Copenhagen — Flytte-dag — The poulterer's shop — 
Domestic economy — The furriers' shops: eider-down — Vieux Da- 
nois porcelain — Jewellery of the peasants of Amak — Danish love 
of locomotion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 


Castle of Kosenborg — The Horn of Oldenborg — Marriage ceremo- 
nials of King Christian II. — Badges of the Armed Hand and the 
Garter — Trial of Christina Munk — Funeral of Vibeke — Rise and 
fall of Griffenfeld — Queen Louisa of England — Juliana Maria — 
Fate of Caroline Matilda — Her portraits — Tapestry of the Ridder- 

, saal — Regalia — The silver lions of Denmark . . . . 209 



The Danish language— Its difficulties — Its similarity to the English 
—The Vikings true ancestors of English — Haven of Odin — The 
Normanlion .. ••' Page 226 


U . .urn of Northern Antiquities — The Age of Stone — Scandinavian 

dust-hole Ago of Bronze; its artistic productions the -work of 

some Eastern tribe — Ornaments characteristic of the period — 
Needles, and objects of the work-table— Bronze diadem — The 
golden horns — The Age of Iron — Chain mail — Silver cup of Queen 

Thyre Swearing-rings — Bracteee coins — Law of treasure trove — 

The Catholic Era — Queen Dagmar's cross — Crowns of the Northern 
Brides •• •• •• •• •• •• *• " 


Environs of Copenhagen — Baths of Marienlyst — Palnatoke, the 
Danish William Tell — Receding foreheads of the eighteenth century 

Elsinore — The so-called Hamlet's tomb — The Hammer-mills — 

Grave of a Scandinavian dog— Legend of the cuckoo . . . . 257 


The town of Elsinore — Story of Dyveke and Christian II.— Her death 
— Execution of Oxe — Holger Dansk's spectacles — The fairy Mor- 
gana — The castle of Kronborg — Embassy of Queen Elizabeth — 
Marriage of James VI. of Scotland — His assumption of tbe Tudor 
badges— Prison of Caroline Matilda — The " green-bone "—Anecdote 
of a stork .. .. •• .. •• •• •• •• 271 


Expedition to Sweden — Helsingborg — Marriage of King Erik and 
Ingeborg — Mineral waters of Raml0sa — Valdemar Atterdag and his 
castle of Gurre — His impious speech — Queen Philippa reforms the 
coinage — Destruction of the storks . . . . . . . . 295 



The Island of Hveen — Tycho Brahe and his golden nose — The Ura- 
nienborg — " Magister Jacob " pays him a visit — Walkendorf, and the 
dogs of Tycho Brahe — His persecution — Kantzau "the learned" 
— Tycho Brahe 's days — His death at Prague .. Page 304 


Kirstine Eostgaard and the Swedish officers — Fredensborg, or the 
Castle of Peace — Frederic the Hunchback, the Arveprinds — 
Death of Queen Juliana — Tragic story of Adrienne, Countess of 
Bevern — Norwegian amphitheatre — The Hell-horse — Esrom, its 
convent and lake .. -. .. .. .. .. .. 310 


Odinsh0i — " Oldenborgers " — Madalena's palace at Hirschholm — Edu- 
cation of Christian VI.— His marriage — Bonfire of the Archives — 
His household — Court etiquette — Yawning-stocks — Madalena's ex- 
travagance — The Hanoverian duchess— Court preacher — Death of 
Queen Louisa — The poet Ewald . . . . . . . . 326 


Giant's Grave — S0borg, the chateau-fort of Zealand — King Valdemar 
and Tovelil — Her death — Valdemar's grief, and imprisonment of 
Queen Hedvig — Anne of Jutland — Birth of Queen Margaret — Her 
meeting with her father — His paternal wish and death . . 344 


The Palace of Frederiksborg — The mermaid, Isbrand, foretells the 
birth of Christian TV. — The crowned herrings and S0 monk — 
Household economy of Christian IV. — Punishment of his peculating 
mint-master — Eoyal battues — The Eiddersaal . . . . 355 



Gallery of Historic Portraits at Frederiksborg — King Christian I. and 
Queen Dorothea — Her strange head-dress — Adolf of Holstein, the 
suitor of Queen Elizabeth — Portraits of Queen Sophia of Meck- 
lenburg — Marlok of Christian TV. — Prayer-book of Christina 
Munk — Family of Christian TV. — Christian TV. 'a visit to England 
— Portraits of the Stuarts — James I. — His queen — Prince Henry — 
Elizabeth, the Queen of Bohemia — Charles I. and his three sons — 
Henrietta of Orleans — Electress Sophia — Air debonnaire of the 
House of Hanover — Caroline Matilda and her well-known verse — 
Sophia Amelia, the enemy of Eleanor Ulfeld— The Countess Viereck 
and the Eeventlow Queen — Karen Sehested, the governess of the 
cliildren of Christina Munk— The blue ribbon of Osten Page 372 


Frederiksvjerk — Scourge of flying sand — Marriage, and murder of 
a bride — Giant's grave of Udleire — White doe of King Frode — 
Hiarne, the poet king— The bridge of Vasrebro . . . . 397 


Jffigerspriis — Ingeborg and Erik — Danish cemeteries — Swan with the 
golden eggs — Draxholm, the prison of Earl Bothwell — How he 
came to end his days there — The church of Faareveile, where he is 
buried— Bonfires on St. John's Eve — Sacred well of St. Helena — 
The"Meiri" — Gigantic tun of cream .. .. .. .. 405 


Castle of Frederiksborg Frontispiece. 

Skanderborg Title-page. 

Sketch Map of Denmark Page 1 

Epitaphium 6 

Corona at Gettorf 24 

Skue Penge 36 

Monument of Frederic 1 37 

Part of the Danevirke 42 

Prison of Christian II. at S0nderborg 51 

Metal Font at Haderslev (a. d. 1485) 56 

Sepulchral Stone of King Gorm the Old 70 

Sepulchral Stone of Queen Thyre 71 

Cathedral, Aarhuus 82 

Frue Kirke, Aarhuus 86 

Griffins from Tomb of Queen Euphemia at Sor0 .. .. 100 

Exchange, Copenhagen 138 

Horn of Oldenborg 210 

Badge of the Armed Hand 212 

Portrait of Queen Louisa 220 

Golden Horns 243 

Baths of Marienlyst, Kronborg, and the Sound .. .. 260 

Elsinore 271 

Old Castle of Draxholm (after Eesen) .. .. .. .. 409 

Faareveile .. .. 417 

CI/CTPU i\ A A n f\r- nr iimi Am/ 





Hamburg — The Alster Lake — Lubec — Epitaphia — Drinklage 
family — Schifferliaus — Travemiincle — North German table-d'hote 
and cuisine — Sea-baths of Diisternbrook — German economy — 
Weasel called the Ring's Daughter — Kiel — Danebrog — Adolf of the 
Milk-can — Eendsburg — Merodeurs — John Rantzau — A Holstein 
farm — Chateaux of the nobility. 


August 3rd, 1858. — We arrived at last, all safe and sound, 
after a rough and tiresome passage. I really imagined 
we should never get under weigh, for at the eleventh hour 
came a cargo of oil-barrels, already marked down upon 
the bill of lading. There was no help for it, embarked they 
must be ; so we lost the tide, and, after encountering the 
tail of a storm off the Hanoverian coast, arrived too late 
to mount the river to Hamburg, had to wait some nine 
hours till there was sufficient water to cross the bar, and 
then sailed up the Elbe. On our passage we steamed 
by a brig, all up on end, a total wreck ; and, later, a 
second, deep embedded in a sand-bank — the results of 
last Saturday's storm. But all is calm now, and, as 
we neared the city, the left-side bank became pretty 
enough, studded with the mansions and fine castles of 

VOL. I. B 

2 HAMBURG. Chap. I. 

the Hamburg merchants, tea-gardens and bathing-ma- 
chines, trim-cut charmilles and hornbeam-hedges. The 
whole population appeared to be " taking their teas " out 
of doors, fearless of rheumatism, and regardless of ague ; 
a difference of climate I opine, as, not three days since, 
the damp and dew fell heavy towards twilight in Hamp- 
ton Court Gardens, so, although in a more northern, we 
are in a drier latitude. Suddenly we arrive at our 
journey's end. " Stop her ! " — fiz went the steam ; a 
flotilla of small boats invades us ; in a few seconds we 
are landed (no customhouse officers, no passports), and 
are carried off in a droskey to Streit's Hotel, where 
we purpose taking up our abode for some days. 

Twenty-two years have elapsed since I last visited 
Hamburg ; and during that interval it has been partially 
destroyed by fire. I am lost in wonder at the magnifi- 
cence of the new-born city — unequalled in the north of 
Europe — the streets, the arcades, and the buildings 
rivalling Paris in their magnificence. Then, too, this 
mingling of town, garden, and water. This Alster lake, 
surrounded by its splendid series of hotels, after night- 
fall presents a scene truly Venetian ; brilliantly illumi- 
nated on all sides, the water alive with flat-bottomed 
barges, manned with bands of music and joyous supper- 
parties, hung, too, with Chinese lanterns of grotesque 
form and varied colouring ; they float on, passing and 
repassing, reflected in the mirror below. Somewhat 
later, fireworks and rockets, in showers of living gold, 
come blazing in the distance from the numerous Tivolis 
and Alhambras which abound in the suburbs of this 
city. As night advances, the population pours out in 
increasing crowds, and the cafes — whose name is Le- 
gion — can scarcely supply the ice and sorbets so clamor- 


ously called for. The waiters look tired and fagged : 
as for the citizens, they go to bed, I should imagine, 
never ; and we ourselves walked till we could walk no 
more ; and then gazing from our saloon windows on this 
spectacle, to which we had paid no entrance-fee, felt 
half-inclined to follow their example. Old Hamburg, 
what remains of it, Dutch-like and dirty though it be, 
merits well a visit ; its very filth adds to its pictur- 
esqueness. The shipping bristles to the canal's edge ; 
the lofty, half-tumbledown, high-gabled houses, consist 
three-fourths at least of windows, with little hanging 
turrets and excrescences sticking out from here, there, 
and everywhere — oratories once, no doubt — now used, 
according to convenience, for any purpose or none. In 
the narrowest lanes grow tall wych elms, and hornbeams 
trimmed into mop-heads ; and then, among stink and 
dirt, you stumble on an open balcony, with double 
oleanders, flower-pots, and ropes of onions or a vine 
daintily trailed to the very house-top ; and later an 
ancient mansion, so dark, so gloomy, all deserted save 
one window, around which an ivy is trained garland- 
wise, a China aster in a bow-pot, a canary in its 
cage, telling plainly of woman's occupation and refine- 
ment ; and your mind runs off to Mieris and Gerard 
Dow, and pictures in old, long, half-forgotten galleries. 
The narrow canals are muddy and pestiferous ; barges 
float along their dirty waters, and stop under queer old 
cranes, to receive from the warehouses above their 
cargoes of bales or packages. The barge floats on, the 
crane is drawn up, and, your reverie over, you find the 
smells unpleasant. It is a guerre a outrance — a war to 
the knife of Nose versus Eyes. You begin to fear you 
have strayed from your right path ; nothing appears 

b 2 

4 LUBEC. Chap. I. 

bright to your eyes but the three Mambrino's helmets 
above the barbers' shops, and nothing clean but the flesh 
of the fresh-scalclecl pigs hanging still entire in the 
pork-butchers' shops all ready for dissection. The flower- 
girls, in their picturesque costumes, sit and twiddle up 
their bouquets ; the old women jabber, knit, and gossip. 
They knit all day, and, I believe, the night long 
too. The children, dirty, hideous, and squalid, left to 
take* care of themselves, get under the cart-wheels, and 
are in everybody's way. All the world seem in a 
bustle, with just sufficient time at their disposal to stare 
at the stranger, and wonder what in the world he's 
gazing at. You wander on, through lane, over bridge, 
across canal ; at last, surfeited with smells, black gutters 
and tumbledown edifices, you think of inquiring your 
way. Nobody will understand your German, till a 
Yierlanderin comes to your rescue : she's used to 
strangers. You wander left, when told risrht : bemn 
to despair, consider yourself lost to your family and 
hotel for ever ; when, turning a corner, you stumble on 
a new-built house — the Pie-corner of Hamburg — where 
first the fire stayed its wrath, in two minutes gain the 
new church now in process of building by Messrs. Scott 
and Moffatt, of Anglican ecclesiastical celebrity, arrive 
at the Alster lake, breathe fresh air, and again gaze on 
pure water. 


I have a weakness for departed greatness, and even 
after an interval of twenty years my recollection of the 
old deserted city of Lubec — her mediaeval architecture 
— her houses turreted and begabled, staircase-fashion 
(corbie, the Scotch term it), statued and befriezed— 


induced us to pause for a day on our road to Trave- 
miinde. I had left her a city of red brick — I found her 
all paint and whitewash, less respectable to mediaeval 
eyes, but still interesting ; her churches, with their 
glorious spires, rival those of Pisa and Saragossa in their 
stern contempt for the perpendicular ; her rath-house, 
quaint and incomprehensible, with each proud blazon 
of the once powerful league slung " en pignon " to a 
separate rosace, is partly Gothic, partly Kenaissance, 
resting on arcades, no two parts alike — the whole, how- 
ever, blending smoothly in harmony together. Now on 
that Place, where the commerce of Europe once held 
its court, a few old women vend their cherries ; in that 
rath-house, where her arrogant burghers debated whether 
they would deign to accept the alliance of Henry of 
England, or side with his rival of Scotland — whether 
they would support the second Christian of Denmark 
against his nobles, or Frederic against his nephew — 
what do you find ? emptiness and desolation : it is a 
thing of the past, yet all looks solid and fresh, as in the 
days of their might and power. 

Give Lubec and her grass-grown streets a kick if you 
will; she is down in the world, fallen from her high 
estate, and has few friends ; but he who neglects to visit 
her is wrong, for, independent of her Dance of Death, 
her altarpiece by Hans Hemling — pre-Eaphaelite in 
the minuteness of its execution — and Overbeck's master- 
piece, Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, she possesses many 
objects of interest undescribecl in Murray. On our 
arrival we had intended only to pass the night ; we 
ended by lingering several days. 

The following day was Sunday. Never in the most 
Catholic realms of Italy or Spain did I behold Sunday 

6 LUBEC. Chap. I. 

so ill observed as in these Protestant cities of North 
Germany. From sunrise to sunset thousands of the 
people are absorbed in one idea, that of pleasure. 
Setting all other observances aside, it is neither a day 
of rest to man nor beast. 

The churches are ill filled. We attended the Lutheran 
service at the Marienkirche this morning, a service I par- 
ticularly dislike — a standing and sitting congregation — 
much singing, little praying, and a long-winded sermon, 
which might have been excellent, but I was unable to 
follow the preacher, so I looked about me. This church 
is a good sample of northern build, of exquisite pro- 
portions, lofty and elance, and, like all those belonging 
to the Lutherans, retains still many attributes of the 
Church of Rome. It is rich in Gothic screen and fret- 
work — in angels and figures of the faints as large as 
life — though I wonder at their still giving place to so 
apocryphal a personage as St. Christopher. I could 
scarcely refrain from smiling how the German " house- 
wife " leaven peeps out even in ecclesiastical matters. 
Above my head were placed the figures of the sisters 
Martha and Mary, on either side of the Ecce Homo — 
Mary as a Magdalene (not quite correct that), and 
Martha with her golden sleeves well tucked up above 
her elbows, as though she had returned from the act of 
kneading dough in the kitchen. 

The " epitaphia " of the burghers' families are rich 
and splendid in the extreme, all hung round with 
quarterings and emblazonment. None more aristocratic 
than the ancient burghers of the Hanse Towns. It is 
at Lubec that the custom first appears, so common in 
the north of Europe, of hanging the " epitaphium " or 
framed portrait of the deceased in a gorgeous frame to 



Chap. I. EPITAPHIA. 7 

the walls of the church — much as we do our own achieve- 
ments in the country villages of England. They are 
rich in carvings and highly ornamented. Many of these 
portraits are excellent, and by first-rate masters. The 
custom dates from the Reformation downwards, and 
appears in the north to have nearly superseded the use 
of stone and alabaster. It may be inferred that after 
the introduction of the reformed faith — the demand for 
saints, holy families, and angels having ceased — the 
artists were glad to turn their talents to account, and 
this style of monument was found to be less expensive 
than either stone or bronze. 

The sacristan pointed out to us an epitaphiuin painted 
by a brother of Sir Godfrey Kneller, also a native of 
Lubec, to the memory of the family of Drinklage — 
(Drinkwater, Drinkwasser, Boileau, Bevilacqua — you 
find them in every country) — who, strange to say, bear 
for their cognisance a XXX. 

We visited the Schififerhaus, an ancient tavern for 
ship captains, where on the carved stalls you may, 
among other heraldic shields, observe that of Iceland — 
a stockfish surmounted by a crown — and old models 
of naval architecture, dating from the days when the 
ships of Lubec and the Hanseatic League swept the 
seas of the Baltic as well as the German Ocean. Then, 
too, there is the meeting-room of the burghers — a gem 
of marqueterie — with fine portraits of her ancient burgo- 
masters, and views of the old mercantile ports of Europe, 
such as they once were, ranged in panels around the 
cornices of the apartment. 

But the great charms of Lubec are the walks on the 
ancient ramparts which surround the city — shady walks 
under a canopy of fragrant limes, now in all their luxu- 


riance ; they overhang too the river Trave, with her boats 
and shipping; and on the opposite side, beyond the 
quays, rise the tall unstraight church spires, and the 
ancient gateways, and houses of all kinds nodding at each 
other as though about to topple over, but they don't, and 
have, I doubt not, been nodding in like manner for the 
space of centuries. Could you disembarrass the city of 
its inhabitants and their costumes of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, you might imagine yourself carried back to the 
days of Hemling and Albert Diirer. All contribute to 
make you forget that legs will tire, and feet grow sore. 
Tramp — tramp — we wandered on till we could go no 
further, so we supped in a tea-garden off sausage and 
Bavarian beer, came to a ferry, embarked, crossed the 
river in a boat, and at last regained our hostel. 


The heat of the day was at an end when we quitted 
Lubec. A drive of an hour and a half along a shady 
avenue through a country flat and uninteresting brought 
us to the sea-bathing village of Travemiinde. 

As we approach, the Trave appears bristling and 
bustling with merchant vessels and Russian steamers 
bound for St. Petersburg, and then later the wide ex- 
panse of the Baltic discloses itself. 

I find the village much as it was, all lodging-houses 
and charmilles, little changed and less improved, and 
the bathers supping out in front of their houses, under 
the lime-trees, just as I recollect them formerly. We 
drive to the bath establishment, and find it crowded 
to overflowing; the landlord can lodge us for three 
days, then our rooms are let, and we must seek accom- 
modation elsewhere. 


After a day's sojourn I feel we shall not regret the 
change ; for though the rustic-built, straw-thatched 
house is clean enough to satisfy a Dutchman, the 
heat is intense : shade there is in the extensive garden 
of the hotel — a luxury, it must be owned, on the sea- 
coast — but beyond, nothing — a mere waste of sand and 
stubble. The sea may be Baltic, but it is not salt, and 
one half fresh Trave water ; so after a day's saunter- 
ing in the garden, listening to the never-ending polkas 
of the brazen band, and watching the swallow-tail 
and Apollo butterfles flitting from flower to flower, we 
feel all ready again to make a start. 

Our table-d'hote here is a wonderful affair, both as 
regards company and comestibles. In these days, when, 
except in full dress, ladies are covered up to their very 
chins, the sight of a North-German dinner-table, with 
its fair attendants " decolletees " at two o'clock, under a 
summer sun, is somewhat astonishing ; such an expanse, 
too, of brown throats and arms, for they walk out even in 
the streets of Hamburg unprotected against the sun's 
rays. The back view of a table-d'hote in these parts 
is quite a sight, though not perhaps an attractive one ; 
the women, from fear of dirt I suppose, hitch up their 
petticoats behind into a sort of haycock, causing an 
expose of their feet, good, solid, and useful for common 
purposes, capable of carrying them with ease when 
they weigh sixteen stone, and never breaking down, 
clad in gray boots, and twisted one within another in 
most ungraceful fashion. 

The old ladies are venerable in their gray hair and 
plaited caps ; the middle-aged have a careworn, house- 
hold drudge appearance ; the girls, well haired and fresh- 
looking ; the children, en masse, unhealthy and ugly. 


I feel confident that the make of the North-German 
men has given rise to the idea of the gigantic proportions 
of the earlier inhabitants of this country. In books 
touching on antiquity, topography, &c, we constantly 
read of thigh-bones dug up in this neighbourhood 
measuring some unheard-of length, which is brought 
forward as proof of the degeneracy of the present gene- 
ration. Let any unprejudiced person merely look at a 
North-German of the present century, a Pomeranian, 
or a Mecklenburgher ; why, only observe them for one 
moment — they appear as though split asunder, all legs 
and no body : it is quite a miracle where they find 
place to stow away the six meals they devour in the 
course of the livelong day. 

Queer specimens of the culinary art are these dishes 
of North Germany. Eel-soup, the reptile itself floating 
along in company with stewed pears, cherries, and 
spices ; shrimps and open tart served together on the 
same plate ; and veal, veal, everlasting veal, till you 
loathe the very sight of a cow and her offspring. 

What with the people, the food, and the heat, we 
were glad enough to pack up and fly from the so-called 
sea-baths of Travemunde. 


So we flitted along the railroad back to Hamburg, 
and thence re-embarked for Kiel, where I had never 
been before, and had heard say of a sea-bathing place 
planted on its fiorde side, and where I knew, after 
sundry consultations with the map, there was no river to 
dilute its half-salted water. 

The name of this place is Diisternbrook ; a village — 
no, I cannot call it a village — for there are neither 


peasants, shops, nor native inhabitants ; it is rather a 
congregation of hotels and small lodging-houses, situated 
at one English mile from the town of Kiel. Nothing 
can be more beautiful than its situation : a long avenue 
of trees leads you from the town thereunto, along the 
fiorde side, alive with steamers, boats, and shipping, the 
water clear as crystal. You pass by a succession of 
villas belonging to rich Hamburg merchants, con- 
structed in every form of architecture that fancy can 
design — Swiss chalets, Lombardian, Gothic, and Kenais- 
sance — each planted in its little garden — garden a blaze 
of gorgeous flowers, and here at any rate kept and cared 
for as much for the delectation of the world in general 
as for the proprietor himself. No envious walls hide it 
from the view of the passer by ; it is common property 
of eyes at large. A small railing separates it alone 
from the depredations of dogs and schoolboys ; the 
gates are left unclosed by lock or key ; and if you ask 
to enter, or even enter without asking, you are kindly 
welcomed. Then, on the heights above this range of 
flowery villas, rise thick beechen woods. A forest behind, 
green turf and bright flowers to refresh the eye, the 
blue waters of the fiorde as your foreground — can 
anything be more charming ? — But we are arrived at 

We had the usual bother about lodgings. At the 
great establishment — where the band plays, and boats, 
flag-bedecked, and sailors in duck-white trousers, ever- 
lastingly await the orders of the visitors — all was full. 

We then tried the Bellevue, a house which well 
deserves its name, for its site is heaven-like, with no 
better success ; so later we made strong running for a 
villa — a charming nutshell — just vacant ; Wilhelmina's 


Lust by name, a very ugly name too (I feel quite in- 
clined to exclaim with Mrs. Quickly, in the Hie, Haec, 
Hoc scene, " Out upon Wilhelmina's case ! ") : but Wil- 
helmina's Lust did not contain eight beds— indeed I 
have come long ago to the opinion, that, though nothing 
is more pretty than a Swiss cottage, nothing is more 
uncomfortable to live in; those deep, shelving roofs 
take up half the room — so we ended by pitching our 
quarters at the Hotel Diisternbrook, an obloDg, sen- 
sible house, with square rooms, and no corners cut off 
for outside show or any such vagaries, with a garden 
and shade, a good, clean, wholesome cuisine, well dressed, 
and plenty of it. 

September. — We are now quietly shaken down in our 
new abode, and living the usual life of bathers in this 
world — rise early, very early ; off to bathe by six — not 
an affair of choice, for the bands begin to play and all 
the world's astir by that early hour. Eise when I may, 
look out of window in my dressing-gown, I find the 
Germans up, dressed, and, I hope, washed, drinking their 
coffee in the garden, and, instead of being proud of my 
activity, feel somewhat humbled, and sneak off en des- 
habille, running the gauntlet of the crowd of coffee- 
drinkers on my way. 

We pass across the garden of the great establish- 
ment, embark on a narrow wooden bridge, gain the 
floating raft on which the bath-cabins are constructed, 
and plunge headlong into some fifty feet of pure limpid 
water. It is glorious bathing, and I now no longer 
regret the tide, which in our own country is always out, 
or away, or somewhere, at any rate never in, when one 
wishes it to be. The Baltic is not blessed with one, so 
it's as well to make up one's mind to its absence. 


Breakfast here comes off in the open air — sub teg- 
mine fagi. The German women, who do nothing but 
knit the livelong day, and the men, who smoke long 
pipes innumerable, make some odd arrangements about 
their tea equipage : they pay so much per diem for the 
use of the cups and saucers and " the-wasser," finding 
their own edibles. It serves to kill time at any rate : 
first, in the morning, comes a woman from Kiel bearing 
a covered basket containing long rolls and various 
petits pains ; later arrives the butter-carrier, then the 
cream, and then a fourth with a basket of what they 
call " delicatessen " — smoked eels and mackerel. All 
this may be very amusing, I dare say ; but return ten 
minutes too late from your bath, or over-sleep yourself, 
your dejeuner is manque, the milk-woman is no more 
to be found, or you breakfast butterless; so we prefer 
taking our own from the hotel direct. 

I must say the German ladies are most economical, 
and turn everything in this world to the best account. 
My neighbour at the table-d'hote, who dines well got 
up, with beautiful blue rosettes (like a horse) in her 
hind-hair, daily perpetrates " a fine wash " of collars, 
sleeves, and such like, with the remains of her the- 
wasser. Breakfast concluded, she empties the urn into 
a basin, and, when the articles are cleansed and wrung 
out, places them to dry on her window-sill, with a 
pebble on each to preserve them from all treacherous 
gusts of wind. 

The heat is still most oppressive, and during the 
daytime we lie by ; but towards evening and sunset 
the jalousies are again unclosed, people flock out, car- 
riages come round, and the beechen torests are filled 
with promenaders, sketchers, and workers. Nothing 
can be more beautiful, more cool than these beechen 

14 KIEL. Chap. I. 

woods of the Holstein duchies — unlike any you meet 
-with in other countries. You must not confuse the 
woods with the forests : the latter abound in game ; 
the woods, on the contrary, are cleared of all under- 
wood, the branches lopped off, leaving a thick canopy 
of verdure above, and a free circulation of air below. 
Beneath they are one carpet of moss, from which spring 
the roots of the lily of the valley, the Solomon's-seal, 
hepatica, and other wild-flowers in abundance ; the 
dormouse, squirrel, and the stoat abound, and the larger 
falcon-tribe ; of smaller birds I have seen but few. 

The weasel, or the " king's daughter," as he is some- 
times here called, has a happy time of it. No fear of 
the barn-door for him in luckless company with pilfering 
pie and robber hawk; for the peasant looks on the 
weasel as a sacred beast— no, not sacred, but as an animal 
to be feared. He takes off his hat when he meets him 
on the road, as though he were a crowned head, and 
politely wishes him "good morrow;" were he to offend 
the weasel, it would bring him ill luck, for the animal 
" spits poison, and spits it long." 

Towards nine o'clock all Dusternbrook is in gala- 
crowds flock to the adjoining Tivoli, an illuminated 
garden, where nightly dramatic representations are 
given in the open air; then there are concerts and 
balls at the different hotels, and people sup out by lamp- 
light in the garden. But of the gaieties of the place 
I know but little ; we prefer the forest or the water. 

KIEL. • 

The ancient capital of Holstein, still important in a 

naval point of view, with its picturesque market-place 

and tall church-tower, overlooking the good and evil 

deeds of the peasant tribe below, might have interested 


us much had we not arrived direct from Lubec, but we 
are spoiled for quaint architecture and tumbledown 
gables, and now look on them as matter of course, just 
as you do on the stucco and porticoes of Belgravia. 

The grim old Sckloss, ancient palace of her Counts 
and Dukes in their day, barrack - like, is relieved 
from downright ugliness by two tall, slender, octagonal 
towers, the one capped with a Muscovite onion ; as a 
whole it stands out grand from among the fine old elms 
and limes " tailles en voute " of its formal garden. 

The city too is now in its dullest mood ; her natives 
absent at the various baths, her students in full vacation. 
We visited the library of the University,* some 95,000 
books open to the world at large, not to be alone read 
on the premises, but even strangers, on presenting a 
proper " caution," are permitted to carry off three 
volumes at a time to their own residences, I wish we 
had any such privilege in England. This custom is not 
peculiar to Kiel alone, but general through the north 
of Europe, in towns, too, scarcely to be placed on a par 
with our own cathedral cities. Kiel is not a town of 
sights : in her Marienkirche once hung suspended the 
Dannebrog, the red banner, with its white cross, which 
miraculously fell from heaven, leading the victories 
of the second Valdemar against the heathen Wends. 
This celebrated banner was lost, all save one rag, in 
the battle against the Ditinarsken in 1550, and what 
became of that remaining rag I don't know ; so, the 
glory of her church departed, nought remains in Kiel, 
even to swell the description of a guide-book. We were 

* That the Danes hear no love to this Holstein College the follow- 
ing proverb will show : — " To lie is always a science, as the devil said 
when he frequented the University of Kiel." 

16 KIEL. Chap. I. 

standing idly gazing around, when my eyes were attracted 
by the epitaphium portrait of a young man with the 
flowing locks and long guipure tie of the seventeenth 
century ; one of those melancholy beauties, with a sad 
expression of countenance, like Charles I., Cinq Mars, 
and a dozen others ; sure to die early, so at least one 
prophesies 200 years after the event has taken place. 
I climbed upon a massive sarcophagus to decipher the 
name and lineage of my hero. Hildebrand Count Horn 
was his name, born 1625, handsome, accomplished, a 
wonderful linguist, sent secretary by Christian IV. to the 
embassy at Moscow, later joined the Venetian forces, 
and died of his wounds fighting against the Turks in the 
island of Cyprus, aged thirty-one. " Island sacred to 
Venus, and a fit burial-place for such a prodigy ;" so 
adds the epitaph, dictated, it appears, by his " mother." 
He is a most interesting looking person, and of a good 
Swedish stock, so I advise you if you visit the church of 
Kiel to find him out. 

That anything remains of the ancient city of Kiel to 
me is a wonder ; she has been in everlasting hot water 
from her youth upwards ; ever disaffected, no matter to 
whom she belonged, ready for a row or a revolution, and 
not a whit, I fear, now improved in her old age. Her 
ancient Holstein counts were an everlasting thorn in 
the side of the Danish sovereign. Still, when the old 
line wore out, and, untaught by the history of earlier 
times, it was reformed anew by the third Christian, her 
modern dukes of the younger branch again carried 
trouble enough to the tormented house of Oldenborg. 
Nor do I consider their own position to have been 
an enviable one. Denmark, their suzerain, on one 
side, the Emperor and the Hanseatic League on the 


other, always at variance with one party, caught 
and imprisoned in some gloomy old schloss some- 
where, and then let ont again at the cost of a hardly- 
raised ransom. Adolf, fourth of his line, became so 
disgusted with all this turmoil and worry, that, in 
1229, he ceded his lands and rights between his three 
sons, and retired to a Franciscan convent, which he 
had founded in his own capital. His devotion knew no 
bounds, and as a mendicant he wandered from house to 
house, begging bread for the poor of the city in the name 
of Christ and of the holy St. Francis. It is related that, 
one day, when Adolf was walking barefooted through 
the streets of Kiel, a tin can in his hand, begging skim 
milk for the sick and needy, he suddenly came across 
his three sons the counts, riding out from the palace in 
great pomp, attended by a numerous retinue of knights 
and squires. A sudden feeling of shame seized him, and 
he hastily concealed the milk-can under his gown ; then, 
quickly recovering his self-possession, he poured the 
contents of the vessel over his head as the gay retinue 
passed by, exclaiming aloud, " Art thou ashamed to 
bear a milk-can for Christ's sake ? so then bear over thy 
whole body what thou shouldest have borne in thine 
hand alone ;" which action was accounted a most holy 
proceeding by the chroniclers of the day, though one 
ingenuously observes, "It was a pity to have thrown 
away so much good milk which was destined for the 
relief of the poor." 

Adolf " of the milk-can " lived to a good old age. 
His daughter Mechtild married Duke Abel, and later 
became Queen of Denmark. I am afraid the education of 
this princess was ill attended to, as is too often the case 
when parents are fanatically inclined ; for when, at the 

vol. i. c 

18 IiENDSBURG. Chap. I. 

death of her husband the King, the crown descended 

not to her children, she took the whole country in 

great hatred, and in revenge destroyed the royal 

archives, all the charters concerning the Wends given 

by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa, and the bulls of 

Pope Innocent; she burnt them all, causing thereby 

great confusion in the country ; so says the historian. 

It was on this Duke Adolf that, when fighting in the 

Holy Land, the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa conferred 

the arms " on a field gules, three nettle-leaves argent, 

each pierced by a nail of the cross," which cognizance has 

been borne by the duchy from that time to the present 



For the life of me I cannot say why I went to 
Kendsburg — historical associations I suppose, for I re- 
member to have read a long time since a book about 
the Thirty Years' War and the Merodeurs, from whom 
we derive the word marauders, followers of the Count 
de Merode — how ill they behaved, carrying off the 
Holstein peasant girls en croupe upon their horses. A 
more tumbledown, grass-grown, dilapidated place I 
never came across — all fortress, soldiers, and Holstein 
canals — built on the river Eider, where I neither saw 
ducks nor down. 

A change here comes over the spirit of our church 
epitaphia. The oval medallion portrait is replaced by a 
representation of the Crucifixion, Ascension, or the Last 
Judgment, painted or carved, sometimes in wood, some- 
times in stone. Below stand or kneel the father fol- 
lowed by his male progeny ; the mother with her 
daughters on the side opposed — all gazing with devout 
mien and countenance. 


I was pointed out one erected by a man whose three 
wives preceded him. to the grave ; they proved, it 
appears, no comfort to him in this world, so he caused 
them to be represented among the condemned in the 
Last Judgment. The third, a fat florid woman, like one 
of Jaques Jordaen's, resists most wo-manfully, kicking 
and scratching the demon who is carrying her off into 
the flames, her husband looking on undisturbed. 

Be it brimfull of historical associations, I advise no one 
to journey as far as Rendsburg. 


So we made many excursions in the neighbourhood 
of Kiel, for the demesnes of the Holstein nobles are well 
worthy of a visit. When once you quit the banks of 
the fiorde and the forests, the country is void of all 
beauty until you arrive at the village near which the 
chateau of your destination is situated. Our first visit 
was to Eastorf, the residence of Countess Eantzau, a 
farmeress of note to my eyes, but not one of consequence 
in these parts, the happy possessor of 480 cows, to say 
nothing of sheep — red cows of a quasi-Devonshire 
breed, not remarkable for beauty, but producing ad- 
mirable milk, later converted into butter, that Holstein 
butter of which our London markets consume so large 
a quantity. We left our carriage at a paper-mill a 
mile distant, and gained the castle through the woods. 
I am every day more struck with the beauty of these 
Holstein forests, and imagine how lovely they must be 
in early spring time, a carpet of flowers — flowers which 
do exist in our English Flora, but are looked upon as 
objects of rarity. 

The chateaux of this duchy are all constructed on 

c 2 


one plan, a quadrangle round a large court. You enter 
by a porte-cochere : in front stands the schloss, a large 
substantial edifice, with a huge portico supported by 
Ionic or Corinthian columns, flanked by two enormous 
buildings with high-pitched roofs, each of the dimen- 
sions of the abbey church of Malvern. These last 
serve to harbour the cattle in the winter season, to 
stable the horses, and to house the carts and farming 
implements ; the upper story a granary for corn, fodder, 
and other agricultural produce. The fourth side of the 
quadrangle, that by which you enter, lodges the farm ser- 
vants and labourers. In the centre of the court is a large 
green, surrounded by cut limes, on which a round place 
is paved with stones allotted to the watch-dog and his 
kennel ; no litter offends the eye, and the stupendous size 
of the buildings gives a dignity and imposing appearance, 
which removes any idea of outhouse or farmyard. We 
met the milk-carts laden with milk, the steaming produce 
of the 480 cows. The labourers were returninc; from 
their work. I cannot say much for the tidiness of their 
appearance, especially that of the women : they possess 
unfortunately no national costume, and I have always 
remarked, where " cotonades " come in, cleanliness goes 

The name of Rantzau stands high in this Holstein 
duchy, and has ever played a prominent part in its 
country's history. Of this lineage was the famed John 
Eantzau, who commanded the troops of the first Frederic 
against the peasants in Skipper Clemens' days. "II 
est fidele au roi comme un Rantzau," ran the proverb ; 
but that very loyalty led a branch of this illustrious 
house, in later days, to join the cabal against our Eng- 
lish princess, Queen Caroline Matilda. He was a gallant 


gentleman, and when once be discovered his mistake he 
preferred banishment from court and country to coun- 
tenancing the intrigues of the Queen Mother and her 
party. He quitted his native land for ever, and is said 
to have fallen in combat, in the papal city of Avignon, 
by the hand of an English officer, who had vowed to 
avenge the fate of this ill-used princess, whom he had 
accompanied on her voyage to Denmark.* 

The homesteads or farmhouses of Holstein are models 
of concentration : no turning out in bad weather to look 
after cows, sheep, or horses ; everything stands condensed 
under one building, with a large high-pitched roof, 
necessary to throw off the snow in winter season. They 
are very picturesque to look at, built of brick and 
timber in panels, the bricks arranged in pattern, the 
woods blackened and varnished. You enter or drive in 
under a lofty archway, through folding gates, into a 
sort of oblong hall, which runs the entire length of the 
buildings, at the extreme end of which is a large open 
fireplace, ranged with bright pewter plates and china, 
good shining copper pots and kettles, rivalling a Holland 
interior in their brightness. 

The gable above serves as a granary. Against one 
side of the hall stand the stable, the cow-house, and 
the remise; and on the opposite side are the rooms 
occupied by the family, with muslin curtained windows, 
well furnished, a stove in each, and in winter double 
windows. We have visited many of them, and always 

* Rastorf is mentioned as the property of the Rantzaus as early as 
the 15th century, at which period they possessed large tracts of land 
in the Holstein duchies, where they first settled ahout the year 1300. 
At the death of Count Rantzau the property of the family came, by 
inheritance, to the Rasdorf branch. 


found them constructed on the same plan, neat and 
exquisitely clean, no bad smells, or desagrements of any 

Some of the countiy residences are kept up in a style 
which would not disgrace an English mansion, could 
they only procure decent turf. That of Salzau, the 
property of Count Blome, merits a visit, and contains 
many pictures, objects of art, &c. ; but what is most 
remarkable is the exquisite beauty of the parquets, in- 
laid with wreaths of flowers, more fit for cabinets than to 
walk upon. Blomberg, too, a hunting seat of the same 
nobleman, on the opposite side of the lake, built in the 
style of a mediaeval chateau, in red brick whitewashed, 
stands out well by moonlight ; by day reminds you of 
Cremorne. The interior is a gem of fine carving, 
trophies of the chase, &c. ; but the bye roads are 
execrable, and nothing repays you for wading wheel 
deep in sand through an otherwise hideous country. 

Of excursions by sea there are many, — to the great 
Holstein Canal, on to the little inn at Knoop, leaving 
your boat at Altenau and thence on foot. The canal 
winds and twists like a serpent, and it is strange 
to witness the effect of huge sails — arriving, as it were, 
direct — sailing over the dry land — long before you see 
the water. On the whole there is enough to visit and 
explore to make the time pass quickly during a few 
weeks' visit at Diisternbrook. 

Chap. II. GETTORF. 23 


The stuhlwagen — Mediaeval corona at Gettorf — The hero of Eckern- 
fiorde — Altarpiece — Louisenlund — Legend of the murder of St. 
• Erik — Eunic stones — Portrait of Queen Caroline Matilda. 

Sept. 17th. — We were up and at breakfast by six, for 
to-day we are bound for Slesvig and North Jutland — ■ 
the stuhlwagen already arrived ; and in case you should 
be ignorant what that vehicle may be, let me inform you. 
It is a long narrow basket cart, with seats placed across 
in ranks, one after the other. 

By seven we are en route, pass through Eel town, up 
Cow Hill to the right, join a dull and dusty highway 
flanked by borders of mountain ash laden with their 
scarlet berries. The road is excellent — straight as an 
arrow — varied alone by occasional, I may say, frequent 
payments of barriers, — payments frequent enough to 

excite the wrath of Lord E and other roadside 


There is a marked improvement in the cattle — a 
dun and cream coloured race now appears. I was at 
first puzzled by what I supposed to be Dmidical re- 
mains, standing upright in the centre of the fields, but 
found them to be stones placed for the beasts to rub 
against. The Holstein farmer treats his cows as the 
Scotch Duke did his clansmen ; and I have no doubt, 
in the inmost hearts of his quadrupeds, is blessed 



Chap. II. 

After a long interval of never-ending road a ponderous 
spire appears in sight ; we suddenly veer off to the left, 
and are driven under the arched doorway of the road- 
side inn into the com- 
mon remise. Here our 
driver informs us the 
horses are to be indulged 
with the luxuries of rest, 
brown bread, and water, 
for the space of half an 
hour ; so we descend, — 
a troublous awkward 
descent, too, it is for 
womankind, — wander 
out through the clean 
flourishing village of 
Gettorf, with its gay 
cottage gardens, and 
wonder if people are 
ever uncomfortable or 
badly housed in Hol- 

To while away the 
time, we send for the 
church key, expecting 
to find little, may be 
nothing therein, to repay 
the trouble of a visit ; 
but on entering, from the 

Corona at Gettorf. ^ hangg suspended ft 

wooden corona, delightful to mediaeval eyes, from the 
centre of winch arises a shrine occupied by a carved 
group of the Virgin and Child. A pulpit of richly 


carved oak, elaborate in workmanship and detail, and 
luckily unpainted. In the centre of the folding altar- 
piece the image of our Lady again appears, life-size ; and 
candlesticks — colossal candlesticks — adorn the altar. 

The church is pewed, the only symptom of the Kefor- 
mation ever visible in these parts ; and high aloft on 
either side rise galleries, — or rather loggie, — destined 
to preserve the " pate tendre " from contact with the 
homely pottery of Holstein life. Some of these are 
supported on arches, with twisted columns richly carved ; 
small lattices, open and close according to the wishes 
of the occupants, shading them from the view of the 
preacher and the world below. These loggie appear to 
have been raised according to the caprice of separate 
individuals, and, though beautiful in themselves and 
comfortable enough, deform the proportions of the 


The brown bread eaten, we again proceed, the road 
occasionally varied by traversing a Holstein wood, its 
sideway a snow-flake of Parnassia ; theD suddenly we gain 
a view of the sea, skirt by the bay, and drive into the 
small city of Eckernfiorde — from the distance, a quaker- 
like, prudish sort of a town, enlivened, however, by the 
presence of a bustling sea, active-minded windmills, and 
the deep-red tiled roof of its parish church. Holstein 
military in full parade, and tall narrow red sentry boxes 
on either side of the way, guard its entry. 

We rolled up the long narrow street, whizzed round 
a corner or two to the hotel, and are again requested to 
alight for half a stunde. The name of Eckernfiorde is 
familiar to those who have studied the events of the 


year 1849 ; the capture of the two Danish ships of 
war, "Christian VIII." and "The Gefion," by the Ger- 
mans, is almost of too recent date to require com- 
ment. Forced into the long narrow fiorde by the 
stupidity of the Danish commander, they at once became 
exposed to the cannonade of the Slesvig-Holstein 
artillery. A contrary wind rendered their return im- 
possible, and after a brave resistance they were about to 
strike their flags, when a midshipman of the " Christian 
VIII." fired the powder magazine, which immediately 
exploded, and the greater part of the crew and troops on 
board perished.* And then came the puzzle — who had 
gained the victory ? to whom was the honour of the 
day to be accorded ? After a council of war among the 
Germans commanding, it was decided that the glory of 
the victory should be tendered to the individual of 
highest rank at that time present in the camp, so the 
lot fell upon Duke Ernest of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, 
brother to our own Prince Consort, who was henceforth 
termed the hero of Eckernfiorde. In a later day, 
H.S.H., after the successful production of an opera of 
his own composition (its name for the moment escapes 
my treacherous memory), caused a medal to be struck 
at Paris, on one side of which is recorded the date of the 
victory of Eckernfiorde, and on the reverse that of his 
more peaceful triumph. 

We are now out of the land of Hanseatic architecture, 
of Gothic eaves and mediaeval decoration, but the houses 
have an air of comfort quite seductive. Each long 
horizontal window serves as a private greenhouse : the 
people cultivate their flowers with taste ; not the flowers 

* The " Gefion " was captured and afterwards sold. 


of our " crack gardens," — flowers to talk about, and ask 
your neighbour if he has got them — Calif ornian annuals 
and Orchidaceae — things without smell, or with a per- 
fume deleterious to the nerves of those who grow them ; 
but oleanders, jasmines, myrtles, roses, and auriculas — 
flowers of southern climes and the old Dutch school, such 
as our great-grandinothers smelt and enjoyed before us. 
Never did I visit a church like that of Eckernfiorde, 
such an omnium gatherum of fine old monuments of 
armed knights and high-born ladies, of burghers and 
their too fruitful spouses ; never did I yet come across 
such keys. Let the Lord Mayor's mace, let the Oxford 
(Christ Chmch of course) poker-bearers hide their 
diminished heads, their weapons of state are very ram- 
rods in size and ponderosity to the keys borne before us 
by a fair flaxen-headed child. Then the queer latticed 
pews, some, like sedan-chairs, made to contain one, 
others to hold families as numerous as that of Jacob, 
piled here, there, higgledy-piggledy, anywhere, and 
anyhow: but in one small chapel of this old curiosity 
shop — for sacred edifice I cannot term it — hangs a carved 
wooden altarpiece of such exquisite beauty as would 
turn Veit Stoss himself pale with jealousy, and make 
Griming Gibbons wring his hands in sad despair. I 
shall not attempt to portray it ; some things must be 
seen, felt, and not described. I will only add it is the 
work of an unknown artist, a pupil of Hans Bruggemann 
of Husum, and grand-pupil, if I may venture to use the 
expression, of Albert Diirer himself. 


A two hours' drive brought us to Louisenlund, the 
summer residence of Duke Charles of Holstein-Glucks- 


borg, husband of the Princess Wilhelmina, youngest 
daughter of King Frederic VI., a handsome edifice, of no 
particular style of architecture, well placed on the banks 
of the Slei, as this part of the long narrow fiorde facing 
the town of Slesvig is called. The gardens of the 
Schloss are ill kept, the Holsteiners not shining in the 
art of horticulture, though they love and well cultivate 
the flowers in their windows. I am quite sick r of tawdry 
dahlias and gossiping sun-flowers staring over each 
garden-hedge and paling, as if Avatching and pry- 
ing into their neighbour's business ; and though the 
women of the country are everlastingly snuffing at 
them, I never will believe there to be a perfume in a 
China aster. Louisenlund is a charming residence in 
summer time, with its. dark beech woods, in spring a 
carpet of lilies, herb-paris, hepaticas ; and the bright 
blue waters of its deep fiordes, waters which could 
reveal sad tales of murder, treachery, and fratricide. 
If you have studied the wild chronicles of the North, 
you must have read of the sons of the second Valdemar 
by his bad but beautiful spouse, Berengaria, Princess 
of Portugal. How the memory of this princess is still 
execrated among the peasants of this traditional land I 
may later tell you ; sufficient now to relate that she bore 
her lord and sovereign three princes — Erik, Abel, and 
Christopher — each of whom reigned in his turn. King 
Erik Plovpenning, as he was called (from the tax he put 
upon the ploughs of the peasantry), and Duke Abel of 
Slesvig,* are the heroes of our present story. 

* Valdemar for some unknown reason had prevented Duke Abel 
from receiving the Imperial crown, which the Pope as well as some 
German Dukes had offered him : a bad policy on his part, as the 
kingdom might have then remained undivided. 


After quarrels and wars, sieges and burnings, not only 
of hearts, but of cities, a reconciliation took place. The 
King, trusting to his brother's good faith, went to visit 
the Duke in his castle. But before entering into details 
I must relate how King Erik, later St. Erik, according 
to an old monkish story, had received a warning of the 
fate which awaited him. During his voyage in Estho- 
nia, the King one night, when in bed and asleep, saw 
a holy man standing before his couch, who said to him, 
" Be of good cheer, my brother, I am Venceslaus, and 
am come to warn you that you shall later become 
a saint and martyr, as I am ; but you must first 
build up a cloister here in Revel, where as yet there is 
none." On the following morning the King inquired of 
the Bishop who on earth this Venceslaus might be : 
to which the Bishop replied, " Venceslaus was son of a 
King of Bohemia, who was betrayed and slain by his 
brother, and was now a saint in heaven." So Erik, after 
a little consideration, founded the convent in Eevel, but 
made the nation pay the expenses. 

From that period he became affected by a presenti- 
ment of inevitable evil, and was constantly heard to 
repeat the Italian proverb — " Del amico reconciliato 
clio me guard a, del inimico jo me gardero jo." Fearful 
Italian ; but it's what he is recorded to have used. And 
now to continue the meeting between the two brothers, 
we will follow the chronicle of Hvitfeldt : — 

" After meat time the King played chess" with Heinrich 
Harckvider, and the brothers had a long conversation, 
mingled with bitter reproaches on the part of the 

" Last year," exclaimed he, " when you burnt and 
laid waste my fair city of Slesvig, my little daughter 


and many other poor maidens were compelled to wander 
barefoot in the streets." 

" Then," replied the King, " have patience, oh ! my 
brother. I am now, God be praised ! rich enough to 
give her new shoes." — " You shall never do so again," 
answered the Duke. 

A boat was secretly prepared under the castle walls, 
and the King embarked therein, accompanied by Tyge 
Bost, Duke Abel's chamberlain, so that there might be 
no suspicion. But Lauge Gudmunsen followed him in 
another boat, and was told that he might do what he 
would with the King. Now this Lauge was the King's 
declared enemy, who had deserted Erik and entered the 
service of Duke Abel. He rowed after the boat, and 
when the King heard the sound of oars approachiug he 
asked, "Who comes after us?" One of the men 
answered, " It is Lauge Gudmunsen." 

" Then," said the King, "I beg of you, for God's sake, 
send for a priest, for I shall surely die." When Lauge 
reached the boat's side he exclaimed, " Yes, oh, Kino- ! 
know that in this very hour you must die!" Erik 
answered, " 1 know it well." And straightway a priest, 
whom they found in the little chapel of Mosund, came 
and shrived him in the boat, but with a heavy heart. 

Lauge quickly struck off the King's head with his 
axe, bound the dead body with chains to a heavy stone, 
and sank it in the Mosund. The head remained at- 
tached by a piece of skin to the body, and two months 
afterwards it rose to the surface, and was found by the 
black monks in their fishery. The right hand of the 
corpse was uplifted above the water, as though de- 
manding vengeance ; but the body was found fresh as 
the first day it was beheaded. The same monks dared 


to bury it in their church. Therefore he became con- 
sidered " holy " by many men and in many places. 
Such is the chronicle of the murder of King Erik.* 

If you care for Runic stones, you will find two in 
the gardens of Louisenlund ; one stands bolt upright, 
the second lies down ; removed, unfortunately, from the 
place — Wedelsprang — where they once stood. A great 
mistake this. No stone, unless found, as often occurs, 
imbedded in some bridge or old castle wall, should ever 
be removed from its pristine locality ; they should stand 
mysterious — like dolmens on the wild heath — a cause 
of superstitious dread, if you will, to the peasant. 
On one of these stones runs the following inscription : — 
" Thoralf placed this stone near to the grave of Svend, 
for Erik,his companion, who died when the strong knights 
besieged Slesvig." On the second, " Isvarin, Ovi, Knubi, 
and Osfeld, surrounded this tumulus with stones, to the 
honour of the good Sutri." 

Such are the inscriptions. When you have read one, 
you have read all ; and unless I come across any of 
historic interest, I shall not give them. 

We did not visit the interior of the chateau, which I 
afterwards regretted, as it contains the most interesting 
portrait now existing in Denmark of our ill-fated 
English Princess, Queen Caroline Matilda; not Caro- 
line Matilda, the buxom, joyous girl of seventeen, who, 
in defiance of her grande-maitresse, would ride through 
the scandalized duchy of Slesvig, astride on horseback, ar- 
rayed in man's costume ; f — not Caroline the debonnaire 

* Erik was murdered in 1250. 

f A so-called portrait of Caroline in her male costume is preserved 
among the private collection of his present Majesty in the palace of 


and sprightly granddaughter of her fair namesake of 
Anspach, the most beautiful woman who ever adorned 
the English throne ; — but Caroline, after her disgrace, 
painted at Zell, refined and melancholy, with soft and 
clear blue eyes, her story, her misfortunes, stamped 
upon her face — and that face one to gaze upon. 

I have later seen a miniature from this picture — 
in the possession of H. R. H. the Princess Hereditary 
of Denmark — and seldom looked upon one more sad and 
interesting. But we have lingered long enough; the 
evening is advancing ; we must be off. An hour's drive 
will bring us to the city of Slesvig. 

Chap. III. SLESVIG. 33 


Slesvig — Palace of Gottorp — Murder of St. Niels — Lord Molesworth 
the English envoy — Splendour of the Danish funerals — the Liig- 
predicaner — Skue penge — Costly interment of Christopher Mogensen 
— Silver coffin of a Eeventlow Countess — Tomb of Frederic I. — 
St. Erik's chest — Kestless spirit of Abel — Anscarius, Apostle of the 
North — Synod of Haddeby — Danevirke of Queen Thyre— Death 
of Queen Margaret — Krock, " pictor regius " — The Sidney of Flens- 



This now fallen capital of the ancient duchy, winding 
along the fiorde's side — how can I describe it, but as 
one stragp-le ? A double row of houses scattered along the 

v o& 

bay, now together, now at intervals, on ill terms one 
with another ; no compact little streets, no cosy squares ; 
the very buildings, although neighbours, seem to look 
opposite ways from sheer unsociableness ; the whole 
city appears to be built " outside the barrier," though 
where the barrier may be becomes a puzzle. From the 
opposite bank of the fiorde, however, it stands well, 
with the ancient Palace of Gottorp, white and imposing, 
backed by the royal wood. It is now a barrack, and 
its ancient dukes are no more, the duchy fast attached 
to the crown of Denmark, and the rightful chief seated 
on a far grander throne, that of the wide-spreading 
empire of All the Russias. I have seen engravings of 
the Palace of Gottorp some hundred and fifty years 
since, when it must have been a grand place, with two 

VOL. I. D 

34 SLESVIG. Chap. III. 

aloes in full bloom standing before the orange-house of 
its old-fashioned garden. 

It was in one of the nine different palaces or castles 
mentioned by historians that King Niels* met with 
an untimely end, as indeed did most monarchs in 
those unruly ages — murdered by the members of some 
secret guild whom he had injured. On this account he 
was warned by the burghers not to enter the city ; but 
he laughed at their counsels. " He was not afraid of a 
pack of shoemakers and tailors ;" and, when the tumult 
arose, they begged him to take sanctuary in the 
church, but he answered that he would rather die in 
the palace than that the House of God should be defiled 
by a bloody action. His attendants rallied round his 
person, but were all slain, together with their master. 

After tracing our way through the long narrow street, 
we at last approached an ancient gate-tower, surmounted 
by a lofty spire ; the houses become a little more com- 
pact and sociable ; and then, turning off to the right, we 
gained the place where stands her ancient cathedral, 
side by side with a queer tumbledown belfry. The 
exterior, like that of all degraded brick edifices, is sin- 
gularly unprepossessing: the colours of the alternate 
glazed and common bricks have, in the course of years, 
become assimilated. This shabby exterior little pre- 
pared me for the beauties of the church within, which 
has lately undergone a thorough restoration at the 
expense of the Danish Government. Kestorations 
sometimes take place too soon ; and had that of 
Slesvig been postponed, it would have no doubt been 
better carried out, for the northern architects are as 

* In 1134. 


yet scarcely up to their work; still, on the whole, 
we must not quarrel — the general effect is good. 

The proportions of the church are injured by the 
chapels on each side being blocked up by solid masonry, 
which also conceals from view the lower part of the 
lancet window. These chapels are the " dormitoria " of 
sundry noble Danish families, and within are placed the 
coffins above ground, according to the custom of the 
country. A mania for splendid funerals existed among 
the Danes during the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies. Lord Molesworth,* in his ' Account of Denmark 
as it was in the year 1692,' declares that the bodies 
of the nobles were frequently preserved for years, wait- 
ing until either an opportunity occurred or the funds 
were procured for giving a befitting funeral. Families 
vied with each other not only in the splendour of the 
coffins, sepulchral slabs, and epitaphia, but even ex- 
tended their rivalry to the funeral feast and the sermon ; 
and in Christian IV.'s reign a great matter it was to 
be interred as a gentleman should be, and to have your 
virtues extolled, not only in the epitaph, but also in the 
discourse delivered by the celebrated " Liig-predicaner " 
(coffin-preacher) of the day, Dr. Jacob Matthisen, whose 
office was by no means honorary, for, on referring to his 
Tegnebog or day-book, I find he marks down — " Ee- 
ceived two gilt cups, weighing one hundred ounces, for 
preaching the funeral sermon of the Lady Anna Lange ; 
ditto, a tankard, of one hundred and four ounces, for that 
of Niels Friis, in Aarhuus Cathedral," &c. &c. Common 
people presented him with sums of money. The dis- 

* Eobert Viscount Molesworth was sent to the Danish Court, in 
1G89, as Envoy Extraordinary from William III, 

D 2 



Chap. III. 


course was afterwards printed and distributed, and, by 
way of a frontispiece, was adorned with an engraved 
portrait of the deceased, and of the monument about to 
be erected to his memory ; the portrait after a painting 
either by Carl van Mander or Peter Isaacs, and engraved 
by Haelwech, the man of the day. An excellent en- 
graver he was ; and the collection of these frontispieces 
to the funeral sermons have in later days proved invalu- 
able aids towards the recognition of family and historic 
,--—,, portraits, unknown and 

Then small 
called " skue 
penge," were coined, 
bearing the effigy of the 
deceased, sometimes in 
silver, often in gold, and 
distributed among the 
relatives and friends. A 
grand funeral, with epita- 
phium, a gorgeous coffin, 
a sermon preached by Dr. 
Matthisen, your portrait 

Skue penge of John Rantzau.— See p. 20. engraved by Haelwech, 

and a "skue penge" struck in your honour, — what 
more could a man expect from his survivors ? How 
he died it is not for us to say ; but, at any rate, he 
was buried as a man of quality ought to be. The most 
expensive funeral ever known took place in Frederic 
II. 's reign, according to Holberg. A Danish nobleman, 
Christopher Mogensen by name, was slain in a naval 
fight. Cast him into the sea they could not ; a noble 
must be buried in Christian ground ; wherefore they 
sailed with the fleet to Gothland, and laid him in Wisby 


» Vol. T„ p. 37 


church, with all honourable ceremony. When the fleet 
again got under sail it encountered a terrible storm, 
and sixteen ships sank, with 6000 men and all the 
officers, two admirals among the number — so people 
said that " no funeral was ever so costly as that of good 
Christopher Mogensen, for it caused many thousand 
living men to become wet that one man might lie dry." 

To give you an idea of the extravagance of the 
age, I will merely state that many of the coffins in 
this country are of solid silver. A countess of the 
noble house of Eeventlow lies in a sarcophagus of that 
precious metal (dated 1680), so rich in silver angels 
and heraldry of all sorts, that a Jew antiquary from 
Hamburg is said to have offered to purchase it for the 
sum of 15,000 dollars — more than 2000?. of our 
English money. 

The choir is separated from the nave by a richly 
wrought iron screen, fitted up on either side Avith 
carved stalls, similar to our own English cathedrals. 
To the right stands the splendid black and white marble 
tomb of Frederic I. of Denmark, generally termed 
the work of Caprara, an Italian sculptor, though the 
original design was executed by Binck,* the favourite 
painter of King Christian III, who also superintended 
its erection. It is a monument of great beauty and excel- 
lence, the second which exists to the memory of that 
monarch, for when his first wife, Princess Anna of 

* Jacob Binck was bom at Nuremberg, about tbe year 1490 ; he 
was an excellent portrait-painter, and much patronised by King 
Christian III., and by his brother-in-law Duke Albert of Prussia. 
Neither could live without him, and there exists a most voluminous 
correspondence between these two, begging for his return whenever he 
happened to be at the court of the rival patron. 

38 SLESVIG. Chap. III. 

Brandenburg, departed from this world's cares, Frederic, 
in his new grief, caused her to be interred in the ancient 
church of Bordesholm, near Kiel, where the bronze 
monument of the royal pair may still be seen, lying side 
by side; but Frederic was only Duke of Holstein 
then. Later he married a second wife — a Princess of 
Pomerania — and became King of Denmark by the 
usurpation and dethronement of his unlucky nephew ; 
so his son caused this fine monument to be erected 
to his memory ; and, instead of placing him between his 
two wives, as was generally the custom, he lies in a sepa- 
rate place. Frederic was not a popular sovereign, for 
the feelings of the people sided with the deposed 
monarch ; " he played with religion," they said, " and 
was Papist or Lutheran as best suited his worldly 
interests." So, on account of this trifling with the word 
of God, no one could place any confidence in him. 

It is related that when the funeral procession of the 
deceased monarch wended its way up the nave to the 
vault prepared for his reception, the coffin burst, and 
water mingled with blood trickled along the pavement ; 
the bystanders, who loved not his memory, shook their 
heads, and, after the superstition of the day, remarked 
to their gossips how this omen boded no good to the 
future weal of the soul of departed majesty. 

One of the great events of Frederic I.'s reign was the 
ravage caused by the sweating sickness, of which 400 
people died daily in Copenhagen alone. Ill-bred histo- 
rians of the time declare it to have been introduced from 
England ; much more likely the effect of their own bad 
food and living during a long period of civil warfare. 

And now let us turn from this monument of Den- 
mark's first Lutheran ruler to gaze on the glory of 

Chap. III. ST. ERIK'S CHEST. 39 

Slesvig, — the celebrated altarpiece: the richest, the 
most exquisite specimen of the carver's art in all the 
North of Europe ; the work of Hans Briiggemann, of 
Husum, the pupil of Albert Diirer. You will find a 
book written on the subject, describing each compart- 
ment, — scenes in the life of our Saviour. 

From a cupboard behind, the sacristan now brings 
forth a heavy, massive chain : a chain taken from the 
body of poor, murdered Erik. He was first reported to 
have died of apoplexy, until his floating corpse left no 
doubt of his real fate. Many and wondrous were the 
miracles worked at his tomb, and great the gains of the 
lucky friars who possessed these holy relics. Later, 
however, they were removed to Kingsted, encased in a 
reliquary, and placed in a pillar of that royal mau- 
soleum ; and there, after his wanderings, he remained 
in peace until the occupation of the abbey church by 
the English.* The soldiers broke the reliquary to 
pieces, scattered the bones, and what became of them 
no one knows, for the church was turned into a hay- 
barn. When Erik was about to die, the executioner, by 
order of Duke Abel, asked him where he had concealed 
his treasure ? " Tell my brother," he replied, " it lies 
in an iron chest in the convent of the Gray Brothers of 
Roeskilde;" and when Duke Abel broke open this 
chest, he found therein a Gray Brother's cowl, with 
a cord, and a letter, in the Latin tongue, to the effect 
that Erik wished to be buried in the habit of that 
monastic Order. Duke — now King — Abel met with 
the fate his brother prophesied, for he was later mur- 

* In 1807. 

40 SLESVIG. Chap. III. 

dered, and buried in the same cathedral church of 
Slesvig, with all due honour, as became one of his 
royal race, but his restless spirit knew no repose ; his 
ghost " walked," causing so much disturbance to the holy 
community that, with one accord, they dragged him 
from his grave and reburied him in the " Mose " * (bog) 
adjoining the town, well pegged down with stakes, after 
the custom of the country. The place of his burial is 
still pointed out by the peasants, who fight shy of the 
neighbourhood, especially after sunset, for they declare 
he wanders still, and will wander for ever, — a just 
punishment for the crime of fratricide. 

High on the bank behind the town stands the church 
of St. Michael, scarcely worth a visit, round church 
though it be, so degraded and stuffed up by latticed 
gallery and woodwork. I have since seen a sketch 
of this edifice, as it was and ought to be, among 
the drawings of the archaeological archives of Copen- 

But, though Slesvig be no longer capital of the 
duchy — for Flensborg has usurped her place — she 
still holds high her head as the mother-town of early 
Christianity. Here first Anscarius, monk of Corvey, 
preached the true faith in the land, and founded a 
little church hard by — some say at Haddeby — though 
antiquaries have lately come to loggerheads on the 
subject.! This same little church enjoys also a notoriety 
perhaps less enviable ; for from her walls was pro- 
claimed, X by the Synod of Haddeby, the celibacy of the 

* Pronounced " Moser." f This early apostle died a.d. 865. 

X In the year 1120. 


clergy, and all the priests' wives were forcibly ejected from 
the country — non sine clade gravi — not without a row. * 
" I should rather imagine not." So says the monkish 
chronicler in his Latin verse. 

We are lodged at the hotel of old Madam Esselbach, 
a lady of known reputation. The house is in character 
with the town, rambling and large; huge, vast ball- 
rooms hung round with portraits of the Danish sove- 
reigns, and rich, gilded furniture, spoils of the ancient 
palace of Gottorp. 

In the war of '49 Madam Esselbach managed to 
keep well with both armies. When the Danes were 
in occupation, her hotel shone pavilioned with the white- 
cross flag ; when the Holsteiners appeared, the banner 
of the duchies floated from every window. Her loyalty 
gained her the affection of both armies, till, one day, a 
Danish officer discovered in a lumber-room the flags of 
the rival party, and ordered them to be destroyed. 
Clamorously the good widow protested. "Put me to 
such a useless expense ?" she pleaded ; "I must replace 
them, and, if you are beaten out of the town, what can 
I do ? " So, as the argument proved logical, she was 
left in possession of her banners. 

Her son is now tutor to the Comte de Paris, and we 
made acquaintance with him, — a gentlemanlike young 
man, at present on a visit to his native city. To-morrow 
we quit Slesvig, and embark on the railroad for the 
rival city of Flensborg. 

* M. C. — bis decern, Danorum Clerus abegit Uxorcs dulces — non 
sine clade gravi. In the Canon, clergymen's wives are spoken of as 
" Morbus pestiferus." 



Our lino runs across a barren country, passing, near 
the first station, the remains of the celebrated Danevirke, 
the ancient wall constructed in early days to defend 
the kingdom of Jutland against all invaders. It con- 
sists of a mound of earth, stones, and brick rubbish, 
curious, but not beautiful, to look at, and was once 
crowned with towers. This wall of defence, similar to 
that raised against the Picts in North Britain, was 
partly constructed by Thyre Queen of Gorm the Old — 
an English princess of whom we shall hear more later ; 
— and when some years since the tomb of the Great 
Valdemar was opened in the Abbey Church of Eingsted, 
a plate bearing an inscription was found at the head of 
the coffin, in which it stated how he was the first who 
constructed the wall for the protection of the whole 
kingdom, which is called Danevirke, of " burnt bricks." 
At present it is all overgrown, weeds, grass, and rubble. 
Then, having passed the Danevirke, we steamed across 
a barren moor and waste, peopled with small tumuli, 
from which the museum of Kiel derives her collections 
of stone antiquities, till we arrived at Flensborg. 

Tins city, now capital of the duchy of Slesvig, is not 
a town of sights — so much the better — but a port of some 
consequence in a commercial point of view ; a bright, 
clean-looking town, with a future before it ; new houses, 
new streets, rising in neighbourhood to the station. 
Like many other worn-out places, the railroad has given 
her a fillip, and, after slumbering for a season, she has 
suddenly awakened " prosperous." 

The site of the town at the fiorde end is beautiful, and 


Vol. I,| i 

Chap. III. THE TOWN. 43 

on mounting to the Belle Vue Garden you gain a 
charming view over its purple waters. 

On the exterior of the old city gates are emblazoned 
the arms of Slesvig, two lions azure on a field or, with 
the motto of the fourth Christian, " Regna firmat 
pietas," "Piety strengthens the realm;" and again a 
second shield, a turret, from whose loopholes leap 
forth two blue lions, which I afterwards (describe it 
heraldically I cannot) discovered to be that of the diocese 
of Ribe, of which the town of Flensborg forms, or once 
formed, part and parcel. 

Ancient writers accuse the great Queen Margaret of 
having ruined the harbour by sinking huge rocks beneath 
its waters, to protect the town against the invasion of 
pirate bands.* It was here in the year 1412 this queen 
died on board a small merchant vessel, in which she 
had embarked for Zealand, some say of the black pest, 
others of an internal malady. 

But if Flensborg be uninteresting in an historic 
point of view, she has at any rate given birth to 
some men of note ; amongst whom may be numbered 
Heinrich Krock, "pictor regius," as he is termed, to 
Kings Frederic IV. and Christian VI., the most tolerable 
of the later school of Danish artists. Krock f was 
son of a merchant of this place. He accompanied the 
Field-Marshal Gyldenl0ve, natural son of Frederic III. — 
in earlier days all the recognised " Mtards du sang" 

* 1389. Queen Margaret was not a freetrader — quite the contrary : 
all subjects were strictly forbidden to trade with either Greenland, the 
Faroe Islands, Heligoland, or Finmark ; the commodities produced in 
these countries being considered as a regal monopoly — the perquisites 
of the Eoyal pantry. 

+ Born 1671. 


bore the name of Gyldenlpve, golden lion — to Italy, 
where he studied for some years ; he then employed 
his talents chiefly in the decoration of ceilings, alle- 
gories, and altarpieces, of which some few may still be 
found in the private residences as well as in the palaces 
of the kingdom. 

The earliest engraver of whom I find mention in Den- 
mark, Melchior Lorch by name, was also a native of 
this sea-bound city : * not that he troubled much his 
native town, which he quitted early in life, and pur- 
sued his travels to the East ; remained for many 
years at the foot of the Sultan's throne in Constan- 
tinople, where he drew and engraved, not only the 
Grand Turk himself, but his six Sultanas — ugly, bad- 
countenanced women, one of whom was black — the 
Grand Vizier, and all the people of the court as well 
as capital. Curious enough they appear after a lapse 
of three centuries. A complete collection of his works 
may be seen preserved in the Kobberstik Museum at 

Not many years since there dwelt in the town of 
Flensborg an aged maiden lady, whose name for the 
moment escapes my memory, the last of her race, the 
first illustration of whose family is well known through- 
out the land ; and, as the anecdote is to the credit of 
her ancestor, I may as well relate the story : — 

" It was during the Swedish wars of the seventeenth 
century, that, after a battle in which the enemy had 
been worsted, a burgher of Flensborg was about to 
refresh himself with a draught of beer from a small 
wooden bottle, when he heard the cry of a wounded 

* Bora 1527. 


Swede, who, fixing his longing eyes on the beverage, 
exclaimed, ' I am thirsty ; give me to drink.' 

" Now the burgher of Flensborg was a kind man, 
and, though he suffered greatly himself, he replied at 
once — ' Thy need is greater than mine :' and, kneeling 
down by the side of the wounded soldier, he poured the 
liquor into his mouth. 

" But the treacherous Swede, taking advantage of the 
unarmed state of his benefactor, fired his pistol as he 
bent down, wounding him in the shoulder. 

" Then the burgher sprang upon his legs, and, in- 
dignant, exclaimed, ' Eascal ! I would have befriended 
you, and you would murder me in return : now will I 
punish you. I would have given you the whole bottle, 
but you shall only have half :' and, drinking off one- 
half himself, he gave the remainder to his enemy. 
When the news of this action came to the ears of King 
Frederic III. he ordered the burgher into his pre- 
sence, and asked him, ' Why did you not kill the 
rascal ? ' 

" ' Sire,' replied the man, ' I could never slay a 
wounded enemy.' 

" ' Thou meritest to be a noble,' said the King, and 
he caused him to be created one at once, and gave him 
for his arms a wooden beer-bottle pierced through with 
an arrow ; which cognizance was borne by his children 
after him, till the family died out in the person of this 
maiden lady, his last descendant." 

Before quitting Flensborg we drove to visit the old 
castle of Gliicksborg, situated at a distance of one Ger- 
man mile, at that moment occupied by his present 
Majesty and his morganatic spouse, the Countess 
Danner. The less said about the road the better, for 


we left the fiorde and its beauties behind us. As we 
approached the castle we met crowds of holiday people, 
some on foot, others in their stuhlwagens. 

The King had just returned after an absence of some 
three days, and wreaths, and garlands, and " vel 
kommens," testified to the loyalty of his subjects. We 
drove up to a tidy little inn and there disembarked. 

The schloss itself, once a convent, is a large barrack- 
looking quadrangular building, with three gables, and 
flanked at each corner by a round tower, extinguisher- 
capped. It rises from a lake, and is surrounded on 
three sides with water. It has, I dare say, been vener- 
able, but is now whitewashed. We passed two pleasant 
hours enough exploring the fine woods which surround 
the lake. 

It was nightfall when we left on our way home; 
delighted, too, we were with our conveyance, drawn by 
a capital pair of horses, who plunged and kicked, 
"lustig," the driver informed me, at the prospect of 
returning to then stables. 

Chap. IV. S0NDERBOKG. , 47 


Island of Als — Speech of Mogens Mormand — Dungeon of S0nderborg 

— Imprisonment of Christian II. — Aabenraa — Haderslev — Merry- 
go-rounds — Old palace — Metal fonts — Moravians at Christiansfeldt 

— High-stepping horses — Kolding Castle the prison of Albert of 
Sweden — Pearl-fishing of a Greenlander. 


Leaving Flensborg at an early hour by the Diana 
steamer, we reached the Isle of Als or Alsen, con- 
nected with the mainland by a bridge of boats, Ehine 
fashion. As we approached the town of S0nderborg, 
the grim old castle, now dismantled of all its towers 
save one, stands out bold on the water side : it was a 
strong fortress once, and the residence of the Slesvig 
Dukes. A very small boat receives and then lands a 
load of passengers, and we among the number scramble 
out upon the quay, and walk up a long, ill-paved street, 
till we arrive at the Stadt Hamburg, a hostel of small 
pretensions, but clean and homely ; so we instal the bag- 
gage in our rooms, drive off, and in an hour's time again 
descend at the Post-house Inn, which stands hard by 
the palace of the exiled Duke of Augustenborg.* Few 
strangers visit this remote spot ; and we ourselves came 
there in pilgrimage, from the interest we took in the 

* The present duke is grandson of Caroline Matilda by his mother 
Louisa Augusta, and brother to the Queen Dowager, her Majesty 
Queen Caroline Amelia of Denmark, widow of King Christian VIII. 

48 S0NDERBORG. Chap. IV 

ancient possessors of the lands. The palace is a spacious 
building, built on the island coast, with gardens, woods, 
and all that can make life pleasant. It is now for sale, the 
Danish government having at last settled the claims of the 
Ducal family by paying a sum down for the territories. 

After dinner we again returned to S0nderborg, and, 
before quitting the next morning, visited the parish 
church, which contains some of the most extraordinary 
specimens of carved and gilt epitaphia I have come 
across, in one of which I counted as many as twelve or 
fourteen different portraits, each held suspended from 
the hands of a golden angel. 

The castle of S0nderborg contains little of interest, 
save the chapel, where stands erect the armour of Duke 
John and his eldest son. It was a grand mistake on the 
part of Christian III. to re-establish the duchy of Slesvig 
in the person of his son ; but he took no counsel ; and 
when Mogens Mormand, governor of Aalholm Castle, a 
nobleman renowned for his free speech, exclaimed to the 
King, " Now may Denmark say farewell to fair S0nder- 
borg and Als," the speech gave great offence; and 
although the prophecy never came strictly true, the late 
possessors did their best in the revolution of '58 to 
separate that island from the Danish crown. 

In this same chapel hangs the, genealogy of King 
Christian III. and his Queen Dorothea, with quaint old 
portraits of their earlier ancestry. Then passing through 
a doorway, under the arched monument — a fine white 
marble bas-relief supported on black columns — of Duke 
John and his Duchess, Elizabeth of Brunswick, devoutly 
kneeling, with their fourteen childrec, you enter the 
dormitorium of the family. 

I have no great fancy for these visits, and when once 


I had made acquaintance with the silver coffins of Duke 
John and his wife (great waste of useful metal), was 
prepared to return ; but the guardian had locked the 
door, and I was in for it. " Come, mount on this step 
— here," he pointed. We did so, jammed in among the 
mouldering coffins (a good thick wall of solid masonry 
separates the Protestant branch of the house from those 
of the Romish persuasion) ; then suddenly he removed 
the lid of a coffin, and displayed to our eyes the withered 
mummy of a young girl, attired in a black velvet dress 
and point lace, her fair flaxen hair hanging loosely 
down, her hands meekly crossed on her bosom — a 
horrid exhibition ; but the form was graceful even in 

" This is the high-born most noble princess, daughter 
of Duke John, aged twenty-two," he commenced. I 
scrambled down as fast as I could, for I saw him pre- 
pared to rattle at the lid of another coffin ; but we were 
locked in, and there was no escape. Never was man 
so impressed with the dignity of the noble dust com- 
mitted to his care : he spared us not a duke, not a land- 
grave, not a princeling, adolescent or in swaddling 
clothes. At last we regained our liberty (I had begun 
to think of the second Christian and Ins dwarf), and 
breathed fresh air again. 

And now we must, before quitting S0nderborg, turn 
to the most interesting period of her eventful histor) r 
— the long and weary incarceration of unlucky Chris- 
tian, second of the house of Oldenborg. Of him you 
will have read much that is fals.e, from German as 
well as from Swedish writers. Faultless he was not ; 
but perhaps a little too advanced for his century. In 

VOL. I. E 

50 S0NDERBORG. Chap. IV. 

1522 he issued a code of laws * by which he rendered 
the peasants their own masters— until that time bought 
and sold and treated like brute animals— by which 
measure he irritated the great lords. He retrenched 
the powers and riches of the clergy, and encouraged 
the doctrines of Luther, which excited the fury of the 
Church of Eome. He desired to advance the commerce 
of the burghers, and granted the Dutch prerogatives for 
trading in the kingdom, which caused the anger of the 
Lubeckers. So Christian found favour with no party. 

How he ruled over Sweden is a different matter; 
but Christian II. may be accounted, with all his vices, 
as one of the most enlightened of the Danish sovereigns. 
Pitching the blood-bath of Stockholm against the mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, the faggots of Smithfield, and 
the doings of the Duke of Alva in the Netherlands, if 
we take his contemporaiy sovereigns in that century 
of blood and violence, when passions ran high, and the 
new-born faith of Luther first dawned in the land, I 
do not think he was at any rate worse, if so bad as his 
neighbours. When Christian delivered himself up, or 
was rather betrayed, into the hands of his uncle, from 
whom he had received a safe-conduct, he certainly ex- 
pected a better treatment, and had little suspicion of 
the dreadful fate which awaited him. He writes to 
Duke Frederic thus : — 

* When Frederic I. ascended the throne this code of laws was burned 
as a dangerous book, contrary to good morals. The peasants again 
became bondsmen, and remained so until the end of the last century ; 
and the lords regained their former rights, for which freedom, says 
Hvitfeldt, himself a noble, " the memory of the King ought to be sacred 
to us and our posterity.'' 


Vol. I., p. 51. 


" Now we come to you, dear lord and brother, as the 
prodigal son, not alone as to our own dear uncle, but as 
to our new-born brother, inspired by Jesu Christ, de- 
manding help, assistance, and trust of you," &c. 

He signs himself King of Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden, and addresses the letter to Frederic, King 
of Denmark. This want of tact affronted his uncle, and 
only made him more irate ; whilst he was about it, he 
might just as well have done the thing handsomely, 
and given him all his titles. 

You all know how he was brought in a vessel to the 
island of Als, and lodged in the old castle, at that time 
a strong fortress with round embattled towers. The 
door was walled up, his food passed through a guichet 
above, and a scanty allowance of light admitted through 
a small, barred window. 

In an old edition of Pontoppidan I have seen an 
engraving of that fearful prison, in which, with a dwarf 
as his sole companion, he languished, dejDrived of even 7 
comfort, and almost of the necessaries of life. It is 
thus described by one who had visited the tower pre- 
vious to its destruction in the seventeenth century. I 
give it verbatim : — 

" The prison was vaulted, and twenty-two feet in width. 
To the centre of the ceiling was fixed a hook for letting 
down the prisoners into the vault below, to which a hole 
in the centre was the only entrance. Over and above 
was placed a round table, around which the steps of the 
King had worn a groove in the stone pavement two 
fingers deep." (It appears the unlucky monarch paced 
round and round like a horse in a mill.) " Around the 
table was a groove two inches deep, worn by the pressure 
of the King's thumb." On the embrasure of the window 



the King had engraved from memory with his own 
hand a view of the Castle of Copenhagen, such as it 
existed in his more happy days. One treasure he pre- 
served, and one alone, which never quitted him, and 
that the miniature portrait of his lost love Dy veke — his 
only consolation ; and here, for the space of sixteen 
years, he paced round and round, weary but still going, 
for he had no other mode of exercise — on, on, like a 
squirrel in a cage — till the death of his uncle Frederic 
brought better times — release, kind treatment, and 
comfort in the Castle of Kallundborg, from Christian 
his successor. 


Crossing over the new-built bridge of boats, we quitted 
the isle of Als and made our way cross-country, occa- 
sionally catching a glimpse of the florde, its wooded 
banks and islands, for Graastein, or Gravenstein, a hand- 
some chateau — so called from the gray stone of which it 
is built (unwhitewashed) — one of the numerous resi- 
dences of the exiled Duke of Augustenborg. The 
village appertaining to the castle has a flourishing ap- 
pearance even for Denmark — a country where poverty 
and want are almost unknown. We were induced 
to leave our carriage by the promise of some wondrous 
beech -trees in the forest, twenty -five feet in cir- 
cumference ; but we never found them, and the old 
castellan knew nothing about them, or indeed any- 
thing else but his long china pipe, which he removed 
from his mouth reluctantly to reply to our ques- 
tions. The chateau was built by the Grand Chan- 
cellor Ahlefeldt, of whom it was purchased. The lake, 
which now surrounds it, in former days formed a 

Chap. I\ r . AABEN-RAA. 53 

branch of the sea, and has been separated by a dyke at 
great expense. Gravenstein in the last century was 
celebrated for its gardens as well as for its menagerie — 
at that time, as in England, a necessary appendage to 
all semi-royal establishments. The lake is situated on 
a stratum of rotten stone, of much repute for the cleaning 
of copper and brass — though I must own I quite forgot 
to examine the matter : and then we made our way on 
for Aaben-raa, or Apenrade. Country again ugly until 
we gained the high post-road, which led direct to the 
city of our destination. A large vessel lay on the stocks 
in course of construction, and the bathing apparatus still 
remained for those who were not deterred by the north 
wind and autumnal freshness of the weather. 

I do not think the city of Aaben-raa (open road), as 
the Danes call it — it bears for its shield three red her- 
rings on a field argent — was ever remarkable for any- 
thing particular. It got occasionally burnt to the 
ground in the middle ages, during the everlasting 
quarrels between the Danish kings and their Holstein 

The family of Guntherode were in former days the 
grand possessors of land, and lords powerful of this 
neighbourhood. High and mighty seigneurs they were, 
and neither understood a joke nor relished one. I find 
an amusing account of a lawsuit between Frederic 
Guntherode, of that ilk, and the parish priest of Biol- 
derup, a neighbouring village. It appears the worthy 
pastor had kindly succoured some celebrated artist who, 
during an illness on his passage through the country, 
to express his gratitude for kindness received, painted 
an altarpiece for the parish-church — a representation 
of the Last Judgment. Great was the delight of the 

54 HADERSLEV. Chap. IV. 

community at this good luck, and strangers came 
from far and wide to view the picture when completed. 
Now the artist, after the grotesque manner of the early 
times, had represented some of the souls in torment 
under the forms of owls — the cognizance of the Giinthe- 
rode family. When Frederic saw this he waxed ex- 
ceeding wroth, and considered it to be a personal allusion 
to the spiritual state of departed members of his family, 
so during the night he broke into the church, accom- 
panied by a body of armed followers, and smeared over 
the painting with quick-lime, by which it was completely 


Great was the excitement on the King's high road, 
which runs straight as the crow flies between the 
cities of Aaben-raa and her neighbour Haderslev. 
Stuhlwagen after stuhlwagen passed us on the way, 
loaded, certainly not according to postal regulations, 
with twelve or fifteen individuals, singing and shouting 
in a state of high glee and merriment, and may be a 
little inebriety. 

The cause was soon explained, for on our arrival we 
found the whole town hi a state of turmoil and crowd — 
in full fair time. Booths lighted up, dance-music ad- 
vertised and placarded at each corner of the square, and 
merry-go-rounds, to my unenlightened eyes of a most 
novel character, for alternately with the horses were 
placed green sofas opposite to each other. "When all 
were seated and ready for a start, the trumpet sounded, 
and each youth, placing his arm around the waist of 
the fair companion by his side, respectfully saluted 
her on the cheek ; this ceremony over, off they went 

Chap. IV. OLD PALACE. 55 

round and round, faster and faster, until I wonder their 
brains did not remain addled for the rest of their exist- 
ence. This ceremony is de rigueur, and if you seat 
yourself by a woman of fifty it would be considered a 
high breach of gallantry to neglect its performance ; 
you have no excuse, for if you feel shy there are 
" cabinets particuliers," as in the restaurants, closed 
round with curtains, concealing those within from the 
curious eyes of the bystanders. 

The old palace of Haderslev, in which the second 
Frederic, as well as other Danish sovereigns, first saw 
the light, has long since disappeared. Christian IV. 
was married here to his first Queen ; and what was 
worse, it was on his return to the palace of Haderslev 
that his suspicions were first excited against his mor- 
ganatic spouse, fair Christina Munk, for, to his horror 
and amazement, he found the whitewashed walls of the 
corridor scratched over with caricatures of himself, his 
wife, and the Ehine Count of Salms — ribald verses, 
too — his own head adorned with a broad-brimmed 
hat, and other decorations too significant to be mis- 

On the whole, Christian seems to have disliked the 
palace of Haderslev as a residence, and in his letters 
dated from that place (never was a man so exact — so 
precise about little matters) he always seems in a fidget 
lest household affairs should go wrong during his 
absence. He writes to his chamberlain : — " You must 
particularly look after the cook during my absence, and 
see she orders in nothing. If there is anything you want, 
write to me direct, and I will send it." The children, 
he complains, have a bad custom of running down to 
the washerwomen: "They always love to gossip and 



Chap. IV. 

keep company, which they should not. A stop must be 
put to this, or the women must be turned away." 

Strange details for one of the most magnificent 
monarchs of Europe to enter into; but Christian 
overlooked nothing, nor indeed did his father King 
Frederic II., in whose own royal hand I found a letter 
" ordering in mustard." 

The bell-metal fonts of this country are a feature in 
themselves — evase in form, generally supported on the. 
shoulders of three monks, or grinning monsters of some 
kind. They are too large for present use, and inside is 

Metal Font at Haderslev. a.d. 1485. 

generally fitted a metal dish " en repousse," with Adam 
and Eve, the spies, or three fishes, thereon, rude in 
workmanship, though I find them to be of more recent 
date than I imagined, showing the art to have remained 
in statu quo later in these Northern climes than in the 
South of Europe. 


If the accounts of the year 1417 be true, Haderslev 
must have been a gloriously cheap place to live in : 
butter is mentioned as being then sold at nine skillings a 
ton, herrings at six skillings for the same weight, a cow 
for six skillings, and Kostock beer for next to nothing ; 
still, as I find these years of cheapness to have 
come quick on sundry black pests, inundations — in one 
of which 100,000 are said to have perished in the 
duchies alone — to say nothing of " 0pror" and all 
manner of uncomfortable events — I began to fancy, after 
all, it is far better to pay somewhat dear for our pro- 
visions and live in peace and quietness in the nineteenth 

Breakfast over in the private salon of our landlady — 
for she would not allow us to feed in the common room, 
but treated us with distinction as strangers, serving us 
on her old Copenhagen china cups and saucers, painted 
over with flowers of a roseate hue, wild anemones and 
hepaticas, copied from the Flora Danica — we turned 
up, as all lovers of porcelain would do, each separate 
object to inspect the mark, three wavy blue lines 
^f^^^^^^- faithful representations — the two first 
of the Greater and Little Belt, while the third does duty 
for the Sound — and then we again started on our 


Our first stoppage was at Christiansfeldt, a small 
Quaker-like town, founded, I believe, in the last cen- 
tury, and inhabited almost exclusively by the Mora- 
vian brethren. A book has lately appeared written by 
a young lady educated in these schools, so we felt curious 
to stop and visit the establishment. The professor was 


at dinner when we called, and, though we offered to wait 
until he had* concluded his meal, he insisted on accom- 
panying us instanter. We first visited the boys' school, 
and were next conducted to the dining-room, hung 
round with their sketches and drawings framed and 
glazed, and connected with the kitchen by a guichet, 
through which most savoury perfumes were ascending. 
That the Moravians are not anchorites we already knew, 
and, from what I saw of the dinner preparing for the 
children, no anxiety need be expressed as to their well- 
doing in that line. In the first-class room several boys 
were engaged in a drawing lesson: they rose as we 
entered, and bowed politely, and were severally pointed 
out to us by the professor as Jutlanders, Norwegians, 
Swedes, Dutchmen, and lastly, a large-eyed, hook- 
nosed G-reenlander, son of a missionary, an intelligent 
little fellow of twelve years of age. We visited the 
museum, containing herbariums, the produce of the 
country, a collection of celts dug up in the neighbour- 
hood, and ethnographic objects, presents from pupils 
long since missionaries far away in the South Seas and 
Africa. The terms for education, including washing, 
are 207. per annum, for which sum the pupils are in- 
structed in French, Danish, German, and the girls in 
music, embroidery, useful household duties, habits of 
order and cleanliness — a sine-qua-non of the Mora- 
vian system. Here, too, they enjoy the advantage of 
a fine open country, and sea-bathing in the summer 

On leaving the town we passed a private* carriage 
drawn by a pah' of fine and high-stepping dun-coloured 
horses, with black tails and manes— true North Jutland 
breed. High-stepping carriage-horses are now scarce, 

Chap. IV. KOLDING. 59 

greatly prized in Loudon, and the world wonders why 
they are not more to be met with. This" is simply an 
affair of training. In the north of Germany, whence 
these horses are chiefly imported, you may frequently 
see the animals exercising on the high roads, capari- 
soned like the knight's charger of old, with heavy 
clothing, wearing no blinkers, but large spectacles. 
These spectacles are strong magnifiers, and each pebble, 
to the eyes of the deluded quadruped, appears as a 
granite boulder, so in Ins youth and ignorance he lifts 
up his legs high in the air to avoid their contact, and 
thus contracts that habit of high stepping so much 
admired, and for which amateurs pay unheard-of prices. 


The majestic ruins of Kolding appeared in the dis- 
tance, with the little town nestling at its feet, long 
before we arrived within its walls. The days are still 
long, and the distances short, so we determined to rest 
for a couple of hours, and then continue our journey to 
Veile the same evening. 

The castle, one of the most ancient in Jutland, called 
in earlier days 0rnsborg or Eagle Castle, was built by 
* our restless acquaintance bad King Abel, : it is now a 
blackened ruin, having fallen, like most of the palaces of 
Denmark, a victim to the scourge of fire during the occu- 
pation of Bernadotte. The lofty donjon tower, which rises 
proudly from the further side, stands still surmounted 
by two stone figures of w r arriors in full armour, such as 
are sometimes to be met with on the Border towers of 
Scotland. The building itself, of immense extent, is 
uniform, and devoid of beauty as a ruin save one Renais- 
sance doorway, the entrance to the now roofless chapel. 

(30 HOLDING. Chap. IV. 

The view of the fiordefrom the plateau in front of the 
castle-gates is charming, and reminded me of one of the 
lowland lakes of Switzerland. 

The woman charged with the keys ushered us into 
the grand court, in the centre of which once stood a 
fountain, Venus on a pedestal; but Venus has long- 
since flitted, and is replaced by one of the fallen war- 
riors who once kept guard on the solitary watch-tower, 
noon and night. "Who is that?" I inquired of my 
cicerone. "Hannibal;" and then, pointing to the 
warrior above, "that one is Scipio." "Scipio! why, 
what on earth does he do up there ? " " He is Han- 
nibal's brother." Well, we live to learn. Observing 
the Danish arms emblazoned on the shield of the hero, 
I next inquired how they came there ? " Oh, they were 
both of the house of Oldenborg." So I held my peace, 
and afterwards found it to have been a fancy of King 
Christian IV. to place the four heroes, Hannibal, Scipio, 
Hercules, and Hector, on his house-top, each bearing 
in his hand a shield emblazoned with the arms of 
Denmark and her duchies. No wonder the concierge 
became confused. King Christian III. preferred Kolding- 
huus as a residence on account of the salubrity of the 
air ; and here his Queen Dorothea, after the fashion 
of the times, planted a most beautiful garden and 
pleasaunce long since passed away ; in this his favourite 
palace he breathed his last on New Year's Day, 1559, 
having previously foretold the hour of his departure, as 
people sometimes do. A pious and good monarch, his 
death-bed scene was an example to all those present 
of how a good man can quit this world, in faith and 
trust of hopeful future and in peace and goodwill 
towards all men. It w r as in this castle that King 

Chap. IV. THE CASTLE. N 61 

Frederic IV. first met at a masquerade the fair Anna 
Sophia Keventlow ; but the story will be better related 
at Clausholm. We crept down into the dark, noisome 
prison in the vaults below, where Albert, Xing of 
Sweden, paid the penalty of his vulgar, low abuse of 
the great Queen Margaret by an imprisonment of many 
years. Queen Breechless, or Monk Maid, he called 
his cousin Margaret, in addition to sending her a 
whetstone to sharpen her scissors and needles. Well ! 
he had time enough during his long incarceration in 
this foul dungeon to invent new nicknames, or may be 
to repent those he had already fabricated. Pleasant 
times were those to live in ! and how nature sustained 
itself under such treatment, we luxurious children of 
the present day can ill understand. 

Early in the last century a pearl-fishery was esta- 
blished at Kolding, under the auspices of the mayor. 
A Greenlander, who professed himself an adept at 
fishing up pearls " in his own country ! " (pearls in 
Greenland !), was engaged. He dived with great suc- 
cess, but too much, soon sickened, pined, and died, and 
since that time the oysters of the fiorde have been 
allowed to rest in peace and quietude. 

02 VEILE. Chap. V. 


Constitution ofVeile — Queen Thyre the pride of the Danes — King 
Christian and Mogens Munk — Tradition of Queen Gunhild — Scotch 
rigid of pit and gallows — Peter, the Friesland Corsair — Cattle 
fair — Jt'llinge— Stones of King Gormthe Old and his Queen — Keign 
of King Frode the Good — Valley of the Greis — Russian Princesses 
at Horsens — Torfams the Icelander — Family sohriquets. 


We now approach (time it is we did too) some of the 
fairest scenes of the old Jutland province. 

The road undulates across hill and dale, moor and 
forest. Trim little white cottages, with their black- 
painted timbers, peep out from amongst the trees. We 
traverse a pine forest, the first we have seen since our 
arrival in Denmark. The full moon shines bright ; the 
comet aloft, with his fiery tail resplendent, seems poised 
in the heavens like a falcon prepared to dart upon 
his prey. The carriage rolls down a rapid descent, 
zigzag fashion, for drags are here unknown ; lights 
appear in the distance, and we enter the little town of 

Veile, a city of ancient lineage, which owes its origin, 
say some, to Queen Thyre Danebod (" the pride of 
the Danes"), architectress of the Danevirke, or to her 
son King Harald Blue-Tooth, at the very latest. It 
had the honour of being burnt by King Abel, and in 
the thirteenth century gave birth to as mischievous 
an edict as was ever sent forth from a synod of arrogant 


ecclesiastics in any Christian country : * a bull, entitled 
the Constitution of Veile — " Cum ecclesia Daciana " 
it commences — in which the clergy threaten to lay 
under interdict the whole country should the King ill- 
treat and offend any member of their community, 
and much misery it caused throughout the realm in 
later years. It was here, too,t that Christian, second 
of his name, received from the hands of Mogens Munk, 
deputed by his order, a paper signed by all that was 
greatest (and most rebellious) in Jutland, in which, as 
one body, the nobles for ever renounced their allegiance. 
No one felt desirous to execute the commission. Munk 
himself — stout-hearted though he was — dared not ex- 
press then sentiments openly, but, on leaving the room, 
as though by chance, he let fall his glove, which was 
afterwards picked up by a page. Within this glove 
was found concealed the determination of the states of 
Aarhuus, in a letter addressed to the King. 

On arriving at the hotel we found everything in a 
state of bustle and excitement, caused by a cattle-fair 
in perspective, to commence on the following morning. 
Till twelve at night carriages continued to arrive in 
succession ; at two the cocks began to crow, the market 
people to chatter, and then an end to all sleep and rest. 

After breakfast we walked to the church, founded by 
King Knud — our Canute the Great — to pay our respects 
to the so-called body of Queen Gunhild. Her life was 
an adventurous one, even for those ragamuffin ages. J 
First she appears oh the scene as a sorceress in Lithu- 

* Dated 6th March, 1256. under the synod held by Archbishop Jacub 
Erlandsen, most turbulent of prelates, 
t January, 1525. 
J Bead her history in Dunham. 

64 VEILE. Chap. V. 

ania. She married Erik of the Bloody Axe, son of Harald 
Haarfager, King of Norway, and is described as beau- 
tiful, clever, but cruel and deceptive. She and her 
husband became so detested that Hakon, brother of 
Erik, easily deprived them of the crown. 

When Erik died she sought refuge with Harald 
Blue-Tooth (she was then young and beautiful), and by 
his aid one of her sons regained the greater part of 
Norway. Gunhild, however, became regent, and en- 
deavoured by all possible means to acquire the whole 
kingdom. By the aid of Harald she got rid of her son, 
whom she caused to be murdered in Denmark. The 
Blue-Tooth then began to fear the power of Gunhild, 
so he on Iris side murdered the young prince her grand- 
son. Some Sagas assert that Earl Hakon persuaded 
Gunhild that her old flame Harald Blue-Tooth was 
desirous to marry her, and she foolishly quitted the 
Orkneys, where she had taken refuge, for Jutland. On 
her arrival she was seized by order of the King, and, 
after the manner of the day, drowned in a bog, which 
is still called " the bog of Gunhild." Others declare 
this story to be mrworthy of credit, as Gunhild, who 
must have been at least seventy years of age, could 
scarcely have confided in the proposal of marriage from 
the Blue-Tooth who had murdered her son. Against 
that argument it may be pleaded, that murder went for 
nothing in her time, and there is no fool like an old fool. 
Whatever may have been her fate, it was too good for 
her, so I could express no sympathy over her body. 
She lies in a wooden sarcophagus, despoiled of her gar- 
ments, and black as her own heart in the days of her 
power and wickedness, like a statue carved in oak fresh 
from the bogs of Hibernia. 


On my arrival later at Copenhagen one of my first 
inquiries at the Museum of Northern Antiquities was 
after the clothes of the murdered Queen, which, together 
with her hair, are there preserved. She seems to have 
been attired in a leather surcoat of calfskin, sewn 
together with sinews, of excellent workmanship : indeed, 
the saddlers and shoemakers of the present day declare 
they could not have made it better. There also are the 
wooden hooks by which she was pegged down, to allay 
all fear of her again rising to torment her murderer. 
The left shoe was removed too— a very necessary pre- 
caution. Her hair is of a light-brown colour, answering 
to the French " blond dore," fine, and free from gray ; 
and there are some remains of the woollen shirt in which 
the corpse was enveloped, on which, curious to relate, 
though discoloured by some 800 years' immersion in a 
morass, the square pattern of a shepherd's plaid tartan is 
still visible. There can be no mistake about the matter ; 
though the original colours are, and will always be, a 
myth, it proves the antiquity of the tartan, and if, as 
historians assert, Gunhild did come over from the 
Orkneys, why, in all probability, she brought her shirt 
with her. 

This body was discovered in 1835, in the vicinity of 
the manor of Haraldskjaer, near Veile, three feet deep 
in the mose or bog. A distinguished professor, Petersen 
by name, pronounced it to be that of Gunhild, though 
now the learned world no longer credit the assertion. 
I may add, without entering into this vexed question, 
that since that date many more bodies of " bogged 
ladies " have been withdrawn from the swamps in various 
parts of Denmark, which has caused the disbelief of 
Professor Petersen's theory. In an adjoining drawer to 

VOL. i. F 

66 VEILE. " Chap. V. 

that in which the relics of Gunhild are contained, is 
preserved a leather shoe, containing the mummy foot of 
a woman, who must have suffered from — what shall I 
sa y ? — « tender feet," for the interior of the shoe is deli- 
cately padded with a soft material, which, on nearer 
examination, from its silken appearance, I believe not 
to be wool, but the hair of the pinna ; a shell well known 
on our British coast, as well as in Italy and the Medi- 
terranean. In ancient times the punishment of drown- 
ing women in bogs was frequent, not in Denmark 
alone, but also in Scotland ; and from this is derived 
the right of the Scotch barons to have " pit and 
gallows " on their estates, as is mentioned in old manu- 
scripts — " constitutum quoque est eodem concilio a rege, 
uti barones omnes puteos faciendi ad condemnatas 
foeminas plectandas haberant." 

And now, bidding adieu to Queen Gunhild, we 
paused before the pigeon-holes in the exterior church 
wall, thirty-six in number, in which were formerly — for 
they are little more than dust now — exposed to view the 
heads of sundry " S0 rovere," or pirates, taken prisoners 
and executed. They formed, say some, part of the band 
of the celebrated Friesland Corsair — Lange Peter — well 
known in the West Seas during the troublous reign of 
the second Christian. With his band of 500 men he 
swept the waters, destroying the commerce of all nations. 
He styled himself in his epistles, " I, Peter, Pursuer of 
the Danes, Rod of the Lubeckers, Enemy of the Ham- 
burghers, and Headsman to the Dutch," — of which title 
he was as proud as that of General Admiral of the Fleet. 
He and his men bore as their cognizance, embroidered 
on their clothes, "a gibbet and a wheel." How Peter 
himself ended his life history relates not. 

Chap. V. CATTLE-FAIR. 67 

Such an uproar as we find at the hotel on our return, 
such a smoking of pipes, such a drinking of beer, such a 
bargaining and disputing, such numbers of persons going 
off and arriving; as for dinner, we may as well call it 
supper at once, for I see no chance of getting it. The 
court-yard is blocked up with vehicles of all kinds ; among 
them stands a coroueted berline, with old-fashioned body, 
yellow wheels, and a sack of forage fastened on behind 
for the horses. Between the departure of the soup- 
tureen and the arrival of the succeeding dish I lounge 
at the window, and have full time to watch the goings 
on in the court below. Presently two small cream- 
coloured ponies are led out for sale, and trotted up before 
a distinguished-looking gentleman of a certain age, and 
his son, whose tournure and dress plainly indicate he 
had made his " voyage de Paris." These are the 
owners of the ancient berline ; two servants, in beard, 
moustache, and blue livery of antique cut, laced with 
silver, accompany them, and give judgment on the 
ponies, who turn restive. Up go the heels of the off one 
in the air, sending noble, peasant, and landlord to the 
right about. The other pony (obstinate little brute ! ) puts 
down his head between his legs like a Shetland, and 
stands stubborn ; move he won't, one way or the other ; 
and then comes my salmon, so I retire from the window. 

The sun is about to set, and visitors are still pouring 
in, so we turn out and wander down to the harbour, 
and then, crossing over a most unsatisfactory swamp, 
moist and treacherous as a sponge to walk upon, execute 
a cross-country steeple-chase over ditch and fence, till 
we gain the large open field, where we find the cattle- 
market in full excitement — cows and bulls, some 
thousands of which, of all breeds, from the Devonshire 


58 VEILE. Chap. V. 

to the small Norwegian heifer, sheeted black and 
white, stand calmly awaiting their purchasers. The 
dun and mouse colour, reminding me of the Niver- 
nais, so renowned in France, bore away the palm for 
beauty; one of iron gray, with a zebra stripe, I at 
first imagined to be a donkey, but we are tongue-tied in 
the land, and could obtain no information as to its breed 
or where it came from. A very pretty sight was this 
cattle-fair of Veile on the green field under the hanging 
woods by which the town is surrounded : the Jutland 
peasants in their old-fashioned cut coats, broad-brimmed 
hats, and their luxe of silver buttons ; the farmers 
mounted on their stout active steeds, an embroidered 
horse-cloth placed, for it is a gala-day, under the saddle : 
and when we had seen enough we returned to our inn 
through the fair, where the peasant might purchase 
anything he was in want of, from gingerbread — that 
staple commodity of all European fairs — not vulgar 
gingerbread husbands and cocks in breeches, but hearts 
sugared over with everybody's initials and sentimental 
mottoes, all couleur de rose, as the heart of youth always 
is, or rather should be. Veile boots, too, were not want- 
ing ; boots whose superiority of make or leather once 
gave rise to the old saying, " As good as Yeile boots " 
— a preference owing more, I believe, to Kings Chris- 
tian III. and Frederic II. having both employed a Veile 
shoemaker, than to any other qualification. Yes, you 
may purchase everything in these Jutland fairs, even 
to the double windows, of which you may see heaps all 
ready framed and glazed, to be bought, carried off, and 
inserted in the sills at a moment's notice. 

Chap. V. JELLINGE. 69 


A hot drive of two hours, under a burning sun, 
brought us to the village of Jellinge, where, accord- 
ing to the Sagas, in ancient days, King Gorm the 
Old held his court, and his queen, Thyre Danebod, 
once possessed a castle. Do not, however, imagine by 
castle I mean a building of stone turrets and machico- 
lations : in those early times a circular vallum of earth, 
such as in England we still term " a Danish camp," in 
the interior of which a timber edifice was raised, formed 
the residence of Jutland royalty. The history of Gorm 
" the Old," * for he is said to have lived upwards 
of a hundred years, is so mixed up with tradition and 
romance as to become almost unintelliffible : sufficient 
then it is to say he flourished about the year 900, 
invaded England like the rest of the Danes, and, after 
a battle in which he was defeated by King Alfred, was 
baptized in the village church of Aller, in the Isle of 
Athelney, under the name of Athelstan, an appellation 
which he never adopted. He it was, too, who, after sub- 
duing the numerous smaa or syssel Konge (petty kings) 
of the land, first united the various provinces of Jutland 
under one sceptre. Thyre, his queen, one of the favourite 
heroines of early Scandinavian story, was, according to 
Saxo Grammaticus and many of the early Sagas, a 
daughter of Ethelred, King of England; but some 
years after, when England was in bad odour in Denmark, 
people discovered her to be daughter of a petty King 
of Holstein (Anglia). Certain it is she stood out at 
the time of her marriage, and that stoutly, for. that 

* The Guthrum of English history, 840-940. 



Chap. V. 

province as her dowry. Be she of English or Holstein 
origin, her memory is handed down with affection by 
all historians, .early and late. 

On onr arrival at the village of Jellinge we descended 
at the gate of the churchyard, which lies between the 
two gigantic tumuli, or h0is as they are called in Den- 
mark, erected to the memory of the king and queen. We 
mounted them each separately, and from these heights 
obtained a view over the heath of Jellinge, ground 
sacred to the lover of old Scandinavian story, wild and 
mysterious, well studded with small barrows such as we 
meet on the downs of Dorsetshire and Wilts. 

It was on this heath of Jellinge hung, in the days of 
King Frode the Good, one of the three rings of gold 

suspended to a gibbet, a 
ring no man dared to steal, 
such according to tradition 
was the excellence of the 
police in his days. But 
the glory of Jellinge is her 
sepulchral stones, two in 
number, carved over with 
Runic inscriptions. The 
larger, eleven feet high, a 
huge block of granite, trian- 
gular and misshapen, was 
erected by King Harald 
Blue-Tooth to the memory 

Sepulchral Stone of King Gorm' the Old. „ ■. . n , , t , , 

oi his lather and mother 
conjointly, and bears on each side the same inscription. 
You "must gaze at this stone for some minutes, con- 
stantly changing your position, until the eye becomes 
accustomed, and will be able to unravel the wild serpent 

Chap. V. 



decorations which trail over the surface, and you will 
then distinguish among its coils a rude figure of a man 
surmounted by a glory or nimbus (the points of the 
cross are plainly visible) — an uncouth and the earliest 
representation of the figure of our Lord extant in 
the North of Europe. The inscription may be trans- 
lated thus : — " King Harald caused these h0is to be 
made to his father Gorm and his mother Thyre, the 
same Harald who acquired all Denmark and Norway, 
Christianity as well " (that is, caused his people to be 
baptized). ' 

The smaller stone was erected by King Gorm himself 
to the memory of Queen Thyre. It is of granite, five 
feet high and three broad, 
and somewhat flat. The in- 
scription runs as follows : — 
" King Gorm constructed 
this h0i to his wife Thyre 
Danmarksbod." This is pe- 
culiar, as Thyre is generally 
supposed to have survived 
her husband. Either his- 
torians are at fault, or Gorm, 
as was often the case in later 
ages, may have prepared the 
barrow and caused the stone Sepulch,,al stoue of Queen Thyre * 
to be sculptured during his wife's life-time. Old Saxo 
expresses his opinion that this inscription was never put 
up by King Gorm, because, he charitably remarks, " he 
was of too jealous a disposition to term his wife ' Pride 
of the Danes.' ' But Saxo was a monk, and could be 
no judge of a married man's sentiments, particularly 
those of an old one towards his young wife. 

72 JELLINGE. Chap. V. 

There exists a tradition that this stone was erected 
by Harald Blue-Tooth, Thyre's son ; and the peasant 
will still point out to you on the heath of Bikke a large 
mass of granite, greater far than that erected to King 
Gorm, which Harald had selected for his mother's monu- 
ment ; but the devil would not allow it to be moved, 
and Harald, a fresh proselyte to the Christian faith, 
knew not how to " lay him," so after a hard battle he 
was compelled to desist from his design, and Queen 
Thyre to put up with a stone of more modest dimensions. 

These stones stood formerly on the top of the barrows, 
deeply sunk into the earth. In 158G the amtman of 
the province caused them to be removed to the church- 
yard, which has unluckily caused some confusion, and 
no man can say for certain now winch tumulus is that of 
King Gorm and which that of Queen Thyre. 

On the barrow supposed to be Queen Thyre's, in 
course of time, a reservoir of water had been gradually 
formed, and wondrous miracles were wrought at the 
place, which became a resort from all sides. Some 
years since the water dried up, and it was deter- 
mined to clear out the cavity. The searchers first 
came to a burial chamber lined with wood, twenty- 
two feet long, and four and a half high, covered in 
with beams of oak. No remains of bones were dis- 
covered, but a chest was found in form of a round 
coffer, almost consumed by decay. Near it lay the 
figure of a bird formed of thin plates of gold; a 
small cup of solid silver, about two inches high, orna- 
mented with fantastic twistings neither beginning nor 
ending, decorated with serpent-heads or something of 
the kind ; also the rude figure of a warrior in wood, and a 
panel of the same material with dragon carving. There 


is no doubt the barrow bad been already rifled, and 
several of the beams cut through. The discovery too of 
a short wax candle placed on one of the beams confirms 
the supposition. Some particles of wool were also found, 
which may once have formed part of the clothes. These 
were all deposited in the museum at Copenhagen. 

The presence of a horse's bit gives rise to a dis- 
pute whether the barrow be that of Thyre or her 
husband Gorm, nor can the controversy be decided 
until the adjoining h0i be examined, and antiqua- 
ries await with impatience the day when his present 
Majesty King Frederic VII., who takes a most praise- 
worthy interest in the antiquities of his kingdom, may 
find time and leisure to superintend the opening of the 
barrow in person. 

Curious to relate, a Kunic stone, " faisant suite," as 
the French say, to those of Jellinge, has been lately 
discovered near Flensborg, with an inscription which 
announces the marriage of the daughter of Thyre, a 
young lady who might have been imagined to have 
died an old maid except for this discovery, if, indeed, 
anybody had previously been aware of her existence. 


We varied our return to Veile by driving through 
the romantic Valley of the Greis — a Danish Switzer- 
land, our landlord termed it. Setting aside all alpine 
pretensions, it was very pretty and varied, the ground 
undulating, now verdant, now bare, now crowned 
with a dense wood of beech and pine. Here and 
there were small patches of cultivation, picturesque 
cottages striped black and white and gushing streamlet 

74 HORSENS. Chap. V. 

turning a watermill with overshot wooden wheels, black 
with age, tossing the spray into the air ; now a waste 
heath, now a secluded nook where woodcutters saw their 
wood. The forest is carpeted with the green trefoil 
leaves of the Siogemad, or cuckoo's meat,* from among 
which peep forth the leaves of the smaller convallaria. 

On leaving the Valley of the Greis we traversed a 
dreary moor, until half an hour's drive brought us on 
the high road to Horsens, all alive with carts and 
carriages, bullocks, cows, and horsemen, returning home 
from the cattle-fair of Veile. 

Of the way I can say little, for we are removed far away 
from forest, lake, or fiorde, in which are comprised the 
beauty of all Jutland ; but the chaussee is excellent, and 
we jog on soberly over an extensive plain, highly 
cultivated, dotted about with farmhouses, churches, 
trees, cattle, and wells of primitive construction — the 
trunk of a tree poised across a stake, a heap of stones 
at one end and a bucket at the other, the whole re- 
minding me of the contents of a Nuremberg toy-box. 

As we approached the city of Horsens and its fiorde, 
we were astonished by the stupendous size of the prison 
on the heights behind the town, and began to think 
what a wicked country we must be travelling through to 
require so large an edifice, and my mind ran back to 
the days of the Good King Frode and his golden ring, 
and I sighed when I thought how mankind had since 

We stopped at Horsens, and, while dinner was pre- 
paring, wandered out through this dullest of all clean 

* Oxalis acetosella. 


and I believe flourishing provincial towns, to visit the 
church of St. lb, celebrated for its splendid pulpit 
of carved oak and ebony, and then later made a 
pilgrimage to the abbey church, an ancient con- 
vent witlrin whose walls lie interred the sisters of ill- 
fated Ivan of Eussia, princesses of Brunswick, who 
here lived for many a long and perhaps weary year, and 
later terminated their existence. " Bonitate Catherinas 
secondae vitam traducerunt quietam." Catherine, last 
of this unfortunate stock, died in the year 1807. These 
princesses occupied a house on the Place opposite to St. 
Ib's church, now converted into a brewery. On the 
whole, when you consider they were born at Archangel, 
and later escaped the knout and Siberia, I do not think 
they were to be pitied for ending their days at Horsens, 
a city in the last century much frequented by the pro- 
vincial nobility, and which even now betrays an air of 
better days, and where I have no doubt they were made 
a fuss with. 

Our hotel was once a palace in its day, that of Lich- 
tenberg, a family, the last member of whose race lies 
interred in the abbey church hard by. Their elevation 
was as rapid as their fall. 

Some time in an earlier century a peasant-boy from 
the village of Lisbierg, a clever lad, entered as clerk 
in a commercial house, and later became himself a 
merchant and a man of great possessions. He married 
a lady of high birth, and for service rendered to his 
sovereign was ennobled; but the name of Lisbierg, 
the village which gave him birth, was Danish, and 
much too vulgar for a nobleman to bear. The king, 
Frederic IV., himself, as well as his noble spouse, would 
not hear of it, so they Germanised the name to suit the 

76 HORSENS. Chap. V. 

fashion of the time * and called him Lichtenberg. The 
people, however, loved not this change, and declare 
that from that time the family never prospered, but 
gradually died out, and their palace is now become the 
chief hotel of the city. 

Before starting we had time enough to wander down 
to the water-side, and catch a glimpse of the busy 
harbour and its fiorde, and then again left on our 
journey ; for to-night we must sleep at Skanderborg. 

We are now deep in the land of romance and story 
— historic sites, old castles with their legends, and by- 
gone tales of families long since passed away. To-day 
we passed near the manor of Tyrsbsek, once the posses- 
sion of the noble house of Bryske (pronounced not unlike 
J3riscow) — " onde Bryske" they were called — Bryske the 
bad ; for here, as in France, to each noble family, in 
its own native province, was applied^ a sobriquet or 
epithet. The coroneted Juels — Wind the brave — Friis 
the faithful — Marsviin the beautiful — Grubbe the honest 
— Urne the tranquil — Brahe the lightsome — Lykke the 
gorgeous — Parsberg the eloquent — Munk the glorious 
— Bryske the bad. As regards the latter family, I 
am sorry to say, Niels Kaas, grand chancellor in 
Frederic II.'s time, declared there had always been in 
Denmark Bryskes, few in number to be sure, but that 

* The Court from Frederic III.'s time became altogether German. 
Torfseus the Icelander, on being accosted by the Prince Koyal in the 
German language, would not answer him, but bowed and took his leave. 
Shortly afterwards the King asked him, "Well, Torfseus, have you 
seen the prince? " "Yes, your Majesty." "What did he say?" " I 
don't know." This answer the King found singular, and after having 
questioned him the truth came forth. The King, who was Danish at 
heart, ashamed that the future sovereign could not speak the language 
of his country, from that time required the prince to learn Danish. 


they had never belied their nickname. The rest of the 
families we shall all come across later in our journey. 

At the table-d'hote we made acquaintance with a 

Dane, M. de , who had been in England, spoke our 

language well, and had a long ^conversation about the 
state of the country. 

I remarked, " The people are well clothed and well 
lodged ; we have met with no poverty, no beggars, as 
yet." "As regards that," he replied, "you are quite 
right ; for every one man who dies from starvation, if such 
a thing ever does occur, ninety-nine die from over- 
eating themselves." And I believe he was correct in 
his assertion, for the Jutlanders have a sleek and well- 
to-do appearance. 

The horses then came round, and we started for 



Death of Queen Dagniar at Skanderborg — Christian IV. a naval com- 
mander — Hans the princes' chastiser — A wife of Harald Blue-Tooth 
— St. Clement patron of Aarhuus — Reformation in Denmark — 
Superstition of the clergy — Legend of St. Niels. 


As we left Horsens we passed to the right a lofty 
h0i planted over with trees, the resting-place of some 
early Scandinavian hero, and then continued our way 
by the side of the eternal electric telegraph till we 
approached Skanderborg, where we zigzagged down 
the side of the hill, through some pleasing woodland 
scenery, to the lake on which the town is situated. 
A causeway across the lake leads to the island on 
which stands the church, and one tower, sole remnant 
of its ancient castle ; while a similar embankment con- 
nects it with the land on the opposite side. A strong 
and celebrated castle was that of Skanderborg in 
olden time — a stronghold connected with all the most 
stirring events of Denmark's story. In an early 
edition of Pontoppidan I ;have seen an engraving 
as it stood — before the destroying hand of man, more 
ruthless than that of time, laid it low to its very foun- 
dations. Goths, barbarians! — Struensee I believe to 
have been the culprit — how could they ever have had 
the heart to destroy a building so glorious in itself, and 
in such a situation — planted, like Loch Leven or Chil- 


Ion, on an island in the centre of a lake, surrounded by 
wood, rock, heath, and moor — with such colouring — all 
that could make it beautiful ? Skanderborg, too, a castle 
famous in history and romance, and sung by the min- 
strel in the ballads of the Valdemars' day. When 
Queen Dagmar lay sick in Ribe she cries : — 

" If then it be the will of God, 
And I must surely die, 
Fetch quick my lord from Skanderborg, 
And hither let him fly." 

It was at Skanderborg that King Valdemar stood on 
his " high lofty bridge " (an exterior balcony or gal- 
lery), and spied from afar the " lille smaa dreng " 
(little page-boy) of Queen Dagmar galloping on the 
white " ors " — let no one for the future laugh and jeer 
at those who talk of " orses "■ — it's pure Scandinavian, 
and, as such, should be respected. The King imagines 
evil, and exclaims, " Oh, counsel me, Father in heaven, 
how Dagmar may be now!" He rides off in such 
haste — 

" As the king set off from Skanderborg 
Thirty squires they swelled his train, 
But when he came to Gridsted bridge, 
Did the page alone remain." 

He arrives in time to receive her last words.* 'Tis 
a charming ballad — and I am thankful I had not read 
it before I reached Skanderborg, or I should have railed 
more than I now do against the barbarity of Struensee 
in destroying so interesting a castle of romance. The 
destruction, too, was ordered without the sanction, 

* Dagmar died in 1212. 


or, indeed, knowledge, of the court, for when, many 
years after, the doctors advised that the young Crown 
Prince Frederic, later VI., should be sent thither after 
an illness for change of air, on the Lord Chamberlain 
writing to desire that apartments should be prepared 
for his reception, he received for answer that the 
castle ceased to exist, and had long since been sold 
for the value of its materials. Many are the events 
of historic interest which here occurred — ■ far too 
numerous to mention. Here our own Queen Anne, 
consort of James I., first saw the light ; and Christian 
IV. passed much of his early life sailing his little 
boats on the lake, and constructing miniature models 
of boats and frigates with his own hand — a taste 
he never lost in after-life. He was prouder of his 
title of Captain Christian Fredericsen, as he called 
himself when he visited the North region, at the age 
of twenty-two, in his ship the "Victor," than of his 
rank as Prince Hereditary of Denmark ; all the same, 
he ran his vessel on a rock, and she well-nigh found- 
ered, had it not been for the assistance of an English 
skipper, who towed her into harbour. His brother 
Duke Ulrik served under him as mate in this expedi- 
tion. " Eiis gior barnet viis " — the rod makes the 
child wise — was the motto of their father; and the 
young princes were here kept in strict discipline under 
the charge of a certain Hans Mikkelsen, who enjoyed 
other offices than that of tutor about their royal per- 
sons; for in the Eoyal Library of Copenhagen may 
still be seen a book written in King Frederic's own 
hand (1584 date), with the following notice :■ — "I gave 
this book to Master Hans, my son's chastiser — 'tugte 
mester ' — here in Skanderborg." As it was the King's 


own collection of the Proverbs of Solomon, and of Jesus 
the son of Sirach, it is plain it was his wish the young 
man should be brought up in fear of the rod. 

We slept at the small inn, and after breakfast sallied 
out early to visit Leegaardslyst, a farm-house on the 
summit of a hill behind the town — the town one strag- 
gling row of houses. The landlord commenced some 
long-winded directions, so I begged for a guide. We 
were told to walk on slowly by the road, and the guide 
would come " strax " — which signifies " at once." After 
wandering three-quarters of an hour, we were standing 
disconsolate in the centre of a morass, when we were at 
length joined by a dilapidated cobbler, who had thought 
necessary to shave and dress himself previous to escort- 
ing our party. 

He led us by a circuitous route over a waste, bright 
with the golden flowers of the everlasting, to tne en- 
trance of a farm-yard, and thence to the summit of 
what the guide-book calls an "interesting relic of Scan- 
dinavian antiquity," or, in plain English, a barrow 
turned inside out, from which we enjoyed a charming 
view of Skanderborg and the lake, its windings, its 
islands, pine-forest, and purple water. We then crossed 
to the other side of the hill, from whence we had a 
glorious view of the Mos-S0 — a fine expanse of water, 
backed by the Himmelbjerg, the highest mountain in 
Jutland, 550 feet in height, well wooded, somewhat 
obtuse in form. The lake, our very communicative 
guide informed us, is full of all sorts of good and great 
fish, and he enumerated at least ten different sorts on 
his fingers — all Hebrew to my ear. We returned by 
the opposite side, through the woods, which present 
evident signs of our approaching northwards, for, though 

vol. 1. a 

82 AARHUUS. Chap. VI. 

the beech retain their pristine beauty, the oaks are 
gnarled, knotted, and twisted in convulsions. 

The wild raspberry here abounds ; stunted bushes 
of the creeping juniper ; a pretty graceful fern — the 
beech, I believe it is called, of both sexes ; and a large- 
leaved oxalis about to burst into flower. 

The site of the ancient castle is now one part used 
as a cemetery, the remainder as a botanic garden, in 
which has been erected a monument to the memory of 
Frederic VI. 

In the church of the town is preserved a Runic 
stone, discovered near the village of S0nder Vissing, 
bearing the following inscription : — " Tuva caused this 
barrow to be erected ; she was daughter of Mistivi ; she 
made it to her mother, and was wife of Harald the 
Good, son of Gorm." Harald the Good — well! a new 
definition for the Blue-Tooth — an interesting proof that 
tombstones lied from the earliest days. As for Tuva, 
I am sorry to say, Harald was a bigamist — had several 
wives at the same time, if marriage was at all defined 
in those early days. This Mistivi was a Wendish 
prince who destroyed Hamburg about the year 986 ; 
somebody, I forget who, called him " a dog of a pagan," 
when he demanded his daughter in marriage, so he laid 
waste the country even to Brandenburg with fire and 
sword, setting up his idol — a three-headed walrus — on 
the hill behind the city. I never can forgive people 
for removing these stones from their original localities. 


Two hours' drive across a dreary waste, enlivened by 
an occasional eruption of barrows, brought us to the 
city gates of Aarhuus. The cupola of her cathedral 


Vol. I- i 33 


appears long before you reach the town, at the left 
entrance of which lies the cemetery, commanding a 
beautiful view, too, of this lovely fiorde. The Jews 
enjoy a small one to themselves, on the opposite side of 
the way. A nasty, dirty, pestiferous town is Aarhuus, 
more beautifully situated though, perhaps, than any city 
of Jutland ; badly drained, or not drained at all ; always 
the first to be attacked by cholera or typhus, and never 
learning wisdom, when the plague is stayed, from her 
previous visitation. We are lodged in a dirty hotel on 
the Grande Place, opposite the cathedral : from my 
window, peeping above the town-house, now in course of 
demolition, I can descry on a shield the anchor of her 
patron St. Clement, slung, en pignon, to the rosace on 
the tower's side. St. Clement, Bishop of Kome, and 
martyr, was tied to an anchor and cast into the sea in 
the days of Trajan. The massive iron anchor floated, 
but the Bishop himself sank and was drowned. He 
was specially the patron saint of sailors. Aarhuus 
cathedral in earlier days boasted a spire six hundred 
feet in height, the loftiest far in all Denmark ; blown 
down by a storm many years since. At the entrance, 
on the left, lies the chapel of the Marselis family, 
with some fine white marble monuments of the seven- 
teenth century in the style of Boubilliac. The nave, 
the choir, the whole church throughout, appears crowded 
with epitaphia, and monuments of alabaster, stone, and 
marble, from 1500 downwards — among them the figure 
of a young lady, in blue lias, dressed Mary Tudor 
fashion, lying upon her sepulchral slab, attracted my 
notice. As the inscription was in the Latin language, 
I did my best to decipher it. It was erected to the 
memory of Mette Urne. She married young, a happy 

g 2 

84 AARHUUS. Chap. VI. 

wife to Knud Harclenburg ; but he was taken prisoner, 
and died in foreign lands. — [A smudge, so I could not 
decipher where.] Sad and mourning, she soon followed 
him to the grave, leaving behind a little daughter 
[smudge], whom God had given her as a consolation. 

Amongst the numerous epitaphia contained within 
the cathedral of Aarhuus is that of Drackenberg, the 
Norwegian, who lived until the age of 146, under seven 
different Danish kings. At 111 he married, and, being 
left a widower, again entered into nuptial bonds, at 
130, with a young girl. He was born in the reign of 
Christian IV., and died under Christian VII.* 

The large folding altarpiece of Aarhuus cathedral, 
with its life-size figure of the Virgin and Saint Anne, 
and its inscription of " Santa Anna, ora pro nobis ;" and 
again, St. Clement, in triple papal crown, with " Sancte 
Papa Clemens, ora pro nobis," would scandalize many ; 
but you must bear in mind that in these Northern 
lands the Eeformation was accepted by the people as a 
political measure, not as an act of conscience. 

Frederic I. himself was Lutheran or Papist as suited his 
own convenience, and when the fiat went forth there was 
no " opr0r ;" the people, after years of war and blood- 
shed, accepted anything for a quiet life, with the greatest 
apathy and indifference. The saying ran — " It won't 
make the herrings dear." Christian III., Ins successor, 
let down the Catholic clergy gently, providing for the 
deposed bishops, some of whom adopted the reformed 
faith, and even married. The nuns were allowed calmly 
to die out ; and very ill in some places they behaved 
when no longer under surveillance. Many of the aged 

* 1772, the year of the fall of Struensee. 


monks were provided for. In the churches matters re- 
mained much as they were ; * but the conventual build- 
ings, being confiscated and becoming property of the 
crown, were mostly destroyed, or at any rate despoiled of 
their Romish ornaments. I myself have seen, in the 
remote villages of the islands, ancient censers of the Yal- 
demerian period preserved in the same vestry cupboard 
with the sacramental plate, and, on inquiring why they 
were still retained, have received as answer, " They 
have always been there." Frederic II. would allow of 
no dissent, no Calvinistic tendencies ; the Lutheran was 
the recognised religion of the land, and that people 
must hold to, or nothing. Christian IV., his son, though 
he was kind to and fought for the fortunes of our 
" Winter Queen," the daughter of his sister Anne, never 
forgave his nephew for breaking the crucifixes and 
images at Prague. One day, on entering a room, 
in a corner of which he observed hanging a crucifix 

* Superstition became more rife than ever, not only among the 
people, but equally with the clergy themselves, who were looked 
upon as practisers of the black art, wizards, and necromancers. 
" A parson who knew more than the Lord's Prayer " — as the term 
was to designate one who dealt in the black art — was supposed 
to have gained his knowledge from the Evil One on the stipulation that 
he never used the word " Amen " in the course of the service. The 
historian of the province of Aarhuus declares that a priest of Oster- 
haab, near Horsens, was never heard to pronounce it in the course of 
his life. By this means he gained a knowledge of all that passed in 
his house. He had in his service a girl who was betrothed to the 
farmer's servant, and who sometimes stole down into the cellar to 
draw strong beer for her intended. One evening this girl was missing ; 
everybody wondered, except the parson, who paced up and down the 
room, laughing in his sleeve. At bedtime he said, " Poor Maren ! 
she has got out the tap, but cannot put it in again.'' The next morn- 
ing he took the farmer's servant with him into the cellar ; and there 
the girl was sitting on the ground, her finger in the tapdiole, and could 
not get it out until her master gave her leave. A strong case of 
mesmerism ! 

8G AAKHUUS. Chap. VI. 

of the earlier faith, he apostrophized it — " Thank your 
stars you are safe in Denmark, and not in a church of 
Prague." So when you are told to look upon the stoles, 
copes, and mitres previous to the Reformation, hanging 
cheek by jowl with those of the present day, as here in 
the cathedral church of Aarhuus, you must not be sur- 
prised or shocked, but merely look upon it as a proof 
of the apathy of the nation you are dwelling among, 
with a quiet surmise to yourself whether their easy way 
of taking matters for better for worse is not, to say the 
least of it, less reprehensible than the fanatic passions 
which stirred the whirlwind, causing destruction, per- 
secution, and misery, in our own native country. 

If you be a draughtsman, you will do well to sketch 
the church of our Lady — Frue Kirke — with its adjoining 
almshouse — Fattighuus — a quaint original specimen of 
old Danish begabled brickwork ; within, like the cathe- 
dral, a very Westminster Abbey of old antiquated tombs. 

What families people had in those early days ! I may 
add, what a number of wives ! If you closely examine 
the epitaphia, you may take as an average three to a 
family of sixteen children; — sons ranged on one side 
behind the father, the girls behind the mother, and 
the babes, who died in infancy, spread out upon cushions 
in front, done up in swaddling-clothes, like the atoms 
you find in the centre of the stork sugar-tongs ; then 
sometimes, if perchance one of the children be called 
away at a more advanced age, you will find him repre- 
sented standing among his sisters and brothers clad in 
his grave-clothes, while they (not their father and mother, 
who are always dressed with the greatest decorum) are 
rigged out in all sorts of feathers and finery. 

But though St. Clement be the patron saint of Aar- 

f ,!,M;!*» : ' 


Vol I 

Chap. VI. ST. NIELS. 87 

turns Domkirke, the city itself stands under the pro- 
tection of another saint, and he of Danish origin, who, 
after a lapse of time, has become almost forgotten. I 
allude to St. Niels — Niels the holy and the sainted — 
canonised too by the Church of Rome, which our old 
friend Erik never was, nor were one-half those in the 
Northern calendar. 

It was once, writes an early monkish chronicler, 
when the Danish King Knud V. sojourned in the town 
of Haderslev, he was called upon by a renowned sooth- 
sayer, who pretended to have read in the stars that on 
that very night should be conceived a boy who would 
attain great renown, and be honoured both by God and 
man. Hearing this, the King was seized with a most 
ardent desire to become himself the father of that 
wondrous child ; so, passing over a few details unneces- 
sary to relate, the boy Niels was born, but at the cost of 
his mother's life. He was brought up and educated by 
the King's sister ; and when at an early age it was told to 
him how his mother had died in giving him birth, he 
was greatly distressed, and from that hour avoided the 
companions of his age, renounced the exercise of arms, 
in which he excelled, and was never again seen to smile 
— passing his time in lonely places, engaged in fasting 
and prayer ; in fact, he became a regular anchorite, and 
retired to a monastery he had founded, holding inter- 
course with no one but his friend Hugo, who became a 
monk like himself. His death, in 1180, was preceded 
by a revelation. Hugo, who slept in the same room 
with Prince Niels, beheld at midnight a troop of young 
priests enter the bedroom, arrayed in festive garb and 
purple cloaks, bearing lighted tapers in their hands. 
At this splendid sight Hugo rose from his bed, kneeled 

88 AARHUUS. Chap. VI. 

before the couch of his young master, and related the 
apparition, asking him what it signified. Then the 
prince explained to him that the priests were the mes- 
sengers of heaven, who had come to announce that he, 
the prince, was to die the following night. And early 
the next day he sent for all the monks, and took leave 
of them, distributed alms to the poor, and died that very 
night, as he himself had predicted. He had desired to 
be buried in the church of St. Olaf, near the shore — a 
church he had greatly enriched. But, when he was 
dead, it appeared to Svend, Bishop of Aarhuus, that the 
place he had chosen was too poor for so great a lord, 
and, therefore, he proposed to convey his corpse to the 
convent church of St. Nicholas. But a star was seen 
falling down from heaven to the east of the^ church of 
St. Olaf, which was interpreted to be a fresh command 
that Prince Niels' last wishes should be carried out : so 
the Bishop was obliged to yield. And when he had 
been buried in the churchyard of St. Olaf, there hap- 
pened in the course of a few years several tokens which 
clearly proved his holiness. 

There had been erected a wooden cross over his grave, 
and, when it was in a state of decay, a voice was heard 
repeating — " Cut a new cross out of an oak in the forest 
of Skielby, and place it upon the grave of St. Niels ;" 
and they did as they had been ordered ; but the trunk 
which they felled in the forest was so heavy that scarce 
five teams of oxen could drag it to Aarhuus. 

Near the grave was placed a chest, always open to 
receive the gifts of those whom he had restored to sight 
(his specialite), hearing, or any other bodily defect. 
Once a thief took away two curiously-wrought silver eyes 
deposited by a blind man who had recovered his sight. 

Chap. VI. ST. NIELS. 89 

The thief had come from Horsens, and intended to return 
immediately ; but he wandered all night, and at dawn 
he met a priest, who told him he was still in the church- 
yard of St. Olaf, never having left the same spot. But 
when he had confessed his sin, and given back the silver 
eyes, he found easily his way back to Horsens. Numerous 
and marvellous are the miracles related to have been 
worked in the name of this holy man — the only, I 
may say, respectable, well-conducted saint of the Danish 
calendar, and great were the riches deposited by the 
grateful pilgrims in his coffers. Valdemar II., not over- 
particular, coolly emptied this coffer from time to time, 
taking possession of all that was valuable, money, silver 
eyes and ears, &c, leaving those of wax and baser metal 
to the saint as his portion. The King declared to the 
priests who remonstrated, that, as St. Niels was of his 
own blood, he became by law his rightful heir, and that 
they should share and share alike. 

Well, matters went on prosperously: the shrine 

became richly endowed notwithstanding his cousin's 

peculations, when, in the reign of Erik Gripping, the 

clergy, fearing that the perfume from his tomb, as well 

as the riches of his shrine, might attract the cujridity 

of Marsk Stig and Iris robber band from the isle of 

Hjelm, which lies not far from Aarhuus, determined to 

remove his shrine to the cathedral church. But the 

saint was greatly incensed at this conduct, and from 

that time he has wrought no more miracles ; all the 

sweet odour from his bones vanished, and never returned, 

notwithstanding, to appease his wrath, the Bishop wrote 

to Home to request the Pope to canonise hini, which 

prayer was granted. Such is the legend of St. Niels, 

patron saint of Aarhuus. 



Island ; of Sams0 — Denmark's only 4 duke — entombed Berssorcks — 
Ainateiu ploughing of Christian P7. — The witches on St. John's Eve 
— Sprog0 the Danish Jericho — Kors0r — Peter Skram and the mer- 
maid — Legend of the two church-towers — Absalon the warrior 
archbishop and statesman — University and royal tombs at Sor0 — 
Eingsted, the Westminster of the Valdemars — Sepulchral brass of 
Erik and Ingeborg — Tombs of Queen Dagmar and Berengaria. 


On Monday, at eleven o'clock, we embarked on board 
the good steamer " Jutland," and, after a few minutes' 
delay, were quietly steaming down the right side of 
the fiorde. Aarhuus looks better from its foul-smelling 
harbour than it does inland. The cathedral presents 
its best face to you, with its three-gabled chancel and 
light slender towers, each capped with an onion, as if 
fresh transplanted from Moscow. We coasted by the 
woods, cut out in paths innumerable for the recreation 
of the inhabitants of the city. Never trouble yourself 
to inquire where or how a town in Jutland or one of 
the duchies be situated ; take it for granted, if on 
the coast, snugly nestled at the extreme end of the 
fiorde ; if inland, on the banks of some deep- watered 
lake, surrounded in either case by woods — such woods 
as we read of in Shakespeare. And now good bye to 
Jutland : we steam on 'tranquilly, the heavens serene, 
the sea a mirror. 

To the left we leave the ruined castle of Kal0, perched 


on the island bearing its name — in olden times called 
Kalf-0 (island) ; the early Northmen often named these 
small islands " Calves," their promontories " Noses " 
(" nses," our " ness"). It was a place of note once ; but 
we shall visit it later ; and shortly after we pass near 
Sams0, which in early days gave name to the only ducal 
title Denmark ever possessed, in the person of the cele- 
brated Knud Porse.* 

Christian V. in later days conferred this island on his 
mistress, Mrs. Sophia Moth, whom he created Countess 
of Sams0, from whom it descended to her children, the 
Counts of Danneskiokl-Sams0, a name well known in 
England, and in the possession of that family it still 
remains. It is a barren, tumulous island, on this side 
at least' — a very Kensal Green of the early Scandinavian 
era. As we steamed by I woDdered whether it was 
under these mounds that he buried the heroes who were 
slain in the far-famed battle of Pagan times. On 
these summits stood till not long since huge caims ; 
and a saying there was among the people that oft at 
night-times fires were seen to blaze around, and a great 
sound was heard over the whole island from the caverns 

* Porse, Duke of Sams0, S0nder Halland, and Holbsek, was much 
respected iu Denmark and Sweden, for he was a quick and clever 
man, as well as a noble of immense possessions, on account of which 
he was created duke by Christopher II., of unlucky memory. He was 
of the ancient family of Hvide — in English, plain White— a race which 
has brought great men to Denmark, and bore on his shield a silver star ; 
he married Ingeborg, daughter of Hakon V., King of Norway, and widow 
of Erik, brother of Birger King of Sweden. The title of Duke of 
Sams0 became extinct, for King Valdemar Atterdag refused to 
confer it, after the death of Porse's sons Hakon and Knud, on any 
of the family, who from that time retired to the island of Lolland, 
where they flourished for two hundred years, and became extinct in 
1658 a.d. 


of the entombed Bersaercks. Here we make our first 
stoppage, disembark and receive in return a boat-load 
of peasants, men, women, and children. 

It is related of Christian IV., concerning whom there 
are more anecdotes extant than of all the house of 
Oldenborg put together, how one day, driven in by con- 
trary winds, he landed west of Nordby, on the island of 
SamsO. Having nothing particular to do, he laid hold 
of a plough which was lying idle on a stubble-field, and 
commenced labouring away for his own recreation. 
After an hour had elapsed the parson's servant returned 
from his dinner ; so Christian, who had had enough of 
it, handed over the plough to the man, and, giving him 
some money, desired him to tell his master that the King 
had been tilling his land for him. The man, amazed, 
ran off to spread the news ; when he returned, accom- 
panied by all the village, the King was off and away in 
his ship. But united Sams0 agreed with one voice they 
never had before seen such ploughing. 

Now the coast of Funen and later Zealand ap- 
pears faint on the horizon. The waters of the Great 
Belt are somewhat troubled : floating buoys — birch- 
brooms with sticks long enough to mount a leash of 
Scandinavian witches high aloft in the air — mark the 
dangerous rocks as we steam by on our course — a very 
careless, imprudent proceeding on the part of the 
mariners, placing these broomsticks far out at sea beyond 
man's reach ; so say the peasants from Sains0, who 
shake their heads ; for, on the eve of St. John, they 
collect all then- broomsticks and pokers and lock them 
up closely till the next day, lest the witches should ride 
off on them, to I am sure I quite forget where, but 

Chap. VII KOES0R. 93 

some diabolical place where they are accustomed to hold 
their Sabbat. 

Sprog0, the Jericho of the Danes, to which wretched 
island bores are mentally consigned, lies midway between 
Zealand and Funen. To the left the town of Kors0r ; 
we pass by ; then suddenly the vessel turns bolt round, 
makes straight for the harbour, and in a few minutes 
we are safely landed on the shores of Zealand, the most 
important island of the Danish Archipelago. 


Kors0r, or, as it is more generally written, Corsoer 
(Cross-ear), a small and almost forgotten city of the 
Danish dominions, once the capital of an amt or pro- 
vince, later disfranchised, slumbered calm and tranquil 
in her deep decay, until the opening of the railway to 
Copenhagen awoke her from her trance, and she rose 
invigorated, with new blood in her veins, the scene of 
never-ending bustle and commotion. 

The hotel, as its affiche announces, is most conveniently 
situated for those who travel either by boat or rail : 
and so it is. You steam up to its doorway, and on the 
opposite side the railway runs under your very window. 
A cold buffet is in constant requisition from sunrise till 
sunset, and from sunset till sunrise. Four steamers, 
independent of our own, lie in the harbour. Two 
more are visible on the horizon in their inward 
passage. They start, they arrive, at all hours of the 
twenty-four, for Kiel, Aarhuus, Kolding, Funen, every- 
where. Judge then of the quiet of this clean hotel. 
On one side the steamers ever puffing and whizzing ; 

94 KOBS0R. Chap. VII. 

you fly to the opposite — from Scylla to Charybdis — the 
locomotives shriek, bustle, aud roar. The earliest train 
starts this morning at seven, by which we purpose to 
travel. At five o'clock a newly arrived engine is trotted 
out to exercise' — too high mettled, I suppose, to run 
alone : it makes a noise by far more disagreeable than 
those already seasoned, and, until the metal becomes 
well heated, hiccups, and spits, and snorts as though a 
glass of wine had gone the wrong way, till you devoutly 
wish it blown up altogether. 

Of the ancient fortress of Taarnborg, on the site of 
that founded, says tradition, by Svend Grathe, long 
since sacked and destroyed by the Wendish pirates, one 
small tower alone remains. During the wars of the 
Counts in 1535, the inhabitants of Skjelsk0r, partizans 
of Christian II., gained possession of this castle by 
stratagem : presenting themselves as horse-dealers, they 
demanded audience of the castellan, for the purpose 
of discharging the custom-dues previous to embarkation 
for Funen. On the appearance of the castellan they 
immediately seized his person, and kept possession of 
the castle for some years, until they were expelled by 
the forces of Peter Skram, a celebrated noble of those 
days, surnamed Yove-hals, or Risk-neck. 

Skram is not a pretty name, I allow, but of very old 
Jutland lineage, and answers to the French Balafre. 
Peter Skram is one of the great authorities quoted for 
the authenticity of the mermaid. He and his sailors 
together are said to have taken captive one of these 
syrens in a fiorde ; and when they let her loose again, 
as she dived beneath the water, she was heard to sing 
out at the top of her voice, " Te Deum laudamus." 

Chap. VII. SOR0. 95 



By seven o'clock we are en route for Sor0, no longer, 
alas ! our own masters, but slaves to time and steam : 
we alight to breakfast at a nasty little cabaret, not 
far removed from the station ; for the clean roadside 
inns of Jutland are here no more to be found, — steam 
has already done its worst in Zealand as elsewhere. 

Cast Ollendorf into the waters of the Great Belt, he 
will serve you but little now : not one word of German 
do the natives here comprehend ; our Danish grammar 
had been long since forwarded to Copenhagen ; but 
coffee is coffee all the world over, or something not far 
removed from it, so we ended by getting our breakfast, 
and then marched off to visit the Academy, a foundation 
of Frederic II.'s time, on the lands of a monastery of 
the twelfth century. 

Before giving a description of Sor0, her academy 
and church, I may as well first relate the legend of 
the foundation of this monastery as given in the ballad 
of ' The two Church Towers.' 

Sir Asker Ryg, son of Skialm Hvide, was a 
knight of large possessions, and dwelt near the vil- 
lage of Fienneslevlille. One day, when about to 
start for the wars, he first went into " the little church 
to pray," and greatly scandalised was he to find the 
doorway so low he was compelled to bow his head 
on entering therein : the roof, too, was of black straw, 
and the damp and green mould hung to the crum- 
bling walls. Greatly shocked was Sir Asker Ryg ; 

* The lake of Sor0 is celebrated for a fish, said to have been brought 
over by the monks from Germany, which is nowhere else to be met with 
in Denmark. 

96 SOR0. Chap. VI I. 

perhaps, had he been more regular in his attendance, he 
would have already discovered the dilapidated state of the 
building ; so previous to his starting he gave directions 
to his wife, the fair lady Inge, at that time in an 
interesting condition, to rebuild the church during his 
absence, and if she were brought to bed of a boy to erect 
a lofty church-tower, if only a girl a spire. The lady 
Inge promised obedience to the wishes of her lord, and 
off he goes, followed by a numerous train of squires, to 
fight the battles of his country, and perform prodigies 
of valour. When the war is at an end he bends his 
way homeward, and on approaching Fienneslevlille his 
impatience is so great he outstrips all his train, and 
arrives first alone on the brow of the hill which over- 
hangs the village : he strains his eyes and sees not one 
tower, but two, — the lady Inge has given birth to twin 
boys during his absence, — and on arriving at his castle 
half mad with joy (education cost nothing in those days) 
he embraced his wife, exclaiming, " Oh thou noble lady 
Inge ; thrice honoured be thou : thou art a ' Dannewif! " 
(a woman who first bears twin sons to her husband is 
termed a Dannewif). And these twins grew up to be the 
most celebrated characters of their century — Absalon* 

* His Danish name was Axel, but, after the fashion of the day, it was 
Latinized into Absalon. Absalon was elected Bishop of Roeskilde in 
1158. In assuming the episcopal crosier, he did not lay down the 
sword he had so often drawn to chastise the Wends. He left his 
episcopal palace to fall to decay, whilst he built upon the shores of 
his island-diocese rude huts, where he watched night and day, guarding 
his flock like a true shepherd against the heathen 'wolves. Even in 
the dead of winter he cruised along the coasts of Zealand to interrupt 
the sea-rovers, and was often called from the altar, where he was per- 
forming divine service, to march against them. He was once preparing 
to celebrate Palm-Sunday at Eoeskilde, when information was suddenly 
brought him that a powerful band of Wends had landed from their 


the warrior Archbishop of Lund, friend and adviser of 
Valdemar the Great, and Esbern Snare. 

It was Archbishop Absalon who, in conjunction with 
his brother Esbern Snare, rebuilt and enlarged the 
convent of Sor0, which greatly flourished during the 
Valdemerian dynasty, but later fell into decadence, as the 
epitaph of the last abbot is supposed to express, though 
I really see no reason why it should more allude to the 
state of the monastery than to the general transitory 
events of this world. It runs — 

" Quicquis es humanis noli confidere rebus, 
Jam mini est magnum quin quod esse nihil." 

Then later * the convent was wholly suppressed, and 
added to the fiefs of the crown, and a school founded 
for thirty sons of the nobility. Among the many 
personages of note who have been here educated may 
be enumerated Frederic III. himself, at that time not 
heir presumptive to the crown ; Prince Yaldemar, eldest 
son of Christian IV. by Christina Munk ; and many others. 
Charles Gustavus of Sweden, too, here received his 
early instruction ; and when in 1659 he had reduced 
nearly the whole of Zealand under his yoke, with a 
proper feeling of gratitude towards the " alma mater " 

ships, and were laying waste the country. Absalon hastily armed his 
church vassals, with as many of the neighbouring peasantry as he could 
collect, and, making a sudden onset upon the enemy, drove them back 
to their ships with slaughter. No archbishop of Lund ever equalled 
Absalon in grandeur, in whose favour his predecessor, worn out with 
age, abdicated ; but Absalon refused the honour. " Nolo Archiepis- 
copari," he protested, " unless I may retain Koeskilde as well." He 
got his own way, and was henceforth styled "Archbishop of Lund," 
" Bishop of Roeskilde," " Grand Marshal of the realm," " First Captain 
by sea and by land." 
* In 1580. 

VOL. I. H 

98 SOR0. Chap. VII. 

of his childhood, he exempted Sor0 from military con- 
tribution, and extended to it his royal protection against 
all outrage. 

You enter the university by the Gothic gateway of 
brickwork, now whitewashed, belonging to the ancient 
convent. An avenue of trees leads to the church, sur- 
rounded by a small cemetery, and in front stands the 
college ; on the other side a handsome building of the 
present century. The original edifice was consumed by 
fire in the year 1813. As we entered the court some 
very small boys were indulging in the recreation of 
shooting stones and horse-chesnuts from a sling, the 
traditional amusement of boys of all ages and countries 
from the time of David to the present generation. 

We mount the steps and enter by a long corridor, 
hung with square portraits of the kings of Denmark 
from the earliest ages, like those we see on the tables of 
our kings of England. They are, I fancy, copies taken 
from a series of engravings I have since seen in the 
Miiller collection at the Eoyal Library of Copenhagen. 

A glass window in the door of each school-room 
allowed us to peep at the boys engaged in their studies. 
We then mounted upstairs, and were introduced to their 
dormitories — large airy rooms with numberless small 
beds arranged in rows, the windows opening wide and 
overlooking the lake below. On the first floor were a 
well-filled museum of natural history, a debating and 
lecture room. In this room stands the chair of Hol- 
berg the historian, and also the Sheridan of the Danish f 
drama, by whom the academy was richly endowed. 
Several full-length portraits of the kings of Denmark 
hang on the walls : Christian IV. and V., and Frederic V. 
and VI., arrayed in their robes of state. Frederic V. 


is the beau ideal of dandyism of the last century, a 
handsome young man with fine large dark eyes. He 
married first a daughter of our King George II., the 
Princess Louisa, a name still loved and remembered 
throughout the country ; and to her, I am sorry to say, 
he made a very bad husband. 

As we left the building the boys were assembled in 
the court-yard, busily engaged in the purchase of buns 
from the old woman who I suppose enjoys this monopoly. 
They appeared a gentlemanlike set of youths, and saluted 
us as we passed, taking their caps off — more than the 
Eton or Harrow boys would have done. We rested in 
the pretty garden of the academy, still a blaze of autumn 
flowers ; a splendid weeping Crataegus quite dazzled the 
eye, loaded with its scarlet berries. The trees and 
flowers seed more abundantly in the north than in the 
more southern latitudes. 

Among the royal personages interred within the abbey 
church of Sor0 is Valdemar Atterdag,* father of Queen 
Margaret : the full-length figure of white marble, placed 
there by the piety of his daughter, whom he hated, has 
long since disappeared. 

But the first object of interest is the sepulchral stone 
of Olaf, King of Norway and Denmark. On a shield is 
inscribed the lion of Norway, bearing the hatchet of 
St. Olaf in his paw, surmounted by a skull. King 
Olaf died early, and was succeeded by his mother* 
the great Margaret. This youthful Olaf was the first of 
the Danish rulers who assumed the title of King of the 
Wends and Goths, and caused the custom of praying 
for the king and queen in churches to be established ; 

* He died at Vordinborg in 1375. 

H 2 

100 SOR0. Chap. VII. 

a very wise precaution on Ins part, for his successors 
were sadly in want of the prayers of all good men 
here below. Some time after his death* there arose 
a false Olaf, who declared himself to be the son 
of the queen ; he was in reality the son of King Olaf s 
nurse, and 1'^ulged many secrets which alone the 
queen would know, by way of proving his identity. But 
Margaret declared him to be an impostor ; because, as 
she said, " my son died in Falsterbo palace and was 
buried in Sor0 abbey church, and I myself sent his 
entrails to be interred in the choir of Lund cathedral " 
— a very good argument on her part ; " but," added she, 
" let him be examined ; if he be my son, you will find 
a mole between his shoulders." The mole was not 
there, and the false Olaf was burnt to cinders the day 
before Michaelmas, near Falsterbo in Sweden. 

The most beautiful among these monuments is that of 
Christopher II. and his queen Euphemia, f daughter of 
Bogislaus, Duke of Pomerania. The recumbent figures 
of these sovereigns, lying side by side, are of great 
beauty and exquisite workmanship. That of Christopher 
reminds me forcibly of Edward II. 's in Gloucester cathe- 
dral. He, as well as his queen, is arrayed in his robes 
of state, his hair flowing long, his beard pointed after 
the fashion of our early Plantagenets ; his head is 
encircled by the royal crown, his sword by his side ; his 
features are regular and expressive. The queen boasts 

* 1402. 

t Queen Euphemia patronised literature in a mild way : she caused 
the story of Blanchefleur and Fleuris to be put into Danish verse 
(printed Copenhagen, 1509). It commences — 

" Queen Euphemia, in her ' time,' 
Caused this tale to be put in ' mm.' " 


Vol. I 

Chap. VII. ROYAL TOMBS. 101 

of little beauty; her nose, en eventail, betrays her 
Pomeranian origin; her long wavy hair falls on her 
shoulders from beneath the regal circlet ; her surcoat is 
rich in jewellery ; and her corsage ornamented with 
octagonal bosses, alternately bearing the lion of Nor- 
way and the winged griffin of the Wends. Between 
these two recumbent figures lies that of a little child, 
coroneted like its parents, Erik, their son and heir, 
who preceded them to the tomb. [Behind the head of 
Christopher stands the lion of Denmark on his four legs, 
as unlike a lion as may be, from whose back rises a 
sort of Gothic pinnacle, tapering to a point, made hollow 
so as to hold a cierge of large dimensions, to be burnt 
at the tomb of departed royalty on certain vigils of the 
Church of Home ; while behind the queen stands a 
similar structure, rising from the shoulder of the griffin 
of Pomerania. 

Let us now turn to Archbishop Absalon, who lies in- 
terred under a sepulchral slab near the high altar ;* 
the original tomb, of white alabaster, no longer exists ; 
the present slab was placed here by Bishop Urne in 
the sixteenth century. Not many years since in the 
old Chamber of Art at Copenhagen existed a skull and 
tibiee reported to have belonged to Absalon. When 
these relics were shown to King Frederic VI. one 

* When the altarpiece of Sor0 church was to he painted, the twelve 
professors of the Academy agreed to sit for the twelve Apostles; 
but when it came to the point, no one would represent Judas ; so 
twelve peasants were summoned from an adjacent village. The same 
difficulty occurred, and the painter had to try for models in another 
village. At last a cobbler was found who agreed to be painted in the 
obnoxious character; but from that time he was avoided by his 
companions, took to drink, and came to an untimely end, which the 
superstition of the day set down as a judgment. 

102 SOR0. Chap. VII. 

day, he was greatly scandalized, and exclaimed, " Absa- 
lon deserved better of bis country than to be made the 
gaze of fools," and straightway gave orders that the 
head should be replaced in his coffin at Sor0. So 
the great and the learned went down to Sor0, and with 
much ceremony the sarcophagus of the departed prelate 
Avas raised from the vault and the lid unclosed, when, 
to the amazement of all present, there lay Archbishop 
Absalon with Ins head well fastened on his shoulders ; 
the skull which had so long passed current as that of 
the warrior prelate was no more than some " memento 
mori " of a Cistercian monk of the convent ; and as for 
the tibiae, they proved, on examination, to belong both 
to the right leg. The searchers, however, removed from 
his finger the pontifical ring of gold, enriched with a 
sapphire, as well as a chalice of silver-gilt which was 
placed upon his breast. These authenticated relics are 
preserved in the sacristy of the church of Sor0. Though 
Archbishop Absalon does sleep sound, he appears to be 
irascible even in death. This, the following story, re- 
lated by Hans Jansen, Bishoj) of Ribe, once Rector of the 
Academy, will show, at the same time that it gives some 
idea of the superstition of the clergy. The Rector 
was accustomed to pace after sunset the Alice des 
Philosophes — as the lime-tree walk is termed — solacing 
himself with the music of his flageolet. One evening, 
accidentally finding the doors of the church open, he 
entered, and, standing before the tomb of the Bishop, 
after playing him a favourite air, exclaimed, — " Well, 
Absalon; what do you think of that ?" Scarcely had the 
words escaped his lips, when out of his grave bounced 
the infuriated prelate, in full pontificals, crozier in hand. 
The Rector took to his heels, pursued by the ghost, 

Chap. VII. RINGSTED. 103 

and gained the church-door just in time, banging it 
behind him, for Absalon struck it such a violent blow 
with his crozier, the very walls trembled. When the 
coffin of Absalon was opened one hundred and twenty 
years afterwards the crozier was found snapped in twain. 
We now passed through the city-gate, or what is 
dignified by the name of such — an archway through 
a private house — into the highway, on our road 
to Fienneslevlille, the seat of Sir Asker Eyg and 
the twin church-towers, at the distance, we were told, 
of an English mile ; but it turned out to be a Danish 
one, and we lost our way in the woods, wandered 
about for two hours, got swamped in a morass, and 
ended by coming out of the forest some twenty yards 
distant from where we had entered it ; so returned, in 
a state of intense disgust, to the little cabaret, in time 
to catch the train for Ringsted, which we reached in 
half an hour. 


We crossed a green field before arriving at the deserted 
city of Eingsted, founded, so says tradition, by a cer- 
tain King Ring,* in the darker period of Scandinavian 
history. A grass-grown miserable place it is, with a 
barrack-like hotel ; but we have several hours to wait, 
so must make the best of it. To the left stands the 
convent church — the Westminster of the Valdemerian 

* King Ring, when -wounded severely in battle, determined to die ; 
so he ordered the dead bodies of his warriors to be placed in a ship, 
together with that of his queen, Alpol, and seated himself at the stern. 
The ship was loaded with pitch and sulphur and set on fire, and so 
he sailed out to sea. Then he plunged his sword into his body, and 
perished. A hpi was raised in his honour. 

10-4 RINGSTED. Chap. VII. 

dynasty : so we enter and look around us ; but there is 
little to see and admire ; for though twenty kings, queens, 
and princes here sleep in peace, they all died, unfor- 
tunately, before monuments came into vogue, were 
bricked up somewhere in the vaults below, and, except 
for the flat stone slabs which record their memory, might 
just as well be anywhere else. Let me except, however, 
the splendid sepulchral brass of King Erik Menved and 
his queen Ingeborg,* the sole remaining specimen of the 
engraver's art now extant in Denmark, and this is 
supposed to be of Flemish workmanship. By a whimsical 
fancy, the faces of the monarch and his queen are, or 
rather were — for that of the king is wanting — formed 
of white marble, overlaid with plates of silver ; on 
the whole, these brasses are in good condition, 
minus some pieces broken off, as curiosities, by the 
English soldiers during their occupation of the abbey. 
This Erik Menved, as he was called from his constant 
reply of " Certainly "—like the " Est-il possible ? " of 
our Prince George, his descendant — was an unlucky 
sovereign, though not a bad one as times went. His 
wife was a princess of Sweden ; and great was the joy 
at their marriage, bearing peace, as the people imagined, 
to the tormented country : — 

" They blessed God — both queans and men, 
Many times — that Ingeborg had come to this land ! " 

But hers was a life of sorrow, as I shall later relate. 

I have already told you how the relics of St. Erik were 
carried from Slesvig to Ringsted, and how the English 
soldiers destroyed his coffin and scattered the bones ; but 

* Erik and Ingeborg both died in the year 1319. 


it was not of much consequence, for, on examination, two 
which remained proved to be those of an ox. The 
monks of Slesvig were too wily to part with relics of so 
great a value. 

For a place of such historic interest, I know no duller 
one than Eingsted. When tired of the brasses, I was 
reduced to admire the bier of elaborately-carved oak 
which has borne the deceased inhabitants to their last 
resting-place for some centuries. 

By whom the convent of Ringsted was founded would 
be a matter of small import to us, had it not been by 
a party of English Benedictine friars brought over by 
our Canute the Great. 

It was in the year 1131 that Duke Knud Lavard was 
murdered, in the forest of Haraldsted hard by, by his 
cousin Magnus, son of King Niels. Now, tins duke en- 
joyed so great a popularity, that, to avenge his death, his 
murderer was straightway banished from the kingdom, 
and never ascended the throne. The people had decreed 
that the body of Knud should be interred in the cathe- 
dral of Koeskilde ; but King Niels, fearing a mutiny, 
refused. He was therefore buried without pomp in 
the adjoining church of Eingsted. Before long, stories 
grew rife — how a spring of pure water had sprung forth 
from the place where the duke was murdered, as well as 
where his body had rested but one moment on its way 
to the church. Here was founded a chapel ; and Kino- 
Erik Emun gave later large estates to the convent in 
honour of his murdered brother. 

Passing over the puzzling and troublous times of the 
disputed succession, we find King Valdemar I., son of the 
as yet uncanonised saint, causing his father's body to 
be exposed, by way of exciting the people in his favour ; 


and, in the year 1169, Stephen, Bishop of Upsala, being 
at Koine, procured his canonisation from Pope Alex- 
ander III., at the request of Valdemar, who, with all 
speed, placed his father's body in a shrine of great 
magnificence, and, when times became more tranquil, 
the ceremony of his canonisation took place. King 
Valdemar appeared surrounded by all that was greatest 
in the land ; and, the enshrinement once over, the 
history of his sanctification was read aloud, after which 
the people sang, with great joy — " Praise to the Lord, who 
has ordained St. Knud to be the patron of Zealand !" and 
the King, by way of killing two birds with one stone, 
caused his son Knud, a child six years old, having 
first arrayed him in purple robes, to be at the same time 
elected his successor. 

The convent assumed the title of the abbey church of 
St. Knud of Kingsted ; and from this period became the 
favourite burial-place of the Valdemerian dynasty. So 
great was the success of the Sainted Shrine, that Bishop 
Absalon, jealous of the increasing prosperity of the con- 
vent church, by way of making a diversion, caused an old 
cousin of his own — who had been assassinated by her 
husband, nothing more — to be routed out from her grave 
and canonised (not at Borne) by the name of St. 
Margaret, and placed in a shrine in the chapel of our 
Lady at Boeskilde. 

Some few years since, at the restoration of the church, 
the tombs of the early sovereigns were opened in the 
presence of his present Majesty, and a long account has 
been published by Professor Worsaae of the discoveries 
made ; the skeletons were measured from head to foot, 
and — the fingers, the skulls — nothing escaped the obser- 
vation of the learned antiquaries. 


When the tomb of Valdeniar the Great was first 
uncovered he was still perfect, but immediately crumbled 
to dust — so I was since told by an eye-witness: the 
measure of the body answered well to the description 
given by the chroniclers of his time, when the Ger- 
mans cried, "He is a real king, worthy to possess an 
empire, but our Emperor is a princeling and a manni- 
kin." They were splendid men these Valdemerians ; 
and it was not until the marriage of the second of his 
name with Berengaria, Princess of Portugal, that the 
race began to degenerate. 

In earlier days the bodies of the departed great were 
enveloped in leather shrouds, as we constantly find 
mentioned in the ancient ballads. Indeed, sometimes 
the ghosts make their appearance fresh from the church- 
yard bearing their coffins on their backs by way of a 
covering, because they had no " skin." In later days 
silk was adopted as preferable. I have already in 
my description of Skanderborg made allusion to Queen 
Dagmar — Joy of the Danes — as she was termed, for 
her real name was Margaret. She was a Princess of 
Bohemia, daughter of King Ottocar. You recollect the 
old ballad, 

" In Eingsted reposes Queen Dagmar." 

We left King Valdemar riding off post haste to Kibe ; 
he arrives in time before she died, and is met at the 
palace-gate by little Kirsten, " sister of Sir Charles of 

" Now hear you, gracious lord and king ; 
You must neither grieve nor lament ; 
For to you this day a son is born, 
Cut from Dagmar's side." 

108 RINGSTED. Chap. VII. 

Dagmar is made to prophesy all sorts of evils, which 
later occurred to the realm after the King's second 
marriage with Berengaria ; but as the ballad was com- 
posed for her, we may believe as much as we please on 
the subject. 

Christian humility was not the fashion of the day ; for 
when the dying Queen saw her attendants shedding 
tears around her couch, she consoles them with the 
following words : — 

" Let no man dare have fear for me ; 
I have no had thing done, 
Save that I my small silken sleeves 
Have laced upon a Sunday." 

A lucky woman was Queen Dagmar, who could say so 
much for herself. A saying of this queen to a mes- 
senger who brought tidings of the cessation of a bloody 
war is still remembered: — "How beautiful are thy 
feet which announce the glad tidings of peace ! " The 
memory of Berengaria, on the other hand, is as much 
execrated as that of her predecessor is revered. They 
sleep side by side, and so great was the hatred of 
the people, that, after death, they severed Berengaria's 
head from her body, and, when her coffin was opened, a 
large round stone was found in its place on her shoulders. 
She, too, was the first of the whole party whose body was 
found enveloped in silk. But if Berengaria, or Beng- 
jerd as she was called — the term is now synonymous 
for a bad woman, as we ourselves derive an opprobrious 
epithet from the name of the Conqueror's mother — if 
Berengaria was detested in her lifetime, the beauty of 
her skeleton, the exquisite smallness of her hands and 
feet, sent the whole of anatomical Denmark into a 
frenzy of delight. Strange it is how in this traditionary 


land old customs are handed down, and, like a machine, 
the peasant does what his father has done before him, 
without even asking the reason why. Hvitfeldt relates 
how in his time the people still sang a song the refrain 
of which ran — 

" Shame be to Bengjerd and honour to the king." 

And in much more modern days my old friend Profes- 
sor Thomsen told me, that, when a young man, while 
lingering in the abbey church of Bingsted, he observed 
a peasant, on entering the sacred building, to drop on 
one knee and murmur a prayer at the tomb of Dagniar, 
and then, rising with a " God bless you, good Queen !" 
he turned sharply round to the other side, and spat on 
the sepulchral stone under which Berengaria slumbers. 
He could give no explanation, he said ; he followed the 
custom of his forefathers. 

If you are not already tired of tombs and coffins, I am ; 
so we will pass over the remaining ones, and, joyful as 
Easselas to quit the Happy Valley, steam off by train to 



Irilde — Bishop William and King Svend — Tombs of Queen Mar- 
garet and her successors — Dorothea, wife of two kings — Queen Ju- 
liana of Brunswick — Pilgrimage of James I. to Koeskilde. 


When you gaze on the gushing fountains of pure crystal 
water, winch rise, limpid and plentiful, on all sides 
from their natural sources, you will easily understand 
how King Koe, of fabulous memory, attracted by the 
abundance of this precious element, as well as by the 
advantage of its favoured site, founded here the ancient 
capital of Denmark, the time-honoured city of Koeskilde. 
It was night when we arrived, and, lighted by the comet 
and his fiery tail, we made for the inn, a long, low, 
one-storied, narrow house, fronted by a charmille cut up 
in arches above the lattice window, and there slept, as 
best we could, half smothered under a hecatomb of 
duvet. There is something pleasant, says the Prince 
de Marsillac, in the misfortunes of one's best friends. So, 
when I read how in her palmy days Koeskilde possessed 
thirty churches, of which two only now remain, I own I 
did rejoice inwardly. There is a great deal too much to 
be seen in this world, or, rather, too much in the same 
place, while others are found wanting in interest. This 
cathedral has been so often described, that it is almost 
superfluous to recur to the subject ; still, as it must be 
mentioned, I will endeavour to avoid old matters. 

Chap. VIII. ST. LUCE'S HEAD. fll 

William, an Englishman by birth, Bishop of Boes- 
.kilde in the days of King Harald, brother of Canute 
the Great, first constructed here a small wooden church, 
which he dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and in the 
time of Sweyn — Svend Estrids0n, as the Danes call him 
— one of stone was erected in honour of St. Luce, or St. 
Lucius, pope and martyr, whose skull is still preserved 
in the Scandinavian Museum of Copenhagen. How the 
church became dedicated to St. Luce instead of the Holy 
Trinity I will now explain. In those early times there 
dwelt in the fiorde of Koeskilde a horrible sea monster, 
who ravaged the country, feeding on mariners and young 
maidens. In vain the holy brethren of the Trinity 
implored him to depart, only to go just a little 
higher up some other fiorde ; a change of air might be 
of service to him. He resisted all entreaties, all con- 
jurations of bell, book, and candle, declared he would 
remain there in saecula saeculorum, and gobble them up 
into the bargain, unless he were straightway gratified 
with the head of St. Luce the martyr, for which he felt 
himself seized with a most uncommon "lonoing." The 
monks, not relishing the idea of being devoured, at once 
despatched an embassy to Borne to implore the loan or 
gift of the holy relic, to deliver them from their pain 
and terror. Their request was granted, and permis- 
sion given to retain it. The monks, not too much 
at their ease, in grave procession bore the skull to 
the banks of the fiorde, and, placing it on board a 
boat, left it to the sea monster, and then, taking to their 
heels, scampered off to their convent as fast as their legs 
could carry them. The precious relic had the desired 
effect ; the monster was never heard of more ; but strange 
to say, he went off on his travels, leaving the head behind 

1 f 2 ROESKILDE. Chap. VIII. 

him. So you now see why St. Luce became the patron 
of the cathedral church of Koeskilde. 

Within the walls of this stone church was interred 
the body of King Svend, and Bishop William him- 
self slept near his friend and master. In process 
of time f he church was enlarged by a succeeding 
bishop ; and when the new building was wellnigh 
finished, the tomb of Bishop William was removed 
to make room for the columns of the choir. Now 
the prelate waxed wroth in his cerecloth at this 
indignity put upon him, the founder of the sacred 
edifice ; but he remained quiet until night, when 
he appeared arrayed in his robes before the sacristan, 
who slept within the building. " The Bishop might 
well have contented himself with the honour of build- 
ing the choir," exclaimed he, "without disturbing my 
bones, and removing me from the neighbourhood of 
my beloved friend and companion King Svend. On 
account of his piety I refrain to avenge myself on 
him, but the church shall feel the effect of my wrath." 
So saying, he struck the walls with his crozier, and 
down they fell about the ears of the alarmed sacristan, 
who escaped, by a miracle no doubt, scatheless from 
among the ruins. Sceptical people pretended the walls 
were badly constructed, while others laid the blame on 
the impiety of the architect, who had neglected to bury 
a living lamb beneath the altar-stone, without which, as 
all men in Zealand well knew, the building was sure to 

* The ghost of the animal is known as the " Church Lamb ;" and 
when a little child in the parish dies, the church lamb comes and dances 
before the threshold of its mother's house. This custom was peculiar 
to Zealand. In Funen there exists only one church under the protec- 
tion of a " Lamb ;" each of the others has its " Church Sow." 


But, whether it was the fault of the Bishop or the 
lamb, the choir had to be built up again. All Bishop 
William required was to be left alone, and ill came on 
those who interfered with him. When, in the six- 
teenth century, Bishop Urne, a most meddling pre- 
late, caused his bones to be disinterred and placed in a 
pewter coffin in a hole of a pillar of the choir, over which 
his portrait was painted in fresco (you can see them there 
now through the grating), the workmen deposited his 
remains profanely in a corner. Then, suddenly, there 
exuded from the relics a smell — not of old bones, but a 
perfume so divine all men declared it was too delicious. 
They snuffed at his skull, they smelt his cross-bones — it 
was a fascination too powerful. Strange to say, wash, 
scrub, do what they would, the perfume clung to their 
hands — impossible to free themselves from it ; and now 
commenced the punishment of their audacity. One of 
the offenders became dumb, and died at the end of three 
days in exquisite torment, of a malady which commenced 
by his nose ; another in vain did penance, and publicly 
confessed his fault ; none of the offenders escaped ; the 
last died after three months' unheard-of suffering. So 
you see Bishop William, friend of the good King Svend, 
was not a person to l>e trifled with. 

We have all read the story of the sacrilege com- 
mitted by the above-mentioned monarch — how, en- 
raged at the harmless jest of his courtiers at a banquet, 
he caused them to be slain next morning before the 
altar during the performance of matinsong ; how 
Bishop William, horror-struck at this iniquity, pub- 
licly excommunicated the King at the church door 
as he was about to enter ; how the officers of the King 
would have slain the Bishop, but Svend, seized with 

VOL. I. i 


remorse, forbade the deed, and, retiring home to his 
palace, clad himself in rags, and returned next day to 
the church, humbly demanding permission to enter 
therein, kissing the very steps of the holy edifice ; 
how Bishop William wept at his pitiable state, and 
went out to meet him, and, after a public confession 
and the payment of a large sum of money, ab- 
solved him from his sin, and from that time a great 
friendship was struck up between the two, and the 
Bishop vowed he would never survive the death of his 
friend and sovereign ; and when the news of King 
Svend's death * reached his ears, and the body was 
on its road from Jutland, he went forth to meet it, and 
when he came nigh he left the carriage and gave up 
the ghost on the wayside. No wonder, after such a 
proof of affection, Bishop William did not like being 
removed from the neighbourhood of his ancient com- 

Eoeskilde, after a period, succeeded the abbey of 
Bingsted as the royal place of sepulture, and has so 
continued ever since. The reason given for this change 
is simple. After the time of the second Valdemar, 
alabaster monuments came into vogue, instead of the 
brick sepulchres of the earlier ages, and the church 
of St. Knud was found too small to contain them ; 
added to winch the Abbot of Kingsted, in the time of 
Christopher II., took part with the rival, Duke Yaldemar, 
in consequence of which he and his queen were buried 
at Sor0, where Olaf lies also ; Queen Margaret herself 

* King Svend Estrids0n died 1076 ; he Avas nephew of Canute the 
Great, and sent a fleet, under his brother Esbern, to assist the revolted 
Anglo-Saxons, but Esbern was bought oft' by William the Conqueror. 


was, by order of her successor, removed to Koeskilde. 
Still there was for some time a feeling in favour of St. 
Knud on the part of the monarchs, and Valdemar him- 
self bequeathed a sum of ten marks in white metal to 
say a daily mass and to keep his annual festival, on 
which day the monks of the cloister were to be regaled 
with a tun of German (Kostock) beer and three " strong 
flesh repasts." 

The whole length of the building is uninterrupted, 
except by the altar which stands under the centre 
of the further transept, which adds much to the 
general effect ; carved stalls of great originality and 
quaintness, put up by Queen Margaret, on each side of 
the choir, displaying the proportions of the cathedral to 
the greatest advantage. 

Passing behind the altar of rich Dutch workmanship, 
we come to a marble sarcophagus, on which lies ex- 
tended the effigy of the great Queen Margaret, who 
first united under one sceptre the three Scandinavian 
kingdoms : the most interesting monument of the royal 
series, erected to her memory by her nephew and suc- 
cessor Erik.* Over the tomb of Queen Margaret hangs 
the hook from which was suspended the stone sent 
by Albert King of Sweden to that Queen to sharpen 
her scissors. This was removed by the Swedes in 1659. 
Margaret lies extended on her back, her hands meekly 
folded across her bosom. At her feet are placed a skull 
and cross-bones. Her features are regular and of great 
beauty ; the compressed lip expressive of determina- 

* Erik's real name was Henry. Queen Margaret caused it to be 
changed to Erik from policy, as more agreeable to Norwegian and 
Danish cars. 



tion of character. She is small in stature, somewhat 
below the middle height. On her head she wears 
the regal circlet ; a rouleau of hair, twisted with gold, 
binds her brow ; two short bandeaux, brought down on 
each side of her face ; a long veil hangs pendent from 
the circlet ; massive gold bracelets adorn her wrists, and 
she wears a girdle of the same precious metal, with five 
pendent chains, from each of which is suspended a 
ball, or pomander-box, to contain perfumes and other 
matters. The broken alabaster figure of her brother 
Duke Christopher of Lolland, only son of Valdemar, 
lies unrepaired in one of the adjoining chapels.* He 
is said to have died from the effects of a wound in the 
head from a Lombard in a naval engagement in 1359 ; 
but it is certain he lived some years later, half-witted : 
his brain never recovered from the effects of the injury. 
The sword of King Christian I. still hangs in the 
chapel of the Elephant. He lies interred by the side 
of his predecessor King Christopher the Bavarian,! 
whose widow Dorothea J he had espoused " to make 

* It was broken, with those of Harald Blue-Tooth and Svend, in 1420, 
and at the same time Bishop William was removed into his pewter coffin. 

f Christopher was beautiful in face, but short and fat in figure ; and 
when he walked through Stockholm by the side of his grand cham- 
berlain Carl Knudsen, the people remarked that Carl was handsome and 
more fit to bear a crown. " Don't walk so near me," said Christopher, 
jokingly; "for the people say you should be king, not I." With all 
his joking he never forgave it. Knud got dismissed from his office, 
and was later exiled in Viborg Castle. Sovereigns love not to be over- 
shadowed by their attendants. 

X Dorothea was daughter of John of Brandenburg, the Alchymist, 
as he was called ; not that he ever made any gold ; on the contrary, all 
his substance passed away in the prosecution of his experiments ; and 
it was the joke of the day, that the Queen, when she espoused her first 
husband, King Christopher the Bavarian, had received her dower in 
smoke. Scarce were their nuptials celebrated when a letter arrived 


matters right," thereby saving a jointure to the Crown 
lands of Denmark. Some years later his coffin was 
opened : folks were not quite certain as to his where- 
abouts or whether it really was him, when a learned 
historian, who was present, exclaimed, "Are three 
of the front teeth wanting ? " On examination of 
the skull such was found to be the case. " That will 
be the mark ! " exclaimed the savant ; " King Christian 
the First lost three of his front teeth in the battle of 

The splendid monumental tombs of Christian III. 
and Frederic II., father of Queen Anne, wife of James 
I., by Floris of Antwerp, resemble much those of 
Francis I. and Louis XII. at St. Denis, but are finer 

from the Soldan of Egypt, dated Babylon, offering to meet Chris- 
topher in his large ship " Zephyro," " and then many you to my 
beautiful daughter and heiress, Zerzina ; wherefore we send you this 
letter, with presents :" among which is enumerated, " a golden vase, 
filled with real balsam." The balsam was gratefully accepted ; but 
the letter came too late, and, as the chronicler remarks, " Babylon 
would not have been a convenient dower for a Queen of Denmark." At 
the death of her first sovereign Dorothea wished to marry a young Dane, 
Knud Gyllenstierne, and tried to get him elected king. The Count of 
Oldenborg, however, was the successful candidate. To make matters 
straight, he proposed to the dowager, who straightway dismissed poor 
Knud, with apologies : but she would be a queen. There was no 
great harm in her ; she was very saving, and lent her money to her 
husband (a " purse without a bottom " he was termed), not at high 
usury, for that was unlawful ; but she took Holstein and Slesvig in 
pawn, and made a good thing of it. 

Queen Dorothea visited Borne on her way to the Holy Land ; but, 
tired with her journey, got Bope Innocent VIII. to dispense her from 
going further, provided she would give a sum of money to the hospitals. 
She wished her youngest son Frederic to be reigning prince, in pre- 
ference to his brother John. Hence a Swedish chronicler declares, — 
" After Christian I.'s death, did Queen Dorothea, the second Jezabel, 
endeavour to take the life of her son Johannes with a roasted hen which 
is poisoned." 


still ; and that of Frederic IV. and his queen is by a 
sculptor named Gerken. This monument, as well as 
that of Christian V., are florid specimens of the allegoric 
taste of the last century, — effective as a whole, but as 
a composition ludicrous. Our own Queen Louisa has a 
monument executed by Stanley ; and from that time 
the coffins stand • ranged in the chapels, covered with 
mouldering black velvet, powdered over with the crowns 
of Scandinavia. A statue by Thorvaldsen, cast in 
bronze, has been lately erected to Christian IV. It is 
a fine work of that illustrious sculptor's chisel, but ill 
adapted for a church. While the great Margaret lies 
with closed eyes and meekly clasped hands, awaiting 
the day of judgment, Christian stands looking thunder- 
bolts around, with one leg stuck out, as if about to 
stamp from sheer impatience. It is characteristic of 
the man, but better suited for a public Place or bridge. 
Many are the Northmen who lie here interred, — Saxo 
Grammaticus among the number, old monk of Sor0, 
chronicler of the Valdemars.* When I visited Koeskilde 
I found Professor Worsaae and a knot of savants busily 
engaged in grubbing for his tomb, but without success ; 
the coffin of the humble monk had, in earlier days, 
given place to some later comer. 

Before leaving the cathedral, the guide will lead 
you down the steps into a vault below, and dis- 
play to your view the six coffins of the infant chil- 
dren of King Frederic VI., and some bystander will 
look mysterious, and declare how they all met an un- 
timely end through the intrigues of Juliana of Bruns- 

* Saxo died 1204. He was secretary or chancellor to Archbishop 


wick, the widowed Queen of King Frederic V., she who 
caused the disgrace and fall of Caroline Matilda. They 
will tell you — some, that the children were changed ; 
others, that they were put an end to ; how the ambi- 
tious queen, desirous to secure the succession for the 
offspring of her own son, having already failed in her 
endeavours to destroy King Frederic himself in his 
childhood, gained the lady of honour of the Crown 
Princess and others, and so attained her object. They 
will relate to you that the Frue von Munster — this 
same lady — later committed suicide (which is true) 
by hanging herself in the corridor by the chapel of 
Frederiksborg ; that the midwife and the physician also 
both came to an untimely end by their own hands ; 
and then tell you a story of a pretender who arose and 
proclaimed himself King Frederic's son, changed at 
nurse.* They will relate you all tins and a great 
deal more, as they have already to me, and I, for my 
part, believe not one word of the story. The youngest 
son of King Frederic VI., who lies in the little coffin 
here before you, was born one year after the decease 
of the Dowager Queen herself. Children, if not well 
cared for, did — even in the earlier part of this present 
century, as we all know, before calomel was invented — 
drop off like flies ; and if you look at the genealogy of 
the house of Oldenborg, you will find that the three 
eldest offspring of Juliana's own son, the Arve Prinds,f 
died when infants also. 

No ; Juliana has enough to answer for without 

* This pretender was later provided for, and sent off to the coast of 

t Heir presumptive. 


adding the crime of child-murder to the list. Still 
you will find many people who yet credit the assertion 
and will relate it as a fact ; myself, after having studied 
the question pretty deeply, dismiss it as unworthy of 

When James I. of England visited Copenhagen, he 
made a special pilgrimage to Eoeskilde, in order to con- 
verse on matters of theological doctrine with Nicholas 
Hemming, a celebrated theologian, who, on account of 
his Calvinistic tendencies, had been removed from his 
office of Professor of the University of Copenhagen. 

Then Bishop Paul Matthias preached before him a 
learned discourse in Latin, with which, as well as with 
the assemblage of priests of the diocese, who came to 
do him honour, King James expressed himself much 

The bishopric or stift of Eoeskilde was suppressed 
at the Eeformation, and later a Bishop of Zealand 

This city — in old books written Eothschild — furnishes 
a patronymic to the Eothschild family, who, in the last 
century, emigrated from Denmark. A Jew, on going 
to another land, where Solomons and Levis were plen- 
tiful as strawberries in June, was called, to distinguish 
himself, Solomon of Bamberg, Levi of Frankfort, and 
so on, till he ended by assuming as a surname the 
birthplace of his ancestors. 

Having lingered long enough, we now gain the station, 
and in one hour are landed at Copenhagen. 

Chap. IX. COPENHAGEN. 121 


Copenhagen — Slagheck, the barber archbishop — Sigbrit, the maitresse 
mere — Education of Christian II. — Yule pig or money - box — 
Foundation of Copenhagen — Marriage of Queen Margaret — Her 
governess and castigatrix — Queen Philippa of England — Her gal- 
lant defence of the city — Palace of Christiansborg — The Exchange. 

♦ i 


October. — If you be desirous to explore the town of 
Copenhagen, you cannot do better than start direct from 
the railway station, and, proceeding towards the gates 
of the city, pass through a double avenue of elms by 
the obelisk erected to commemorate the abolition of 
feudal servitude by King Christian VII.* 

On either side of the way stand the Tivolis, Alhambras, 
and various places of amusement in which the Danes so 
dearly delight in the summer season, and which abound 
in the suburbs of Copenhagen. 

We now traverse the Vesterbro, cross the moat which 
surrounds the ramparts, and enter the city, passing under 
a swing bridge which connects the fortifications. 

But before continuing our walk, to prevent dis- 
appointment, let me put you on your guard not to 
expect too much, nor be guided by your first im- 

* When in the year 1788 the freedom of the serfs was proclaimed, 
unbounded was the enthusiasm of the peasants, who harnessed them- 
selves to the waggon and drew to their destination the masses of Bom- 
holm marble of which the obelisk is composed. 

122 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 

pression of Copenhagen. Few houses of ancient date 
remain, and it was not until I grew acquainted with 
the city in detail that I discovered how really pic- 
turesque it was, with its misshapen Places (Pladser), its 
spires, and its canals alive with shipping running up into 
its very heart. We pass down the Frederiksborg-street 
— a bad approach; but Copenhagen, like all fortified 
towns, boasts of no handsome entry. The pavement you 
will have already found out is atrocious, and such an 
apology for a trottoir — a narrow strip of flag inserted 
among the rougher stones.* A droit du pave exists here 
as in other places ; I never could understand it niyself ; 
the whole etiquette appeared to consist in shoving me 
into the adjoining gutter. We now pass through the 
old market (Grammeltorv), where once stood the small 
but quaint Eaadhuus destroyed in one of the numerous 
conflagrations from which the town has suffered. In 
the centre stands a fountain in metal, which now no 
longer plays, and though allegorical — I forget the 
subject — is neither imposing nor beautiful. 

It was on this Gammeltorv that took place the 
execution of the well-known Dietrick Slagheck, Arch- 
bishop of Lund, Christian II. 's most unworthy minis- 
ter. Strangers in all ages have risen to the highest 
posts in Denmark, and Dietrick, a barber's boy, by 
backstairs influence— for he was cousin to Sigbrit — 
soon, like Olivier le Dain, rose to power. A dangerous 
councillor he proved ; but he suffered for it later and 
was made the scapegoat of his master. When on his 
way to the place of execution, he met on the Hpibro 
bridge Master Jasper Brachman, one of the council, to 
whom he exclaimed, in the Latin tongue, " Farewell, 
Master Jasper ! such are the rewards of our labours." 

Chap. IX. THE CITY. 123 

" No, no," replied the chamberlain, horrified at the idea 
of being associated with the condemned archbishop, 
" No, no ; the punishment of your sins — the punishment 
of your sins." If he began life as a barber, he died like 
a prelate, clad in robes of velvet and scarlet hose. On 
mounting the scaffold he was fastened to a ladder, and 
then turned off into the flames. King Christian, not 
quite at his ease as regards the justice of the sentence, 
drove out of town for a day's change of air, and Sigbrit 
herself never opened her window during the whole day, 
which made folks remark, " it was queer she, who had 
been brought up to fried herrings, salt fish, and such 
like, should be squeamish concerning the smell of a 
roasted archbishop." 

On we continue down a street gayer and more 
frequented than the last, till we arrive at the H0ibro- 
plads, commonly called Amagertorv, where the vege- 
table market is held, and the Amak and Zealand 
peasants may be seen in their pretty costumes — some at 
their stalls, others mounted on their rustic carts. 

The shops are in no way remarkable ; but you will 
admire the poulterers' cellars, hung with a grand display 
of stag, chevreuil, black game, and capercailzie. 

The lofty embattled tower of St. Nicholas overlooks 
this square. On it the watchmen keep nightly guard, and 
give the alarm in case of fire ; nor is this service a sine- 
cure, for scarce three days elapse without a conflagration 
breaking out in some quarter of the town or other, and 
oft in the dead of night the slumberers are awakened by 
a loud shrill whistle and the repeated cry of " Brand — 
brand — brand" along the street. Then each window 
opens in succession, and people inquire " Where ?" and 
if in the neighbourhood, they turn out of bed and 

124 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 

place a tub of water before their doors : if the answer 
be Vesterbro, or N0rrebro, or some place far away, they 
close their casements and quietly resume their sleep, 
unless curiosity lead them to visit the scene of the 
conflagration. These watchmen were first established 
by King Frederic II., and the song they chant the 
night long was composed by Bishop Kingo. 

The Amagertorv is picturesque as a whole, and you 
must not fail to remark a gabled Kenaissance dwelling- 
house, with the date 1616, built by a burgomaster of 
Copenhagen, called by the common people the House of 
Dyveke ; or rather that of her mother Sigbrit, Christian 
II. 's prime minister. Curious rise that of a huckster 
(hugerske), as she is termed by the historians of Am- 
sterdam, in which city she first sold apples and vegetable 
roots. And queerer still it must have been to have seen 
the nobles of the realm standing bareheaded in the snow, 
outside her house, on this very Plads, waiting their turn 
to gain an audience. A clever woman was Madam 
Sigbrit, as the Danes call her, suppressing her Dutch 
patronymic of Willums ; for she not only reigned supreme 
over the King, but was also much thought of by his con- 
sort Queen Elizabeth, who appreciated her devotion to 
the Eoyal family. Then, too, she was a Dutchwoman, 
a nation for which the Queen always showed a great 
preference. To her care they confided the education of 
their eldest son Prince John. But if she was liked by 
the Eoyal family and toadied by the officers of state, she 
was detested by the people, who, after the manner of the 
day, looked upon her as a witch. They declared how 
one day her young charge Prince John, out of curiosity, 
took a bottle which stood on the window, in order to 
examine its contents, when it fell out of his hand and 


broke ; the devil flew out of it, and a storm of thunder 
burst over the whole city. Her great unpopularity was 
caused by the " rumpe" tax, placed by her advice on the 
head of every living person (a somewhat Irish proceed- 
ing) ; added to which she cleared the town of Copenhagen 
of the " poor scholars " — a set of mendicants who attended 
the schools. They wore a coat or cloak open at one 
side, and bore so bad a reputation the proverb went, " So 
many coats, so many thieves." The King, by her advice, 
issued an ordinance by which no boy was allowed to 
attend the school who could not pay his own expenses, 
and had all the others driven out of the town. 

When in the year 1522 the Lubeckers appeared before 
Copenhagen, Sigbrit, in the absence of the King, went 
out with her maid to see the fleet ; but when by the 
water-side she met two drunken countrymen, who fell 
upon her, beat her black and blue, and, reproaching 
her for having misled the King, got her out to sea 
and ducked her well. Luckily, the King passed by 
on his return from Solberg and saved her; but on 
entering the gates of the city several men of Roes- 
kilde, who lay in wait, fired at her ; however she escaped 
without damage, and the drunken peasants were be- 

When the King went to Norway* he carried off 
everything, even to the copper ornaments on the spire 
of the palace. Sigbrit, to avoid being torn to pieces 
by the people, was conveyed on board ship in a wooden 
chest. Christian appearing- out of spirits at the ugly 
state of his affairs, she consoled him, saying, " If 
you can no longer be King of Denmark, I will make 

* a.d. 1523. 

126 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 


you burgomaster of Amsterdam" — a flue promotion, 
remarks Hvitfeldt in his chronicle. 

What became of her none can say — she disappears 
entirely from the face of history ; but when Frederic I. 
besieged the city of Malm0, he excepted Sigbrit from 
the general pardon conferred on the inhabitants, in case 
she should be still there. -He might have saved himself 
the trouble, for she had long since escaped, and no one 
could tell of her whereabouts. 

To the left runs the 0stergade — the Bond-street of 
Copenhagen ; but we will leave it to its flaneurs and 
continue our course, first starting with astonishment at 
a well-known sound whispered in our ears, very like 
" Old clo," " Gammel klceder : " it is shortened and 
compressed, till it resembles the well-known cry of our 
London dealers in discarded vestments. 

It was in this H0ibroplads that Christian II. received 
his early education, and an odd one it was and curious 
as displaying the simplicity of the times. 

At an early age a canon of Copenhagen, John 
Hyndze, was appointed his tutor, and the prince himself 
was sent to lodge in the house of Hans the bookbinder, 
whose wife, Bridget, a worthy old soul, looked after his 
health and personal comforts, and here he was visited by 
the canon daily. 

"A strange education for a king's son," observes 
Hvitfeldt, "and very different from that of our day, 
when nothing can be found good enough for the off- 
spring of royal parents." 

It appears the young prince played about with the 
other boys of his age in the streets ; so to keep him out 
of mischief the canon made him accompany him to 
matins and evensong, and there he stood in the choir, 


he the heir to three mighty kingdoms, along with the 
poor children. When it came to King John's ears 
that his son stood and sang in the choir with others 
as a " fattig Pebling," he waxed wroth, and a short time 
later the prince is handed over to a new tutor, furnished 
by his brother-in-law, Joachim of Brandenburg, who 
terms him " a beautiful learned man." The boy would 
climb up to the roofs of the houses and over the 
highest walls. In vain his tutor bade him " take care ; 
he who climbs the highest will fall the lowest." He 
replied, " Low places only suit low people, but high 
places are for the high." When he was eighteen 
years of age the prince declared himself quite sick of 
learning, and we find him "bribing the palace guard" 
to leave open doors at night, whilst, like our own Prince 
Hal, he went knocking about in the burghers' houses, 
wherever he could find " the best wine and the prettiest 
girls to talk to." When this came to his father's ears, 
he summoned the young scapegrace before him, and 
administered him such a dose of good advice, followed 
up by a severe flogging with whips, that the prince fell 
down "paa bare knee," and, imploring pardon for his 
offences, declared himself reformed for ever. 

But we approach the Slotsholm or " He du Chateau." 
On either side of the bridge the fishwives hold their 
court, and gossip and squabble, much like their sister- 
hood of other lands. The boats crowd up to the very 
bridge, some laden with sand, some with salmon fresh 
from the coast of Sweden, the former an untidy com- 
modity to sell so near a royal residence ; others again 
with pottery, common pottery for household use, 
from the island of Bornholm, the darker kind the 
produce of Jutland. Two little children, satchel on 

128 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 

back, descend the steps of the quay, enter the boat, and 
timidly announce their wants to the owner of the wares. 
The man points to a basket in the corner of the vessel ; 
they investigate its contents, and, after much hesita- 
tion, return, each triumphantly bearing a " juul svhn " 
(yule pig), as it is called, with a slit down the middle 
of his back ; this unclean beast serves as a money-box, 
but the money once deposited therein cannot be recovered 
without its destruction. 

Before us rises the Palace of Christiansborg (Chris- 
tiansborg Slot), a vast, heavy, unsightly pile of buildings, 
flanked on one side by the Thorvaldsen Museum ; to 
the left of the palace stands the Chancellerie, and 
beyond the Exchange (B0rs), with its quaint spire 
of twisted dragons, the pride of the capital. But we 
are going too fast, and before proceeding further it 
is as well you should learn something of the early 
history of the town you are now visiting. We stand on 
classic ground ; and if you do not mind resting on the 
banks of the quay, I will endeavour while you repose to 
give you some slight information as to the origin and 
foundation of the capital of Denmark. 

On the island where we now stand, in the year 1168, 
our old friend Archbishop Absalon constructed a for- 
tress, which bore the name of Axelhuus in compliment 
to its founder.* It was later changed to that of Steile- 
borg, or Wheel Castle, from the fact of the strand 
before its gates being selected as the place of execution 
— breaking on the wheel (steile), or some such pleasant 
operation — of the pirates from Bugen and elsewhere, 

See note p. 96. 


who infested the northern seas and laid waste the 
Danish Archipelago. One of the towers of the ori- 
ginal building existed in the earlier part of the last 
century, and served as the royal kitchen previous 
to the destruction of the palace by King Christian VI. 
and his Queen Sophia Madalena. By degrees a flou- 
rishing village arose round the fortress, which in the 
year 1254 received extensive privileges from Chris- 
topher I., and was erected into a city ; but Koeskilde 
continued the capital of the island of Zealand until 
the reign of Christopher the Bavarian. This sove- 
reign exchanged certain lands with the Bishop of that 
diocese, and, considering the locality admirably adapted 
for the interests of shipping and commerce, he esta- 
blished himself there with his court, made it his capital, 
and from that period it has been called Kj0benhavn, 
or the Merchant's Haven. Her ancient rival gradually 
declined, the whirlwind of the Eeformation giving a 
" coup de grace " to her existence. 

Among the earlier events of interest which took 
place at Copenhagen, I find mentioned how in 1363 
there was a "right goodly royal party of prindsen, 
kings, and illustrious princes, as well as nobles from all 
parts, assembled to witness the nuptials of the Princess 
Margaret, daughter of King Valdemar Atterdag, with 
Hakon, King of Norway." Swedish historians declare 
Margaret to have been of a dark complexion, by no 
means well-looking,. After her marriage she went, ac- 
companied by her husband, to Norway, where, on account 
of her tender years, a governess was placed over her, the 
lady Martha, daughter of St. Bridget ; very strict, too, 
she was, and often made Margaret, a married queen, 
smart under the rod. In after life a steady affection 

vol. i. K 

130 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 

continued to exist between the queen and her early 

Of the endless and innumerable sieges this devoted 
city has undergone I will merely call to mind that which 
took place in the days of Philippa of England, worthy 
sister of the hero of Agincourt.* Philippa was second 
daughter of our English sovereign, Henry of Lancaster, 
and was married to Erik the Pomeranian, a match which 
Queen Margaret gave herself much trouble to bring 
about, t 

Copenhagen was attacked by the Hanseatic League, 
and the town would have fallen had it not been for the 
courage of Philippa. " Queen Philippa," say the Chro- 
nicles, " held Princes' Day at Copenhagen, and invited 
to the castle the soldiers and young men of the city, who 
had fought against the Wends and Hanseatikers, and, 
after counselling them to render good service to the 
lord their king, dismissed them to enjoy something 
which we cannot find in the dictionary, but imagine to 
be "a regular good blow-out." Her conduct inspired 
the citizens with such enthusiasm, the enemy were com- 
pelled to retire.! Joyful at her success (Erik was then 

* In the year 1428. 

t At the time of her betrothal Philippa was too young to leave her 
country, and it was not until two years later (1406) she arrived in Den- 
mark. Among the numerous retinue who accompanied her we find 
Richard Earl of Cambridge and Sir Edmund Courtenay ; and to con- 
vey the queen to her new home, they equipped " decern naves et quatuor 
balingeres.'' The marriage ceremony and coronation took place in the 
city of Lund. 

X After Queen Philippa's entertainment the youth of the city be- 
came " pot-valiant ;" and hearing the Hanseatikers had come supplied 
with salt to cure the beef they hoped to capture in Denmark, they 
brought down a cow to the floating-bridge, and dared the besiegers to 
come and pluck one hair out of its tail. 


absent in Sweden, or, as Swedish historians assert, lying 
concealed in the convent of Sor0), Philippa invested 
Stralsund with a fleet of seventy-five ships: fortune 
declared against her; after a hard-fought battle she 
returned to Copenhagen, her squadron destroyed : and 
now it is related how Erik, unmindful of her former 
success, in Iris rage struck the queen, at that time ad- 
vanced in pregnancy. Indignant at this treatment, she 
retired to the convent of Vadstena, where she died some 
few months after, and was buried in the chapel of St, 
Anne, which she herself had founded, and where her 
sepulchral slab may still be seen. 

Erik caused a Domkirke to be built at Vadstena 
in her honour, and gave 1100 nobles towards the 
expenses of its erection, with particular directions for 
masses to be said and sung for her " soul's weal," to say 
nothing of psalms selected by himself, about " Kegina 
cosli." The way of the world, nothing more. The worse 
a man treats his wife in this life, the finer the monument 
set up to her memory after death. 

Some historians affect to deny this story, or urge in 
Erik's defence the Jutland law, by virtue of which a 
man was authorised to flog his wife and children with 
his hands but not with weapons. As Philippa left no 
heirs, King Christian I., after a lapse of nearly twenty 
years, inherited the remains of the " rose noble,"* long 
since converted into small change. 

Notwithstanding the ill treatment of Queen Philippa, 
the English government appears to have continued on 
comfortable terms with Erik. In 1431 Henry VI. sent 

* Philippa brought her dowry in one rose noble, which weighed 
100,000 ducats. 

K 2 

132 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 

an embassy to Denmark — Master William Spreen, doctor 
of both laws ; Sir John Grimsby, Knight : the plenipo- 
tentiary powers are dated Westminster, November 27, 
9th year of the reign, and signed by Humphrey Duke of 
Gloucester, England's " custos." There were some little 
grievances to settle, but I don't see the King of England 
got much advantage by it ; for though he is very civil 
and talks about the relationship through the high- 
born Philippa, consort of his " good friend " King Erik, 
and a lot more beside, he is met by a storm of com- 
plaints against the English shipowners, who for the last 
twenty years have sailed and fished in unlawful seas, 
and trafficked with the islands — Iceland, Faroe, Shet- 
land, Orkney, Greenland, &c. — fancy Denmark forbid- 
ding us to sail and trade to the Orkneys, or anywhere ! 
— the complaint ending in a " summarium " of the 
damage caused during the said twenty years, which 
amounts to 2329 " loester fisk " — pounds of fish — each 
pound being equal to sixteen of the present day : add 
to this a few more " damages," and the " summa sum- 
marium" of the bill presented is 217,348 rose nobles. 
Strange to relate, the English Government declined to 
liquidate the debt. Some two years later, however, 
Henry VI. forms a treaty of alliance with " his dearest 
uncle, the King of Denmark ;" no end of matters 
promised on both sides, to which, in all probability, 
neither paid the slightest attention. 

But to return to the Slot. Molesworth, in speaking 
of Copenhagen, says, with the exception of the buildings 
of Christian IV.'s time, they are all mean and of " cage 
work," half timber, half plaster. The palace he de- 
scribes as the worst in the world, inferior to those of 
the nobility ; it was a fine old feudal schloss, adapted 


to the troublous times in which it was constructed, as 
you may still see by the old engravings, though cer- 
tainly not in the style of Sir Christopher Wren, then the 
architect par excellence. In the year 1720 the old edifice 
was demolished by Frederic IV. ; and, while yet scarcely 
raised from its ruins, was again laid low to satisfy the 
craving for magnificence and luxury, the besetting sin 
of Queen Sophia Madalena. That this fair princess 
lavished the public money with a reckless hand no one 
can deny, but it should be borne in mind that she was 
not only the wife of an absolute sovereign, but also the 
wife of one of the most consummate bores that ever 
existed. The queen from very weariness launched out 
into extravagance ; palaces of unprecedented grandeur 
rose at her beck and nod ; she did too much, but all 
she did was well done and in good taste, and, in this 
particular, it is to be regretted that later monarchs have 
not followed her example. 

The palace of Madalena was completed and taken 
possession of by the court in 1740, amidst the greatest 
possible rejoicings of the people (so at least asserts the 
Danish Vitruvius), and medals were struck in honour 
of the event. This palace also was consumed by fire in 
the year 1794, and for some time remained a heap of 
ashes. It has often caused much astonishment how 
Frederic VI., considering the dilapidated state of his 
finances, should have rebuilt this edifice in so costly a 
style, too large for the necessities of Ins court and 
kingdom. He had much better have reconstructed it 
after the earlier design of his fair predecessor ; it would 
have then still remained an ornament to the city and 
a credit to the architect ; it is now neither one nor the 
other. But Frederic VI., it appears, had received a 

134 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 

promise from the Emperor Napoleon, that in reward for 
his so-called neutrality he should receive the kingdom 
of Sweden, and be crowned King of all Scandinavia. 
" King of Scandinavia ! " exclaimed his Majesty, " and no 
palace to live in ! send for the court architect at once." 
His orders were obeyed ; they planned and planned, and 
the present unsightly Palace of Christiansborg is the 
result of their consultations. Lucky had it been for 
King Frederic if Mrs. Glasse's well-known recipe had 
been then published, or at least translated into Danish ; 
he would have saved a mint of money to the country, 
and the pangs of disappointed ambition to himself. 
The crown of Scandinavia was never fated to rest 
on his royal brow. The elected house of Bernadotte 
reign supreme in Sweden ; and Norway after an union 
of more than 400 years was wrested from the Danish 
crown and handed over to the possession of her rival. 
But I must not be unjust to the memory of Frederic: 
to him the peasants of Denmark owe their emancipation 
from feudal servitude : like many others he was ambi- 
tious in early life and suffered from it : he live<J much 
among his people, and retained their affection to the 
last. From what I have heard related, he resembled 
much his maternal uncle George III. of England in 
character, amiable and kind in disposition, with a certain 
touch of his Britannic Majesty's obstinacy. 

Do not, however, imagine the Palace of Christians- 
borg to be a building useless as it is ugly. Besides the 
state apartments, not often occupied by the royal family, 
it harbours within its walls the two Chambers of Parlia- 
ment, the Gallery of Pictures, and, in a building apart, 
£he Koyal Library. As we are here, you may as well pass 
through the great court of the palace, heavy, cumbrous, 


and ungraceful. The outer court, circular in form, is the 
remains of the earlier edifice of Madalena. You can 
visit the royal stables and inspect the white horses, true 
albinos, with roseate eyes and ears, used by the King on 
state occasions. When these cream-coloured horses 
came into fashion I cannot say; Christian V. drove 
light iron-grays, with black heads, tails, and manes. To 
the right lies the splendid riding-school. This court is 
muddy in winter and dusty in summer, always untidy ; 
it is used I believe for exercising the royal stud. The 
Danes do not understand the adaptation of unoccupied 
space to the ornamentation of their capital. A fountain, 
however, has lately been erected in the centre, and cut 
limes have been planted round the edge, which, after a 
time, will take away from the deserted look of this dreary 
waste, and give even the palace a more habitable ap- 

A bridge across the FrederikshoLm canal connects 
the lie du Chateau with the town ; and, turning to 
the right, we arrive at the Prindsens Palais, a hand- 
some edifice, now the receptacle of the numerous mu- 
seums — ethnographic among the rest, the finest in 
Europe ; the dresses, &c, of the Greenland and northern 
tribes are especially worth visiting — under the direc- 
tion of Professor Thomsen, who, with other learned 
men, has apartments allotted to him within its walls. 
This palace was erected for Christian VI. when Crown 
Prince, and it was here that Queen Madalena must 
have planned and dreamed the future magnificence 
which she so well understood to put into execution. 
In the adjoining Storm Gade is situated the British 
church, hired or borrowed from the Moravian brothers ; 
and opposite to it, in the old hotel of the Counts of 

136 COPENHAGEN. Chap. IX. 

Holstein Ledreborg, is preserved the Museum of Natural 
History, now about to be joined with that of the Uni- 
versity. The collection of Northern birds, of the various 
species of the grouse tribe, in their summer and winter 
plumage, as well as the ducks from the islands, are 
interesting to the sportsman or one learned in orni- 

Let us now return to the Bourse. Stop first and 
admire its graceful twisted spire, unique in Europe. 
Tradition relates how Christian brought over — some say 
the four dragons, others the stone ornamental copings 
of the building, from Calmar: but tradition is apt to 
embellish, and I am always sceptical as regards Danish 
legends about Swedish affairs, and vice versa. The 
building, however, is a glorious memento of the era of 
Christian IV.* Well did that monarch understand the 
style of architecture adapted to the climate of his 
country ; he built for posterity, and his works have 
lasted, and will last for ages to come, when those of 
more modern architects have long since passed away. 

But before we enter, notice how well the spire of St. 
Saviour's, with its twining external staircase, stands out 
in the background of Christianshavn. The Exchange 
was purchased in 1858 from the Government by the 
merchants of Copenhagen, with the express condition 
that they should place it in a thorough state of repair 
and never make any alteration which should detract 
from the character of the edifice ; and well they have 
redeemed their pledge. The great hall has been ad- 
mirajly restored in the style of the period ; over the 
fireplace stands a bronze statue of King Christian hini- 

* It was founded in 1G24. 


Vol 1 . p 136 

Chap. IX. THE EXCHANGE. 137 

self, similar to that in the cathedral church of Eoes- 
kilde ; here it is well placed, and in keeping with the 
building. The panels of the walls are being gradually 
filled with well-executed frescoes ; two of which were 
completed when I last visited the interior of the build- 
ing — one an allegory, Justice, scales, &c. ; the second, 
a mining scene, with workmen, imps, and trolles, all 
labouring hard at work together — " Archi-Scan- 

138 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 


Monuments of Juel and Tordenskiold — Death of Frederic VI. — Street 
of Coffins — Barsel of Queen Elizabeth — The Bound Tower — The 
Frue kirche — University — Bombardment of Copenhagen — Car- 
nival in the island of Amak — City ramparts — Legend of the buried 
child — Golden House of the King's alchymist — The Gr0nlandgade. 

A fine autumnal day and a bright sun, — we cannot do 
better than continue our promenade of yesterday ; it's 
such a comfort to have done the town, and to feel at 
liberty to bend our steps, with a free conscience, 
wherever inclination leads us. Turning down the Gam- 
mel Strand, we pause for a moment, near the bridge, 
again to admire the Bourse, peeping out from among 
the rigging of the various cutters anchored in the 
canal. How picturesque it appears- — what a study 
for an artist ! You will not care to walk through the 
Butchers' Market, unless you be an agriculturist, and 
fatten your own beasts. We must turn to the right, 
where stands the Holm Kirke, a work of Christian IV., 
but sadly mauled since his time. The doorway alone gives 
any token of the Renaissance period ; but the monarch's 
cipher still adorns the building, and his favourite 
legend R F P, which the people, with that spirit of 
contradiction so universal in all countries, translated, 
since the days when Madalena scattered the public 
money with so lavish a hand, as " Riget fattes Penge " 
(" The kingdom misses the money "). In the mortuary 
chapel attached to this church are monuments to the 


two celebrated Admirals — Juel and Tordenskiold. Ad- 
miral Juel stands within a grille ; on each side are bas- 
reliefs of white marble representing the naval actions 
in which he figured, with long complimentary verses 
by Bishop Kingo.* 

Smaller, and far less imposing, is the medallion, on 
a painted wooden framework, erected by Frederic VI. 
to the memory of Tordenskiold, the engravings of 
whose admirable portrait by Denner you may see ex- 
posed for sale in the printshops of Copenhagen. He 
is the beau ideal of northern beauty, with long flowing 
hair, unpowdered, carelessly gathered together by a 
riband behind — a splendid specimen of the Scandinavian 
race.t The history of Tordenskiold is too romantic 
to be passed over, and just such a story as all English- 
men delight in. 

In the latter part of the seventeenth century there 
lived at Tronyem a burgomaster, John Wessel by 
name, with a flourishing family of eighteen children 
and straitened *means. Twelve were sons, of whom 
Peter, the tenth in number, and hero of our story, was 
born in 1691. Hard were the struggles of poor John 
Wessel and his wife to maintain their numerous olive- 
branches, and I am afraid young Peter proved himself 
an ungrateful pickle. His parents apprenticed hini to 
a tailor, but at the end of a few weeks he was dismissed 

* Juel was the favourite page of Frederic III. when Bishop of 
Bremen. He entered the Dutch navy, and served under Ruyter and 
Van Tromp. In 1656 he returned to Denmark with a high repu- 
tation, became General Admiral, Knight of the Elephant, and died, 
full of honours, 1697. 

t The original is in the possession of M. de Liudliolm, Chamberlain 
of the Prince Hereditary. 

140 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

as incorrigible. When our hero had attained the age of 
thirteen, Frederic IV. paid a visit to Norway. Peter, 
whose time lay heavy on his hands, made acquaintance 
with the servants of the king's household ; and when 
the royal cortege departed, he suddenly disappeared to 
reappear shortly a vagabond and friendless in Copen- 
hagen. The tale of the Norwegian boy who had 
concealed himself in the hold of a ship came to the 
ears of the royal confessor, who, taking compassion 
on him, employed him as a servant about his person ; 
but Peter had inwardly determined to enter the navy. 
Nothing daunted, he wrote to the king, and was soon 
inscribed as an apprentice at the royal wharf. 

After several voyages he was so highly praised 
by his captains, he became midshipman, but still 
in the merchant service. He is described as a very 
" Mother Carey's chicken ;" his spirits rose with the 
tempest itself, and, when fear and terror agitated all 
minds, he alone appeared to derive gratification from 
the turmoil of the elements. When tne war broke out 
between Denmark and Sweden, as it invariably did 
some fifty times in the course of each century, Peter 
demanded permission to enter the royal navy, and was 
at once appointed to the command of a vessel called 
the ' Worm,' bearing four guns. Endless are the anec- 
dotes related of his daring : on one occasion he met 
with an English privateer : "If that frigate were 
Swedish," he exclaimed, " I should take it ; but the 
English have too much practice and fight too well for 
me to hope for an easy conquest." The vessels engaged, 
and a hard-fought battle ensued, such as always took 
place, and will take place, when Danes and English 
meet in naval warfare. " I have no more powder," 


cries Tordenskiold ; so lie sends a flag of truce on board 
requesting the English captain to lend him some that he 
might continue the battle, or, if he would not, begging 
him to come on board and receive the respect due to so 
gallant an enemy. The Englishman declined, so they 
drank to each other from their respective vessels, and 
cheers rose from the Danes as the captains raised their 
glasses, vociferously returned by the delighted British 

In 1716 Peter exchanged by a patent of nobility the 
plebeian patronymic of Wessel for the higher- sounding 
appellation of Tordenskiold (or Thundershield), and was 
later named Admiral. 

After the peace of Frederiksborg he visited Ger- 
many ; and having called to account a certain Colonel 
Stahl, a sharper, who had fleeced one of his countrymen 
at cards, by inflicting on him a sound thrashing, he was 
afterwards induced to give him satisfaction. The morn- 
ing of the duel Tordenskiold rose cool and careless 
as ever; in vain his servant implored him to take a 
sword of greater strength than the small rapier he wore 
by his side: he refused. The duel took place, and, 
unaccustomed to the finesse of a fencer, he fell, pierced 
by the rapier of his adversary, in the 29th year of his 
age. He was the Danish Bayard of his century — " sans 
peur," and I believe also " sans reproche." 

" For Denmark thunders Tordenskiold. 

Let each to heaven commend his soul and die." 

Far be it from me to treat with disrespect the memory 
of his brother Admiral, illustrious Juel ; but Juel was 
a man of noble parentage, and suffered in early life 
none of those difficulties our hero so bravely overcame ; 

142 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

added to which, be it Dick Whittington or King Ber- 
nadotte, I always do delight in him who, from no begin- 
ning, raises himself in this world, and dies at the top of 
the tree, be it royal oak or humble bean-stalk. 

We follow the course of the dull, boatless Holm 
Canal, on the opposite side of which rise long, low, high- 
pitched roofed, yellow buildings, with mysterious black 
shutters, ever closed — something to do with dockyards 
and naval stores — to the Royal Opera House. Here 
the canal turns off at right angles, and disappears among 
the " back slums " of the old wharf. The Opera House 
is a shapeless building, half-rebuilt, half-pulled down, 
to be cased with stone or stuccoed some day. I believe 
Denmark to be the only country where the stage is per- 
fectly respectable : to play or dance at the Royal Opera 
House, a woman, like Caesar's wife, must not even be sus- 
pected. We now stand at the entrance of the Kongens 
Nytorv, or King's New Market (formerly called Hallands 
Aas), though no market at all is ever held there. It is 
shapeless, but the general effect is imposing, and must 
have been more so in earlier days, before the destruction 
of the double avenue of cut limes which formerly sur- 
rounded the garden, in the centre of which stands the 
equestrian statue of Christian V., erected in 1688. This 
statue is allegorical, and requires a key. The horse is 
trampling on a monster, which was once called Sweden : 
but as Danes no longer trample on their neighbours, but 
live in peace and amity, the monster is now styled Vice, 
or something else. At the bombardment of 1807 a 
cannon-ball struck the right arm of the statue, since 
which time the king holds his sceptre downwards. 

Passing by the ugly Military High School, about to be 
removed, we arrive at the Charlottenborg Slot, a building 


of no great beauty, but interesting, in an historical point 
of view, to us English ; for here resided our Princess 
Louisa, with her husband then Crown Prince ; and here 
was born her eldest daughter, Sophia, the beautiful 
Queen of Sweden. Charlottenborg was founded by 
Ulrik Frederic Gyldenl0ve, the Field-Marshal, half- 
brother of Christian V., who conferred upon him the 
castle of Xal0 we passed on our way from Aarhuus, 
where he only slept, however, one night : disgusted at 
being surrounded by an inundation, he hurried off as 
fast as he could, and, carrying his castle, or rather the 
materials, with him, constructed the present palace, which 
he later sold to the widowed queen of Christian V., 
from whom it derives its appellation. 

The Newhaven (Nyhavn) Canal, crowded with ship- 
ping, runs up to the very entrance of the palace. Passing 
by the Thott Palace, now the hotel of the Eussian Minister, 
a building of some architectural pretensions, within whose 
walls are contained the small but valuable cabinet of 
pictures, chiefly of the Dutch school, the property of 
the Moltke family, we reach the St. Anna Plads, a 
promenade lately planted with trees, at the end of which 
is a wooden jetty, from which the steamers embark and 
disembark passengers for Lubec, Kiel, and fifty other 
localities. Copenhagen, like her sister London, is sadly 
in want of quays. You arrive anyhow, nohow : but 
great improvements are contemplated. 

Observe that tower in the dockyard opposite, sur- 
mounted by a crane. There, after the bombardment of 
1807, stood the English Admiral, while he superin- 
tended the destruction of the Danish vessels still un- 
completed and in the stocks. A splendid eighty-four 
was destroyed among the rest, and from its remains 

144 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

found floating about the water the Danes constructed a 
small brig, christened by the appropriate name the 

Proceeding down the Amaliegade, in which we are 
now located, and which boasts three stripes of flagstones 
inserted in its trottoir, we arrive at the Amalienborg 
Plads, which might be made one of the prettiest squares 
of its size in Europe. The original Amalienborg Slot un- 
derwent the usual fate of all edifices, royal and plebeian, 
in Denmark — it was destroyed by fire in 1689, during the 
performance of an Italian opera. A large concourse of 
people had assembled to witness the representation, as 
well as the court and all the royal family : a lamp was 
accidentally overturned, the fire caught the wood-work, 
and in one moment the whole building was in a blaze. 
In the confusion and crush of the exit nearly three 
hundred persons perished ; and when Molesworth visited 
Copenhagen he declares there was scarcely a family of 
consequence in the capital that was not in mourning for 
one of its members. The four pretty palaces which re- 
placed this earlier building were built by the families of 
Schack, Moltke, Brockdorff, and Levetzau, who again 
sold them, after the conflagration of Christiansborg, 1794, 
to the royal family, who found themselves without a 
roof to cover them. One of them is now occupied by 
Her Majesty the Queen Dowager, the amiable and vir- 
tuous widow of Christian VIII. ; a second by the Land- 
grave of Hesse, husband of the Princess Charlotte, and 
brother to the Duchess of Cambridge ; the third was 
offered to the Prince of Denmark, who does not at pre- 
sent occupy it ; while the fourth does duty as the Foreign 

On the whole it is a charming little Place ; and were 


not the pavement the most atrocious in all Copenhagen, 
and the space around the statue of Frederic V., erected 
to his honour by the merchants of the capital, too con- 
fined, I know few of its size equal to it. 

In the year 1839 a silent and saddened multitude 
stood breathless and anxious before the windows of the 
palace where Frederic VI. lay on his bed of agony. 
He was much beloved, and a general feeling of sorrow 
pervaded the whole population, who awaited with 
anxiety the termination of his sufferings. Suddenly the 
window is unclosed, the grand marshal appears on the 
balcony, and, breaking asunder his rod of office, ex- 
claims, " Le Eoi est mort, vive le Koi." Alas for the 
feebleness of human sentiments ! The Prince Here- 
ditary, now Christian VIII., inhabited the palace which 
stands on the opposite side of the octagon ; volte face 
turned the assembled crowd, and huzzas and cries of joy 
and enthusiasm greeted the accession of the new mo- 
narch to the throne. 

And now on to the Langa Linea, passing by the 
splendid hospital of Frederic V., the gate surmounted 
by the royal crown and cipher, on which the sparrows 
hold their court in large numbers, squabbling and fight- 
ing for place and precedence like their betters. One 
part of this hospital is set aside for the higher classes, 
who can there obtain rooms for a reasonable sum, and are 
admirably attended, without deranging their own esta- 
blishments, or, in case of infectious disorders, spread- 
ing death and disease among their families and domestics. 
Leaving the villanous pavement, and crossing the quin- 
cunx of trees, we arrive at the Langa Linea, one of the 
prettiest promenades possessed by any capital of Europe : 
so fresh is the air, so bright and exhilarating the scene 

vol. i. L 

146 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

along the banks of the Sound, on some days teeming with 
ships from all ports and climes. To the left rises the 
citadel, with its moats and fortifications ; you can visit it 
if you will ; — it affords a charming walk. Forewarned 
is forearmed, saith the proverb ; and before trusting 
yourself to the seduction of i,ts ramparts, call in mind 
that it is circular in form, and wander not round and 
round (as I did on my first visit) like a horse drawing 
water in a well, or a bewildered cockney in the maze 
of Hampton Court. 

At a distance from the land may be discerned the 
far-famed battery of the Three Crowns (Trekroner), the 
construction of which was scarcely commenced in 1801 ; 
it rose only a fleur d'eau. Guns however were planted on 
it, and did good execution against the fleet of the enemy. 

We return again by the Toldboden into the Bred- 
gade, near the centre of which stand to the right, in a 
vast deserted place, now used as a stonemason's yard, 
the ruins of the marble Frederiks Kirke — remaining, 
and for ever I imagine likely to remain, uncompleted. 
This church was commenced in the reign of Fre- 
deric V., after the splendid designs of Jardin, a French 
architect. The State could ill afford the erection 
of so expensive a building, and Struensee stopped the 
works, actuated, doubtless, by praiseworthy motives 
of economy: as it was, he only disgusted the pub- 
lic by the dismissal of some hundred workmen, 
gained the ill will of the clergy, and the sums of 
money economized by him were wantonly lavished by 
Count Brandt * in illuminations and court fetes of un- 

* A more singularly unpleasing face than that of Count Brandt 
I seldom recollect to have seen depicted, — proud and discontented. 

Chap. X. STREET OF COFFINS. . 147 

wonted splendour and extravagance. The architect, 
too, was dismissed, unpaid and ungratified, in a manner 
which caused universal indignation. Struensee was, 
there is no doubt, beyond his age. He did a great many- 
good things, but in a most disagreeable way, was care- 
less of wounding the prejudices of others, and in all his 
actions showed a violence and want of tact which soon 
rendered him most unpopular throughout the country. 
On either side of the street leading into the Amalien- 
borg stand two palaces; — one the property of Prince 
Frederic of Hesse, the other of the Prince Hereditary ; 
and higher up, adjoining the British Legation, stands 
the handsome hotel of Count Schimmelmann. A Saxon 
by birth, he commenced life as a boatman on the Elbe, 
plying his trade between Dresden and Hamburg, and 
rose to be minister to Christian VII., and Count of the 
Empire. We pass down the Dronninge Tvergade, by 
the side of the Moltke Palace, once the residence of 
Queen Juliana, on our way to the Rosenborg Gardens 
— but we must stop half-way. 

If Pompeii can boast her Street of Tombs, Copen- 
hagen can vaunt her Street of Coffins — Adlergade by 
name. Turn the eye where you will, black funeral 
cellarets meet the eye ; advertisements of " Smukke 
ligkister" (pretty coffins) to be sold, all ready, or 
made to measure. Glazed frames expose to view 
shrouds and grave-clothes, pinked out ready,* and 
stamped in holes, like the broderie Anglaise in a work- 

* I doubt whether ladies be aware that some twenty years ago, when 
the fashion of pinking flounces and other finery came into fashion, the 
art was almost lost, except in one department, and that their silks and 
tartalanes were stamped out together with the shrouds at the under- 
taker's. Later the dyer took up the art as a specialite'. •» 

L 2 

148 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

shop window; from the short petticoat of the little 
child, to the cravat with flowing bow of the male adult. 
Let us fly from this scene, and breathe fresh air among 
the limes and lilacs in the Rosenborg Gardens — not 
the old garden it once was, with cropped yew, and gay 
plate- bandes, fountains, and orange-trees, but. a wilder- 
ness of trees, affording grateful shade in the summer 

We have still much to see. I will lead you to the 
Place of the Gray Brothers (Graabr0dretorv), where once 
a monastery stood, long since swept away, and within 
whose church reposed the infant children of King Chris- 
tian II., Maximilian and Philip. Queen Elizabeth bore 
three sons in one year, John, the eldest, and these twins. 
Sigbrit, who was present at the " Barsel " of the queen, 
and not over particular in her speech, lost her temper 
at the sight of them, and remarked loudly in the hear- 
ing of everybody present, " If the queen goes on in this 
way, the country will be neither rich nor large enough 
to support so many Heerkens," which, I believe, in old 
Dutch signifies " little gentlemen." 

Later on this Place rose the stately palace of the 
minister Corfitz Ulfeld, son-in-law of Christian IV.,* 

* Corfitz Ulfeld was a noble of high birth, of one of the most ancient 
families in Denmark. His father Jacob had seventeen children ; Corfitz 
the tenth. Hofiinan gives a curious engraving of Jacob and his wife 
at dinner, surrounded by his family ; their dog Albinus seated on a 
chair by itself ; which dog some declare to be no dog at all, but to 
represent either a natural daughter or one of his daughters who 
changed her religion. The original painting was presented by the 
States of Holland to Jacob Ulfeld, together with 1000 dollars, on the 
termination of his embassy in 1621. Of Corfitz, who married Eleanor, 
third daughter of Christian IV. by Christina Munk, we shall hear 
much later. 

Chap. X. THE ROUND TOWER. 149 

razed to the ground at the period of his disgrace, and 
on the spot a small obelisk was raised, the inscription 
on which proclaimed " shame and ignominy to the traitor 
Ulfeld." This monument was again removed (it now 
lies hid somewhere in the cellars of the Scandinavian 
Museum), and gave place to a butchers' market. What 
a matter-of-fact age we live in ! We next proceed 
towards the University, by the street in which the Post 
Office is situated. Mark well that corner-house — a wine- 
shop from time immemorial. Here was bred and born 
the boy Schumacher, son of the proprietor, a wine- 
vendor, later known throughout Europe as Count Grif- 
fenfeld, the minister and adviser of Christian V. 

Tacked on to the Church of the Trinity, erected by 
Christian IV. for the University students, the Round 
Tower stands before us, built by the engineer Steen- 
winkel of Emden, itself intended for an observatory, 
though now no longer used as such ; and here, previous 
to the fire of 1728, was preserved the celebrated globe 
of Tycho Brahe, together with his mathematical instru- 
ments, brought over from Germany by Prince Ulrik. 
You gain the summit by a broad spiral staircase, like 
that of the castle of Amboise, — no steps, an inclined 
plane, along the sides of which are ranged numerous 
Runic stones, recklessly removed from their original 
localities. Without inscriptions to tell whence they 
came, or what they signify, they stand dirty, useless, 
and neglected, but are to be removed to the new 
gardens of the University Library when completed. 
Opposite to these Runic stones is the sepulchral slab of 
Dyveke, of which I shall speak elsewhere. Up this 
spiral staircase Czar Peter is said to have driven four 
in hand : how he turned at the top is a mystery to me ; 

150 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

but so tradition declares.* In the roof of the church 
is contained the Library of the University, rich in 
Icelandic Sagas and treasures of inestimable value. At 
the bombardment of 1807 a cannon-ball struck and 
passed through the roof of the library, knocking to 
shivers an ancient treatise of Hugo Grotius — ' De Pace 
et Bello.' Adjoining stands the" Eegenz, the residence 
of some hundred Danish students. In the centre of the 
quadrangle rises a splendid lime-tree, and from its court 
you gain a better view of the round tower, and Christian's 
celebrated " rebus " inscribed thereon, carved on stone, 
the joint clumsy work of that monarch and sundry 
learned professors of his favoured University: — "DOC- 
TRINAM ET (written in long letters without a stop), 
JUSTITIAM (represented by a long sword) ; DIRIGE 
— JEHOVAH (in Hebrew characters) ; a heart (^ ; 
CHRISTIAN IV. In plain English—" May God direct 
justice and learning in the heart of Christian IV." 

Continuing our course we arrive at the University : 
a hideous, monstrous building, whose ugliness is only 
surpassed by that of the adjoining church of Our Lady 
(the Erue Kirke), a building unworthy to contain those 
exquisite productions of Thorvaldsen, his Christ, the 
Apostles, and the Kneeling Angel, — chefs-d'oeuvre I 
will not insult, by describing within their prison. To this 
merited abuse the Danes will reply, " Why did you bom- 
bard the old church ?" I admit there is some logic in this ; 
but the kindest act we could now perform to their capital 
would be to return and knock over the new one and 
the University into the bargain. It is incredible how 

* " In summer time after supper people delight in running up and 
down the Round Tower as hard as they can." — Monkish Chronicle. 

Chap. X. THE FRUE KIRKE. 151 

so much ugliness came to be concentrated in so small 
a space. 

The earlier church of Our Lady was founded — or, 
at any rate, completed — in the reign of Christian II. 
A short time before the lofty steeple was finished, a 
quarrel took place between the master carpenter and 
his journeyman, who declared himself to be as good a 
workman as his master. When the ornament was to 
be placed on the extreme end of the spire, the master 
caq3enter ordered a board to be made fast and laid 
across. Her then went to the end and did what was 
necessary, leaving his axe behind him. He returned, 
and ordered his journeyman, if he considered himself 
equal to him, to go and fetch the axe. The man complied, 
lost his balance, came down headlong, and was killed. 
In consequence of this accident the ornaments of the 
spire were badly fixed, and fell the following year, — 
an omen which, in the superstitious feeling of the age, 
was regarded to have reference to the future fall of 
the monarch himself. The Frue Kirke, with the ex- 
ception of the choir, was destroyed in the fire of 1728, 
which consumed the University, five churches, the 
Hotel de Yille, and 1650 houses. Within its walls took 
place the coronation of the earlier sovereigns of the 
house of Oldenborg, as well as the installation of the 
bishops, which ceremony was conducted with great 
pomp in the presence of the Court. In 1716 the Czar 
Peter of Russia assisted at one, to Ins great satisfaction. 
This church contained many fine monuments. The 
tower was an admirable specimen of the Renaissance, 
surmounted by one pointed fleche, spitted with crowns 
and fantastic ornaments, like truffles on an aiguillette. 

Once, when the steeple of Our Lady was out of 

152 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

repair and likely to fall, Christian IV. ascended to the 
top, to see with his own eyes how the matter stood (no 
one else would), and later gave directions to the work- 
men how it should be fastened together and sustained 
with iron crampions. But now for the sad untimely fate 
of Our Lady's Church. In 1807 three bombs from the 
hostile battery struck her graceful spire ; the whole 
instantaneously fell with a crash, and the first know- 
ledge of the mischief perpetrated was conveyed to the 
inhabitants by the shouts and hurrahs which rose — ■ 
drowning even the roar of the cannon — from those 
remarkably mischievous specimens of humanity our 
British sailors. 

There is wind enough in Copenhagen, Heaven knows ! 
but at the corner of the Place by the Frue Kirke more 
than anywhere, and I will tell you why. 

The Devil and the Wind went out one clay together, 
and, when they came to the corner of this. Place, said 
the Devil to the Wind, " Wait a little for me, for I 
have an errand in the Bishop's palace." He went in, 
but found himself so much at home he forgot to come 
out again ; so the Wind is there still waiting for him. 

The first idea of establishing the University of 
Copenhagen is to be attributed to King Erik the 
Pomeranian, perhaps at the suggestion of his Queen 
Philippa. Before this period the Danes studied 
at Paris, where they had especial colleges for their 
use. The required sanction was obtained from Pope 
Martin V. ; and the Archbishop of Lund, metropolitan, 
was desired to select a fitting site for its construction. 
Neither Erik nor his successor King Christopher found 
time or leisure to follow up the idea, and its first in- 
auguration took place in the reign of Christian L, on 


his return from a visit to Home in 1474. The Pope 
then reigning at the Vatican, Sixtus, fourth of that 
name, renewed the permission. The papal city appears 
to have been much edified by the humility of the Dan- 
ish monarch, as well as delighted by the rarity of his 
gifts, which consisted of dried herrings and codfish, both 
most valuable for Fridays' consumption and the season of 
Lent, and of a quantity of ermine-skins, at that time most 
rare productions ; indeed, two-thirds of the Holy Con- 
clave were obliged to content themselves with " peau de 
chat." The gifts were considered well chosen and 
acceptable, and Christian returned not only provided 
with leave to establish a University, but endowed with a 
"golden rose," a present from the Pontiff himself, to say 
nothing of numberless relics of inestimable value.* 

The inauguration of the University took place, with 
great pomp, in the Frue Kirke ; the statutes were 
framed by the Archbishop of Lund ; and crowds from 
Iceland, Norway, and North Germany, as well as Danes 
without number — bishops, professors, gentlemen, and 
even ladies, together with the king and queen — in the 
enthusiasm of the moment inscribed their names as 
students on the books of the new foundation. The 
University received protection from King John, as well 
as from King Christian II., who issued ordinances for- 
bidding the nobles to educate their sons in foreign parts.f 

* The ivory altarpiece presented by the Pope to Christian I., -when 
in Rome, was in the possession of Aune Krabbe, the celebrated bas- 
bleu of her day, by whose care many of the ancient ballads of the 
countiy were preserved. It is now in the Museum of Northern 

t No one appears to have paid attention to these decrees, for from 
1546 to 1746 many of the Danes frequented the University of Padua. 
I find a long list of names, among which is that of Erik Rosenkrantz. 

154 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

At the time of the Keformation it fell into decay, and 
in the year 1538 was almost closed. Christian III., 
however, supported it, and, aided by the counsels of 
Luther and Melancthon, reformed its statutes, and 
summoned to the country many celebrated professors, 
assigning sundry church-lands for their support ; he also 
decided that for the future the Grand Chancellor of the 
kingdom should be styled "Protector " of the University. 

The University enjoyed the favour of Christian IV. ; 
and to him the students owe, besides the lodgings of the 
Kegenz, many pecuniary advantages. James I. of Eng- 
land, on his visit to the University, presented it with a 
silver cup, the melted remains of which, consumed by 
the before-mentioned fire of 1728, may still be seen in 
the Scandinavian Museum. 

Without approaching too near — for the building 
itself is of brick, mutilated, tumbling down, degraded 
— let us gaze for one minute on the imposing tower 
of the church of St. Peter, completed in 1666, in the 
architecture, not very pure, of the existing period. It 
has, however, a " cachet " of its own, and rises majestic 
with its cupola-shaped spire resting on massive golden 
balls. This church was sadly damaged during the 
bombardment of 1807, and many years elapsed before 
it was restored so far as to be available for use. 

Having "lionized the interior of the city conscien- 
tiously," before we take our evening stroll along the 
ramparts let us indulge in a few calm, unprejudiced 
observations on the before-mentioned and often much- 
blamed " bombardment of the city of Copenhagen." 

I have, of course, read the English account, and since 
my residence in Denmark have carefully studied the 
numerous pamphlets published at Copenhagen shortly 


after the event, as well as several of more recent date. 
I have no national prejudice on the subject : on the 
contrary, residing in the city itself, with "pleine et 
entiere jouissance " of a cannon-ball — triste souvenir — 
inserted in the very masonry of the house we inhabit, 
I almost feel as though bombarded myself. 

Under the then existing circumstances, I cannot see 
how the English Government could have acted other- 
wise. It was a painful necessity. They had received 
from the most reliable sources certain information that 
the Emperor Napoleon, about to occupy Holstein with 
his army, would, if once master of Zealand, seize the 
Danish fleet and employ it against our country for the 
invasion of Great Britain and Ireland. The demand 
made for the deposit of the Danish fleet under our care 
until the conclusion of the war was peremptorily re- 
fused to Lords Gambier and Cathcart: perhaps the 
terms in which it was made were somewhat galling to 
the spirit of Danish independence. They were, how- 
ever, not only refused, but followed up at once by a 
proclamation on the part of Count Brockdorff, declaring 
the confiscation of British property, the annulment of 
debts due to British subjects, and forbidding, as illegal, 
all correspondence with them. This was not likely to 
mend matters. 

Frederic, the Crown Prince — unlike his heroic an- 
cestor King Frederic III., who, when advised to quit the 
besieged capital in 1659, replied, " I will remain and 
die in my nest " — demanded his passport and rejoined 
the royal family located at Kiel. Of the corps diplo- 
matique, the French legation alone remained. 

For my own part, I shall always believe that the Crown 
Prince, then Regent, sacrificed his capital to his own 

156 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

hopes of personal aggrandisement in the formation of a 
kingdom of Scandinavia. Strange to say, the inhabitants 
themselves, though threatened for three weeks, could 
never bring themselves to believe that the bombard- 
ment would take place. The first rocket thrown into the 
town killed a little girl sitting working at her bedroom 
window ; the second killed her mother, nursing her 
child at the street-door. These missiles seemed to have 
a particular spite against the female sex. Fires broke 
out in every direction ; the conduct of the pompiers and 
fire-brigade was admirable, though few, very few, sur- 
vived to tell the tale. On the second day the inha- 
bitants fled to Christianshavn in the island of Amak, 
100 persons lodging in the same house ; 305 houses 
were consumed by the flames, the cathedral was totally 
destroyed. Of the number of women, children, and the 
aged who fell victims to the power of our guns, without 
counting those who died in defending the city, I decline 
giving any account: the statistics vary, and are, we 
may hope, exaggerated. On the fourth day, at eleven 
o'clock, the capitulation of the city was signed by 
General Peymann, who was afterwards disgraced, de- 
prived of his decorations, and dismissed the Danish 
service by the petulant Crown Prince, as a reward for 
his continued brave defence of the capital and his 
humanity in preventing further loss of life and its entire 
reduction to ashes by the cannon of the enemy — a capital, 
too, which the prince himself had deserted and left to 
undergo its fate, unsupported in its calamity by the 
presence of its actual sovereign, for Christian had long 
before sunk into a state of lunacy and mental aberra- 
tion. Whatever may have been the conduct of the 
English Government, that of the Crown Prince tells — 


and will for ever tell — badly in the pages of modern 

Permission must be obtained before visiting the 
Dockyard and Arsenal. The former is somewhat spa- 
cious for the size of the present navy, but there are 
signs of improvement going on ; a new dock of stone 
has been lately completed, capable of containing a man- 
of-war of the first magnitude, and now honoured by the 
occupation of a disabled Kussian frigate. In com- 
parison with the dockyards of England and France, 
there is, of course, little to be seen, but, what there is 
is well arranged and the work well executed. The 
Arsenal contains a large collection of guns, swords, cut- 
lasses, halberts, &c, from the earliest ages, arranged in 
chronological order. The similarity of terms used in 
the two services cannot fail to interest the Englishman : 
the jolle baad — jolly-boat ; aare — oars ; at ro — to row ; 
om bord — overboard ; mast, &c. 

High in the roof of a mysterious-looking edifice is 
preserved a collection of models of frigates, &c, from 
the earliest times downwards. Among them are two, 
hung with small faded garlands, constructed by the 
royal hands of King Christian IV. himself. Like the 
Czar Peter, he entered thoroughly into the mysteries of 
shipbuilding, and his navy profited by Ins knowledge of 
its technicalities. 

We will leave the Dockyard by the gate which leads 
to the separate town of Christianshavn, founded by 
Christian IV. on the island of Amak. Christianshavn 
has a sad deserted appearance — an air of having seen 
better days. Many of its houses have in their time 
been inhabited by people well to do in the world. The 
palace of the long-since extinct Oriental Company looks 

158 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

degraded and forlorn. It is built 6f red brick and white 
stone, and has some architectural pretensions. Chris- 
tian IV. sent an expedition to the East Indies, under 
Ove Giedde, a nobleman of ancient family. Gieclde 
negociated with the King of Tanjore the cession of Tran- 
quebar, where he built a citadel, and formed the only 
Danish settlement in the East. He returned after three 
years' absence, with the treaty engraved upon plates 
of silver. The church of St. Saviour, designed by 
Christian IV., was completed during the reign of Chris- 
tian V. It took three kings to build it. With its exter- 
nal spiral staircase, in the distance it tells well, but, 
once approach it, an uglier brick edifice, the tower ex- 
cepted, can scarcely be conceived. The interior is vast 
and lofty ; it contains a splendid organ, richly carved, 
supported by two elephants.* The balustrade which 
surmounts the gilt-capped marble font is quaint in 
conception, supported by the white marble figures of 
small children, crying, laughing, praying — doing, 
indeed, almost everything that little children can do — 
and, unlike those of Thorvaldsen, most discreetly 

The island of Amak (Amager), on which we now stand, 
was, as you have, I dare say, heard, colonized in 1516 by 
Christian II., who established here a party of Dutch, 
hoping, by their example, to encourage the art of horti- 
culture among his subjects. It has been styled with 
justice the " jardin potager " of Copenhagen ; the in- 
habitants still retain the ancient costume as worn by 
their Friesland forefathers. 

* Here was interred Countess Viereck, with whom Frederic IV. 
made his first "conscience marriage." She died 1704. See Fre- 

Chap. X. ■ CARNIVAL IN AMAK. 159 

On Shrove Tuesday, up to the days of King ChristianV., 
and may be later, the Court were accustomed to hold a 
carnival in the island of Aniak, disguising themselves 
in the habits of North Holland boors,- with great trunk 
hose, short jackets, and large blue capes ; the ladies in 
blue petticoats and odd head-dresses. Thus accoutred, 
they got up into common country waggons, in each a 
man before and a woman behind, and drove off to a farm- 
house in the island, and there danced to the sound of 
bagpipes and fiddles, having first partaken of a country 
dinner off earthen platters and with wooden spoons, all 
etiquette being laid aside, and little regard paid to 
Majesty or quality. At night they drove home by 
torchlight, and were entertained at the Comedy, and 
partook of a grand supper, spending the evening in the 
same habits, which they never put off till the next day.* 

Two bridges connect this island with the town of 
Copenhagen : one leads into the street before the Bourse. 
You should observe the arms of Christianshavn over the 
archway : a blue tower, three crowns, the cipher of King 
Christian, its founder, supported by two lions. The 
view from the canal on this side of the bridge is novel to 
the eye ; you take the city from a different point, back- 
ways. But we will cross over the second bridge, and so 
gain the ramparts, by which the whole city, including 
Christianshavn, is surrounded. 

It is a pleasant stroll on a fine bright morning along 
the ramparts of the city, laid out with avenues, and 
commanding the adjacent country. If the weather is 
hot, you bend your course under the shade of the thick- 
planted trees ; in colder weather, the sun is always there 

* Molesworth. 

160 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

on the highest embankment, and the wind, too, some- 
times. Should you wish to prolong your walk by one- 
third, take in each bastion within the compass of your 
promenade : you can measure your exercise by rule, and 
all without absenting yourself from the neighbourhood 
of the city. On each bastion stands a gigantic wind- 
mill, ever hard at work ; for wind is not to be classed 
among the wants of Copenhagen : a broad ditch lies 
below, affording admirable skating in frosty weather, 
and drowning, too, when the ice is rotten. The country, 
though fiat, is not ugly ; the foreground is composed of 
water and wood, with the tall houses of the newly built 
suburbs in the distance, together with N0rrebro church : 
all these objects combined remind you of an old Flemish 
landscape ; and more so in the winter season, when the 
snow lies thick upon the ground and the ditch is frozen. 
Concerning the construction of these ramparts there 
is told a story so horrible I can hardly give credit to its 
truth, but the Danes themselves relate it. It appears 
that the earth crumbled down, giving way as fast as the 
workmen built it up : the engineers themselves were at 
fault, so they determined to consult a wise woman, who 
declared the mounds would always continue sinking 
unless a living child was buried underneath. So they 
prepared a recess of brickwork under the ramparts, and 
decorated it gaily with evergreens and flowers, and 
placed therein a little table and chairs, with toys, and 
dolls, and sweetmeats, and a tree lighted with many 
little tapers ; and having enticed a little girl of five 
years old, they clothed her in new garments, and brought 
her to the bower accompanied by a band of music ; and 
whilst the child in her delight played with the dolls and 
toys, the masons quickly closed up the aperture with 


solid brickwork, and shovelled the earth over it : from 
that time the ramparts sank no more. 

In the engravings of Copenhagen, of the year 1587, 
the walls, machicolated and embellished with number- 
less round extinguisher-capped white towers, still existed. 
They now extend from the entrance to the harbour at 
Christianshavn opposite the Langa-linea, until they join 
the citadel on the other side of the town. 

Within that heavy-looking old reel brick house, with 
massive stone window-copings, reminding you of the 
Dutch architecture of William's clay, once resided Tycho 
Brahe, the northern luminary of his century. This 
almost sole remaining house of historic interest in 
Copenhagen the Danes have shown the good taste not 
to destroy. It is converted into an almshouse for aged 
men and women. The building is now under repair, 
and is being considerably enlarged, in a style of archi- 
tecture similar to the original construction. I did not 
visit the interior. 

As we continue our ramble, the houses in the street 
below appear all windows. I defy the occupiers to wash 
and dress unseen, they are so overlooked from the 
heights above, and possess no retreat. l\ow comes the 
Rosenborg Slot, with its three weathercocks, which 
always point in different directions ; sometimes, though 
rarely, a reconciliation is effected between two of them, 
but it is of short duration. Down the street to the right, 
at the corner of which stand the splendid barracks of 
the foot guards, is a small low-built house, called " The 
Golden House," where, in the days of King Frederic III., 
dwelt the king's alchymist, Burrhi by name, as neces- 
sary an appendage to northern royalty of those days, as 
dwarf, court fool, or negro page. 

vol. I. M 

162 COPENHAGEN. Chap. X. 

We now approach the end of our stroll. Look on 
that little quartier, consisting of twelve streets of toy- 
box houses, ranged in symmetrical regularity, the 
domicile and pepiniere of Denmark's navy, founded by 
Christian IV., who loved and protected his sailors. 
Since the reign of that monarch there they dwell, live, 
and flourish, as the crowds of small boys, fighting, 
wrestling, and playing in the Grpnlandgacle, to which 
we now descend, will fully testify. 

My task as cicerone is at an end : you have seen all — 
perhaps you will say, too much ; at any rate, you have 
visited in a desultory manner everything that is to be 
viewed, admired, and condemned in the city of Copen- 



Notice of Thorvaldsen— His Museum — Genius of the New Year — 
His illustrations of Anacreon — The Mercury, Adonis, and Hyrde- 
dreng — The Hall of Christ — The Guardian Angel — The Angel of 
Baptism — The last cabinet, with relics of Thorvaldsen. 


November. — Bertel (or Albert) Thorvaldsen was born in 
Copenhagen, November 19th, 1770. His father Gatshalk 
was of Icelandic origin, by trade a shipbuilder, and 
a carver of images for the navy. The child received 
his education in the free school, and played about 
the streets together with other boys of his age. In 
after life he often related with pleasure how one clay, 
playing on the Kongens Nytorv, he was arrested for 
some mischievous action, and conveyed to the guard- 
house, from which, after much fear and trembling, he 
was dismissed with a strong reprimand. Every morning 
he accompanied his father to the wharf, and early dis- 
played so decided a turn for sculpture and drawing, that 
he was, in his eleventh year, placed at the school of 
the Academy of Arts, where he obtained successively 
the different prizes of the Academy. On one occasion, 
while contending for the great gold medal, he was 
suddenly seized with a fit of discouragement, and left 
the room by a back entrance ; luckily, he encountered 
on the staircase Professor Abelgaard, who forced him to 
return ; he did so, and gained the prize. To this medal 

m 2 

164 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

is attached a travelling stipendium, and the young 
artist now first quitted his native country for Italy. 
From early morn till twilight he worked without repose, 
and when he arrived late at the osteria he contented 
himself with the remains left by Ins fellow students. 

The period of his stipendium was at an end; he 
had accomplished a statue of Jason ; strangers fre- 
quented his studio, admired his work, lauded Ins 
talent, but ordered nothing. The day of his departure 
arrived ; he was about to quit Italy at the very 
moment he began to profit by the advantages derived 
from his residence ; the carriage, with the luggage 
already corded, stood at the door, when his fellow-tra- 
veller was unexpectedly compelled to defer his journey, 
his passport not being en regie. On that one day's 
delay hung the fate of Thorvaldsen's future career. The 
following morning Mr. Hope, having heard of the ris- 
ing talents of the youthful Dane, visited Ins studio ; he 
at once appreciated the merits of the statue of Jason, 
and ordered it to be executed in marble, for the sum 
of 800 zechins. Thorvaldsen himself had fixed the price 
at 600. Mr. Hope advanced him a considerable sum to 
commence the work. 

And now a new epoch commences in the life of Thor- 
valdsen — orders poured in from all sides, even from his 
own countrymen, who at last discovered his talent. The 
Eoyal Commissioners for building the new Palace of 
Christiansborg and the Frue Kirke became liberal in 
their orders. 

One inveterate enemy, however, pursued Thorvaldsen 
— the Court architect, Hansen, a German by birth. He 
it was who constructed all the hideous edifices of his 
time, by which the Danish capital is so fearfully dis- 


figured — the palace, the Frue Kirke, and others — and 
he might rightly be termed the architectural curse of 
Copenhagen. Jealous in disposition, he determined, as 
he expressed himself, " to keep little T. under water." 
He did so, as far as he was able. Other princes and 
people, however, recognised Thorvaldsen as a great 
artist ; the Italians styled him " II maestro dei bassi- 
rilievi." In the year 1820 he was greatly distressed 
on receiving a letter from Mr. Hope, inquiring if he 
would ever send his Jason. Dissatisfied with the first 
statue, he had destroyed it, and commenced a second, 
which, however, remained more than twenty years un- 
finished. He now rallied his energies, worked with in- 
credible celerity, and masterpiece after masterpiece was 
sent forth from his studio. 

Thorvaldsen frequently revisited his native country, 
and in the year 1838 resolved to quit Italy and establish 
himself in Denmark. To convey himself as well as his 
works to Copenhagen, the Danish Government placed at 
his disposal the frigate " Eota." The day of his arrival was 
celebrated as a national festival. The roads were crowded 
with boats ; and, though the day was damp and foggy, 
at the moment Thorvaldsen left the frigate, and was 
received by the cheers of his countrymen, a splendid 
rainbow burst forth, adding to the attractions of the 
scene. Apartments were allotted to him in the palace 
of Charlottenborg, looking out on the Botanical Gardens ; 
and here he resided during the remainder of his life. 

Thorvaldsen was* no courtier: overwhelmed with in- 
vitations, to prevent jealousy he gave orders to his 
servant Wilkens, the present custode of the Museum, 
always to accept the first invitation, whether from prince 
or artisan ; and it was Wilkens' s duty to tell him each 


day where he was to go. One morning, Christian 
VIII., having visited his studio, before leaving invited 
him to dine the following Thursday. Thorvaldsen looked 
at Wilkens, who was standing near the door, and asked, 
" Can I ? " Wilkens, somewhat embarrassed, replied, 
" 0rsted." " I thank your Majesty," said Thorvaldsen, 
" but on Thursday it is 0rsted's* birthday, and he would 
be hurt if I refused his invitation." Frank and simple 
in his language, he was somewhat too much so in his 
letters. Once, in Italy, a prince of royal blood, who 
owed him a considerable sum of money, seemed dis- 
inclined to discharge the debt. At Thorvaldsen's 
request, one of his countrymen indited a letter, in 
his name, demanding payment : the style of the epistle 
was too humble : Thorvaldsen quickly tore it up, and 
wrote instead, " Your Royal Highness, I must have my 

Unspoiled by the attention and respect he received, 
he continued simple-minded and child-like to the last. 
He passed much of his time at the manor of Nys0, in 
Zealand, the property of Baron Stampe, where a studio 
was built for him in the garden, and Avhere he executed 
many of his later works. 

Thorvaldsen died suddenly 24th of March, 1844. His 
funeral was conducted with the greatest solemnity. First 
in the procession walked a deputation from the navy. 
On the coffin, borne by students and artists, were laid his 
numerous decorations ; and it was covered with garlands 
placed thereon by the queen and princesses. The little 
children of Copenhagen subscribed together their skil- 
lings, and purchased with the proceeds a garland of 

* Minister of State. 


silver leaves to place upon the bier. All delighted to 
honour him, — the high, the humble, — the rich, the poor, 
— the old, and the young. 

When the funeral procession arrived at the church of 
Our Lady, the king, the prince, and magnates of the 
land, all left their seats, and accompanied the coffin to 
the altar. All Denmark came forward on that day to 
attend the funeral of one they had loved and respected 
when living, and whose unrivalled talent added to the 
glory of their country. 

By his last will, with the exception of a sum be- 
queathed to his natural daughter, he left all his property 
to found a museum for his works and collections in 
Copenhagen, the inauguration of which took place in 

Thorvaldsen never married. He was for many years 
engaged to a Miss Mackenzie, a young Scotch lady, to 
whom he was much attached ; but the course, however, 
of his true love ran not smooth, and the marriage 
was broken off. 

In accordance with his expressed desire, he lies in- 
terred within the inner court of the building. An obloug 
box of polished granite, planted with ivy, covers over his 
remains. He requires no more. Like Sir Christopher 
Wren, he may exclaim, " Si monumentum aequeris, cir- 
cum spice." 

The Thorvaldsen Museum was built partly at the 
public cost, the sum bequeathed by the illustrious 
sculptor proving insufficient to defray the expenses of 
its erection. 

Of the exterior of the edifice itself I will say 
little ; it is hideous in every point of view, and one 
of the numerous examples of the folly of transplant- 


168 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

ing the architecture of sunny Greece and Italy to a 
northern clime. It is a blot to the city of Copenaghen. 
Around the outer wall runs a colossal fresco, in true 
Etruscan tints, on a dark background, which depicts the 
arrival and disembarkation of Thorvaldsen, with his 
various works of art, in the capital of Ins native 
country. The Dying Lion, the Angel, Countess 0ster- 
niann, Pope Pius, Ganymede, huge yellow bales 
marked A. T., rise in profusion, reminding me some- 
what of the slides of a magic-lantern. ' This fresco now 
appears somewhat ludicrous, particularly as many of 
the figures are likenesses of well-known individuals : 
could they be covered up for a century, they woidcl be 
highly interesting at the expiration of the period ; 
greatly, however, to the credit of Copenhagen small 
boys, they remain uninjured — undecorated with " spec- 
tacles on nose," or pipes suspended to their mouths. 

A long corridor surrounds the spot where Thorvaldsen 
lies interred ; the pavement tesselated ; the ceilings blue 
and starry ; against the walls, which are dark and in good 
relief, are placed many of the sculptor's largest works. 

It is always pleasant on entering a strange house, of 
whose contents you feel profoundly ignorant, to stumble 
on an old acquaintance : it puts you in good humour, 
and carries back the mind far away to days gone by, 
and scenes half forgotten rise fresh to your memory. 
Such were my feelings when, on entering the corridor, 
my eye lighted on the Lion of Lucerne dying on the 
fleur-de-lys of France, erected to the memory of the 
faithful Swiss guard who fell on the 10th August, 1792, 
in the defence of France's sovereign. Then comes the 
celebrated frieze the Triumph of Alexander, executed 
by Thorvaldsen in expectation of the proposed visit of 


Napoleon to Borne. Napoleon never came. One copy 
of the frieze is at Copenhagen, in the palace of Ckris- 
tiansborg, one at Eome, the third in the villa of Count 
Somniariva, on Lake Como. At the conclusion of the 
frieze the artist introduces himself — the last figure — in 
conversation with a Grecian soldier. The Sermon of 
St. John the Baptist now decorates the unseemly church 
of Our Lady : the head of the woman seated, with a 
child, on the right-hand side, is the bust of Vittoria 
Cadone, the celebrated Eoman beauty, who, picked up 
as a child by M. Ksestner, the Hanoverian Minister, 
became the admiration of the seven-hilled city. 

Many are the busts of the great — more of the for- 
gotten; among the former that of Napoleon apothe- 
osised, crowned with bay-leaves, borne aloft on the 
wings of the imperial eagle. This is admirably exe- 
cuted, and of classic beauty. 

In the adjoining vestibule stand mauy of his well- 
known statues — that of Outenburg, now in the pub- 
lic Place of Mayence ; of Pius VII. seated in his papal 
chair, which we have all seen, but not admired, in 
St. Peter's at Eome ; of Eugene of Leuchtenberg, of 
Maximilian of Bavaria, both at Munich ; and of Joseph 
Poniatowski, intended to be erected at Warsaw, but 
the intention was never carried out. What became 
of this statue no one knows ; the revolution broke out ; 
the pieces forwarded from Eome in detail disappeared ; 
perhaps, like the statue of Charles I. at Charing Cross, 
they may be again discovered and brought to light 
in some succeeding century. 

Within the cabinets which we now enter are con- 
tained the gems of the collection ; and here you may 
linger hour after hour, and at each succeeding visit drink 

170 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

in fresh beauties. The bas-reliefs are exquisite, all gems 
of loveliness : of his statues I infinitely prefer his males 
to those of the female sex. Thorvalclsen was no admirer 
of the Eubens school of beauty, and perhaps his fault lay 
on the other side ; his young girls are emblems of purity 
and innocence, somewhat too thin and unrounded even 
for youth. His Psyches and his Hebes are charmingly 
designed, but his full-grown women are mostly failures. 
We now enter cabinet the first, where, along with the 
Ganymede, too chetif, if I may use a French expression, 
stands encrusted in the walls the pretty bas-relief which 
forms the well-known frontispiece of each Danish 
almanac, "The Genius of the New Year." From his 
arm hangs a garland of spring flowers, in one hand 
a sickle, in the other some wheatears and a bunch 
of grapes ; while his skated feet glide over the sign 
of Capricorn in the Zodiac which surrounds him. 

" The Ages of Love " would reconcile the most deter- 
mined old bachelor to the existence of infantine beauty 
and squalling babies. Psyche, seated near a wicker 
basket of Loves, distributes them to mortals of all ages : 
the Loves peep out and struggle between the wicker bars ; 
a small child, curious, of course, wants to know what 
he is too young to understand ; he would like to play 
with them — he lifts the covered cloth and peeps in. His 
sister, older still, from an undefined sensation, bends 
forward to the embrace of a small Cupid who tries to 
reach her. From that age all marches en regie — 
Adolescence and Manhood ; Middle Age holds a Love 
indolently by his wings, — she no longer cares about it ; 
Old Age (he ought to be ashamed of himself) stretches 
out his arms, but Love laughs at him and flies away, 
refusing to be caught by decrepitude. A copy of this 


charming work is in the possession of Lord Taunton, one 
of Thorvaldsen's earliest friends and patrons. 

There is a luxe of beauty in the second cabinet — " The 
Infant Genii making music :" " Love stealing from the 
couch of Psyche asleep :" and prettier still, " Psyche, 
lamp in hand, peeping at Cupicl in bed." " Love cherish- 
ing the Serpent of Hygeia " was struck to celebrate the 
" silver marriage " of King Christian VIII. and his 
amiable Queen, Caroline Amalie of Augustenborg. In 
this cabinet are contained five or six more bas- 
reliefs : Love, always Love, the subject, and all charm- 
ing to gaze upon. " The Dance of the Muses on Mount 
Helicon" is in his early style; the drapery tells of 
Canova's school, somewhat meretricious. " Venus," a 
pretty Venus, too, though I have seen others I like better ; 
she looks modest and pure. Three copies of this statue 
were sent to England, and all, strange to say, came to grief : 
one in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire now 
wears a golden bracelet to conceal her damage ; those of 
Lord Lucan and Lord Taunton both met with accidents 
on their voyage from Italy. " Love taming the Lion :" 
fearlessly he flogs him, as a schoolboy would his 
Shetland pony, while the king of quadrupeds trots along 
quiet and passive. 

" Love drinking wine with Bacchus ;" not the youth- 
ful Bacchus, but Bacchus crowned with smilax wreath, 
still beautiful, though half besotted. " Love harboured 
by Anacreon:" admirably are expressed in the marble 
the old man's care and tenderness for the frozen child, 
who, viper-like, pierces the breast of his protector with 
his winged shaft. "Jason carrying off the Golden 
Fleece" — the property of Mr. Hope : Thorvaldsen is 
said to have much improved on the plaster cast; it 

172 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

is, however, as it stands, a fine expressive statue, some- 
what high-hipped, like the Apollo Belvedere. 

And now we come to four bas-reliefs destined to 
adorn the pedestal of the statue of Achilles, which was 
never executed. In that of " Briseis carried off from 
Achilles " the figure of the enraged hero is admirable : 
he sits convulsed with passion, stamps with rage, clenches 
his fist till the veins swell ready to burst. 

In the bas-relief of " Hebe serving wine to Hercules " 
the Hebe is the prettiest of all Thorvaldsen's females ; 
not the modest Hebe, but Hebe bright and sparkling, 
patroness of modern barmaids : she froths up the wine, 
or whatever it may be, for Hercules, who holds out 
his cup, and evidently enjoys being chaffed. "Mars 
under the influence of Love " is a fine group ; a beau 
ideal of manly beauty made a fool of. In " Homer 
singing before the people," Thorvaldsen has introduced 
his own likeness and that of Lord Taunton. " Hector 
reproaching Paris :" the soft effeminate Paris, his limbs 
relaxed by indulgence, his muscles unstrung; Helen, 
calm and insidious, takes the part of her lover ; while 
Hector, active and vigorous, a man of thew and sinews, 
forms an admirable counterpart to his listless brother. 

Who does not know "Night," one of Thorvaldsen's 
fairest conceptions ? Night, crowned with poppy-heads, 
wafts softly through the air two children, one dead and 
hanging nerveless in her arms, while his brother sleeps 
calmly : the very marble breathes sweet sleep ; you feel 
that the infant will wake up at break of day refreshed 
and invigorated. This bas-relief might act as a narcotic 
to the invalid ; there is something soporific in the very 
act of gazing on it. In the space of four hours did Thor- 
valdsen compose and execute this most charming of his 


works. He sat as usual, his clog Teverino on one side, his 
cat on the other — they always bore him company — and 
worked away while the spirit was on hiin. " Day," too, 
the companion, he composed the same afternoon. Day, 
bright and fresh, her face washed in dew, scatters her 
glittering flowers ; they sparkle as they fall : the infant 
genius, her companion, must be the very child who slept 
so calmly in Night's arms, the beau ideal of health and 
vigour. Copies of " Day " and " Night " were executed 
for the late Lord Lucan. 

" Love stung by a Bee :" no Spartan child was Cupid ; 
he rushes in an agony of pain and terror to Venus, roar- 
ing most lustily. Thorvaldsen loved greatly the Odes 
of Anacreon, and has portrayed them all, or nearly so. 
Again, we have " Venus, Cupid, and Mars in the forge 
of Vulcan :" calmly sits Venus and cajoles her lord and 
master ; he, duped by the wiles of his faithless spouse, 
quietly forges the arms destined for his rival, while 
Cupid, childlike, plays with the finished javelin. 

And now we approach the gem of the collection, the 
" Mercury," pronounced by all judges to equal the finest 
productions of Grecian art — "Mercury about to slay 
Argus :" stealthily he draws his . weapon ; in his left 
hand he holds his pipe, as though about to play. In 
form, perfection ; not one ounce of superfluous flesh has 
he ; a fit messenger of the Gods, ready to fly at a 
moment's notice ; his features are of exquisite but of a 
bad beauty, for Mercury was god of thieves as well : no 
woman could ever love such a face, or, if she did and 
trusted him, Heaven help her ! for sorrow would be her 
lot. Thorvaldsen, one clay walking in the streets of 
Rome, saw a young Roman boy talking with some girls 
selling fruit ; the attitude struck his fancy, and from it 

174 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

he composed his statue of Mercury. I know no work of 
his, or indeed of any sculptor, to be compared to this : 
the original is in the possession of Lord Ashburton. 

In the adjoining cabinet stands the statue of the 
Princess Bariatinsky, ordered by her husband : half 
the money was paid to the artist in advance, but 
the statue when completed remained in his studio. 
The prince died, and when, many years later, it 
was claimed by Ins son, his claim came too late ; the 
statue had already been removed to Copenhagen, and the 
Danish Government refused to cede the original : the 
prince was ^therefore compelled to content himself 
with a copy executed by Bissen. The attitude of the 
princess is dignified and commanding ; the drapery, a 
masterpiece of art, falls naturally, apparently without 
any arrangement. In this work Thorvaldsen excelled 
himself. The funeral monument of the youthful Beth- 
mann Holwegg is a strange jumble of the sacred and 
profane : the dying boy extends to his brother his civic 
crown. What is a civic crown in these matter-of-fact 
days? is it a sort of German freedom of the city in a 
snuff-box, or what ? His genius stands behind him, a 
beautiful figure : on one division are his mother and 
sister, convulsed with grief; to the right the Goddess 
Nemesis, the river Arno, and a lion, to decipher all which 
an CEdipus would be required : it is a pity to see so 
much good work expended on such an enigma. 

Then we have the genius of matrimony, Hymen 
and Cupid, in honour of the marriage of his present 
Majesty and the Princess Wilhelmina. The rejected 
statue of Lord Byron we all know, so long unpacked 
in the Custom-house of London, now at last housed 
in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. The poet 


is here done justice to ; he looks inspired, his mouth 
half opened, his dress — in spite of the unbecoming cha- 
racter of modern male attire — hangs easily upon him, 
and under Thorvaldsen's chisel becomes inoffensive, if not 
graceful. " Ganymede feeding the Eagle of Jupiter :" 
one of the prettiest of the sculptor's conceptions ; the 
face of the boy is beautiful, while the eye of the eagle 
flashes fire in the very marble. Endless are the bas- 
reliefs of Loves, each prettier than the other : well was 
Thorvaldsen termed the sculptor of Love ; no one ever 
equalled him in the number of such compositions. 

"Adonis," — the original is in theGlyptothec at Munich, 
— graceful and listless, tired after hunting : the marble 
is I hear much improved upon, and I hope refined. 
Beautiful though the statue be, it does not bring to my 
mind the hunter boy from whose blood the graceful 
wind-flower sprang : he is somewhat too fleshy, and 
resembles more the pampered favourite of Hadrian, the 
young Antinous. 

On, on ! we must not linger : — and now we have the 
"Herds Boy" (Hyrde-dreng), own brother to Adonis. 
While Thorvaldsen was engaged in the execution of the 
Adonis, the model long reposed in the attitude here 
represented : so enchanted was Thorvaldsen with his 
pose that he struck him off at once, seating his 
dog Teverino by his side. It is one of his very best 
productions, and rivals the " Mercury," though I for 
one can never allow that it equals it. Mercury is the 
triumph of the ideal, and cannot be put in the same 
category with the graceful model of a Boman peasant. 
Any day, on traversing the Campagna, or by the shores 
of the Mediterranean, your eye will light on fishers, 
shepherds, groups endowed with a grace, an abandon 

176 .COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

of limb, the natural effect of a sunny clime, not to be 
acquired by the most studied lessons of an accomplished 
ballet-master. The Hyrde-dreng is nature in all her 
freshness, as mankind would always be were it unencum- 
bered by the conventionalities of civilization. Mercury is 
nature refined, idealised, a composition of the highest 
order of art. The statue of Thorvaldsen leaning on 
Hope is dignified, and is said to be an admiral* ie like- 
wise of the sculptor. " Why did you so represent your- 
self, leaning on Hope too, at your advanced age ?" in- 
quired a friend. " Because," replied Thorvaldsen, " in 
modelling my own statue, I thought right to assume the 
severest style of iEgmaetan art: I could not idealize 
myself as I might another, it would have appeared 

Having finished with gods and nymphs, with heroes 
ancient and modern, we enter the " Hall of Christ." 
Universal was the genius of Thorvaldsen : in his Mer- 
curies he equalled the sculptors of early Greece, and 
now, in subjects of higher interest, he awes you with 
the solemnity of his productions. In Italy, Spain, and 
other Roman Catholic countries, our Lord is mostly 
represented in his agony, nailed to the cross, sad 
and painful to gaze upon ; here, He stands, dignified 
yet benign, surrounded by the Twelve Apostles ; mild 
and exquisitely beautiful in countenance, he extends 
his arms to those who seek consolation, and appears as 
though he were pronouncing the divine words, " Come 
unto me all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I 
will give you rest." There is something encouraging in 
liis attitude ; tenderness and goodness are expressed in 
every feature. I prefer the plaster cast in this museum 
to the marble statue itself in Our Lady's church : the cast 


stands uncovered against the dark background, while 
the statue is disfigured by tawdry velvet hangings. Of 
the figures of the Twelve Apostles, that of St. Paul is 
perhaps the most striking : his attitude, unlike that of the 
Eedeemer, is one of warning and reproof ; deep thought 
is expressed on his countenance ; he has thought much, 
and perhaps, like all converts, somewhat harshly of 
mankind ; he would frighten, drive the sinner to repent- 
ance. Opposite to St. Paul stands St. Peter, keys in 
hand: a fine face, but not the intellect of his fellow 
Apostle ; and there Thorvaldsen showed his judgment. 
St. Peter was not a man of education; he was the 
humble lowly fisherman, from whose mouth the truth 
came. St. John, beautiful, youthful, holy, writes down 
the word from inspiration ; St. Matthew from dictation. 
Charming is the statue of St. James the younger, with 
his palmer's hat and staff: joyful he sets forth on his 
journey to preach the truth, love and goodwill towards 
man ; no thought of the future, no anticipation of 
imprisonment, torture, and death overshadows his 
countenance. These statues are all of them more or 
less admirable. I merely mention those which appear to 
me most characteristic of the individuals they represent. 

Two bas-reliefs in this salle are worthy of remark, and 
interesting from the histories attached to their execution. 
One, " The Guardian Angel," is symbolical of Thor- 
valdsen's own history and early life : the angel is repre- 
sented as sending the child forth into the world, shadowed 
by her own protecting wing. The other is " Christian 
Charity." A ruined Norwegian merchant, Gumrums 
by name, in the earlier part of the present century, 
wrote to Thorvaldsen, imploring him to save him and 
his family from utter starvation by giving him one of 

vol. I. N 

178 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

his bas-reliefs, which he might dispose of, and by the 
proceeds recommence some new trade or occupation. 
Tliorvaldsen, ever open to the appeals of his country- 
men, composed the bas-relief of " Christian Charity :" it 
arrived too late ; the merchant had already sunk under 
the weight of his Diisfortunes ; but his children benefited 
by the kindness of the artist, and received the price of 
the marble bas-relief now in the church of Our Lady at 

Having finished with all sacred subjects, let us again 
turn to the profane — to the " Kneeling Angel " * — for 
sacred I cannot term her — pronounced by Tliorvaldsen 
himself to be his best work. Well, it would be arrogance 
on my part to contradict him : beautiful it is, no one can 
deny, but not the beauty of holiness. We read how the 
artists of the middle ages, before composing the portrait 
or statue of some holy saint, watched, fasted, and prayed, 
until they worked their ideas into a state of mental 
extasy, and then were delivered of those gems of the ideal 
holy and undefiled, such as Kaphael painted, the glory 
of each southern gallery. So did not Thorvaldsen. He 
thus expressed his ideas to a friend : " My statue shall 
be half woman, half angel." The real woman, his 
model, was present before his eyes, and the angel, a mere 
creation of the brain, was nowhere ; so the daughter of 
man got the best of it. The angel is a woman, such as 
we have all of us seen, and that right often ; a woman, 
too, who would grow fat early in life, soon "show 
her stays " and lose her figure. Were there anything 
sacred about the matter, English ladies would never 

* The Angel of Baptism (Daabens Engel) forms the baptismal font 
in the Frue Kir] - ". 


have converted this baptismal font into a drinking foun- 
tain for their dogs ; and in nine houses out of ten in 
England, where you find lapdogs, there will you also 
find " The Kneeling Angel " of Thorvaldsen. 

As we mount the staircase, before us midway stands 
the colossal Hercules — Hercules every inch of him — 
more interesting to anatomists than to the world in 
general. Three several times did Thorvaldsen nearly 
lose his life during the execution of this huge colossus : 
stepping back from the figure to observe the effect of 
his modelling, he fell headlong from the scaffolding to 
the floor beneath ; each time, by good fortune, uninjured. 
The corresponding corridor above contains more statues, 
more bas-reliefs, many repetitions of those we have 
visited below. One cabinet holds his original models, 
while in the remaining are exposed to view the various 
collections of pictures, statuary, coins, gems, Etruscan 
vases, &c, bequeathed by him to his country, and directed 
by his will to be kept for ever separated from other 
similar collections. Among the pictures, chiefly of 
the modern school, some good, others purchased from 
a charitable feeling from poorer artists, hangs his 
own portrait by Horace Vernet, executed at the very 
time he modelled the bust of that celebrated painter. 
An excellent honest face was Thorvaldsen's, with a 
benign expression, fine broad expansive forehead, alto- 
gether characteristic of the North. Among the Roman 
antiquities you will find two small arrowheads of the 
Stone period, encrusted in gold, worn as amulets round 
the neck, as preservatives probably against witchcraft. 
These were discovered in Italy, far removed from the 
region of their origin. 

And now we approach the last cabinet. Step gently, 

n 2 

180 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XI. 

you are on almost sacred ground. You may imagine 
yourself in the salon of the artist himself. Here are 
arranged his furniture, his pictures as they existed in 
his lifetime, his tables, chairs, his very inkstand. Fif- 
teen years have elapsed since his spirit fled ; it seems 
as though he left them yesterday. Protected by a glass- 
case stands the model of a head of Luther, unfinished, 
on which the sculptor worked the very day of his death. 
Against the walls hangs his last sketch, an ebauche in 
crayon — the Genius of Sculpture seated on the shoulder 
of the statue of Jupiter ; among the portraits is a family 
group of his daughter, her husband Colonel Paulsen, and 
her children, boy and girl. The latter was not destined 
to reach woman's estate — she died not long since : of 
the boy I know nothing. 

There is something solemn and touching in this finale 
to our wanderings : it brings the sculptor home to your 
mind, and I have always observed that visitors leave 
this chamber somewhat quiet and subdued, speak little 
when there, and in a voice half whisper. Before quitting 
the building let us pay a short visit to his old servant 
Wilkens, now custode of the museum. 

I did so early one morning before the crowd arrived, 
expressly to see some sketches from the hand of Thor- 
valdsen. After inspecting several, the old man's heart 
warmed on the subject, and, unlocking drawer after 
drawer, he displayed to me various relics of his beloved 
master. There was the heavy uncouth silver watch — 
his property when he first left his native city for the 
South ; a better one, purchased in later and more pros- 
perous days ; and lastly, a gold chronometer, the gift 
of an English friend. Then there were his spectacles 
with broad silver rims, implements of various kinds, 


and lastly, the plaster cast of the sculptor's hand, taken 
after death, between the fingers of winch is inserted the 
very spatula he used in the moulding of his last work, 
the head of Luther. 

Admirable is the arrangement of this museum — a 
credit to the talents of the illustrious man who adorned 
it with such glorious produce of his art, and not less 
a credit to the country who appreciated him as he 
deserved, and, setting aside all jealousy of rank, birth, 
and precedence, acknowledged and treated as the " first- 
personage of the kingdom " the son of an humble car- 
penter, Bertel Thorvaldsen. 



Who's who in Denmark — Creation of the titled nobility by King Chris- 
tian V. — Danish patronymics — Simplicity of the Danish names — 
Surnames only recently adopted — Antiquity of the name of Grubbe 
— Families of Scotch extraction — Royal Picture Gallery — Eantzau 
le Beau — Zeemann, the sailor artist — Journal of Albert Diirer — 
Portraits of Prince Henry and Charles I. — Carl v. Mander and A. 
Wuchter — Pastels of Professor Juel. 


December. — The orders of titled nobility exist only in 
Denmark since the reign of Christian V. Previous to the 
year 1670 the titles of Baron and Count were unknown : 
all those who were of noble birth, " armigeri," or created 
so by letters patent, were styled " noble," without any 
extra distinction. The favourite minister of King Chris- 
tian, by whose advice this revolution was created, was 
probably not unwilling to exchange his plebeian name 
of Schumacher for the more high-sounding appellation 
of Count Griffenfeld, by which he is chiefly known in 
history. In 1671 he created nine Counts and twenty- 
five baronial houses. 

The nobility was then divided into three heads — 
Counts, Barons, and those who bore no title at all. 
Among these last were many of the oldest families of 
the kingdom, who refused to be parties to the monarch's 
innovation. Certain privileges were granted to the new- 
made Counts and Barons, and thirteen Counties (Greys- 


kaber*) were created into fiefs, which the Counts held 
as vassals of the Crown. They had the rights of " sanc- 
tuary " within their own domains for all crimes except 
" lese-majeste " — the right of " treasure trove " on their 
estates, as well as " flotsam et jetsam," with exemption 
from taxes and all ordinary imposts. Each county was 
held by feudal tenure, and a fine was payable at the 
death of the proprietor, according to the regulations of 
the charter by which it was held. The county of Lange- 
land paid a purse of red velvet containing 400 gold rose 
nobles ; Laurwigen three iron guns ; in the same manner 
as the small seigneuries of the Channel Islands and 
many ancient manors of England are still or were 
formerly held of the Crown. 

The privileges of the Barons were much less than 
those of the Counts, and at the proclamation of the con- 
stitution of 1849 these (with the exception, perhaps, of 
that of sealing their letters with red wax) were abolished. 

The only instance of the rank of Duke being conferred 
upon a subject occurs in the person of Knud Porse, Duke 
of Sams0 and South Halland, of whom we have already 
made mention.! 

It was not until after the reign of Frederic I. that the 
Danish nobles definitively assumed patronymics. Pre- 
vious to that time they merely continued to be called 

* These were Danneskiold - Laurwigen and Damieskiold-Sams0, 
both bestowed on sons of royalty — the first on the son of Frederic III. ' 
by Margaret Pappen ; the second on the son of Christian V. by Sophia 
Moth : both bore the traditional name of Gyldenl0ve (see p. 43). 
The remaining Counties were Keventlow, Holstein, Langelaud (Ahle- 
feldt), Wedellsborg, Jarlsborg, Knuthenborg, Gyldensteen, Sehacken- 
borg, Kantzau, Friisenborg, and Scheel. The fiefs of Laurwig and 
Jarlsborg were lost with Norway. 

t See p. 91. 


by the name of the father, with son or sen added, and 
were only distinguished by their coats of arms.* The 
Danish patronymics are singularly short and undistin- 
guished, and the older the family the uglier they are. 
It is not to be wondered at that, on the creation of the 
titled nobility, Christian, as well as the individuals 
ennobled, were glad to smarten up their names into 
something more imposing than those they had received 
from their fathers before them. I have copied out 
a few from the Armorial, which somewhat struck my 
fancy, and give them, chrysalis as they were, and but- 
terfly as they become : — 

Hansen . . 

1686 becomes 


Hassius .. 

.. 1718 



Hansen .. 

.. 1748 




• • • • 



Meyer . . 

.. 1721 



Nielsen . . 

.. 1679 




.. 1695 




• • • ■ 




.. 1676 



Wesel . . 

.. 1716 



And many 



It is amusing to see what favour lilies, roses, lions, 
crowns, and thunder, enjoy in the newly-selected appel- 

I do not consider this change of name to have been 
an affair of vanity so much as of necessity : it was quite 
requisite to strike out something new from the insup- 
portable confusion arising from the numerous branches 
of the same families. In the Danish Armorial I find, 
under the head of Nielsen, 19 different coats of arms, 
9 distinct families of Andersen, 14 Bagge, 8 Basse, 10 

* As late as 1591 many of the nobles are still designated as Ma- 
thisen (Krogenos), Maurisen (B0lle), &c. 


Bugge, 23 Jensen, 18 Jonsen, 10 Munk, 19 Olafsen, 
10 Skytte, and many other families in equal proportion. 

The town of Copenhagen swarms with Jensens, Han- 
sens,* Petersons, Thomsens, and all possible " sens." Were 
it not for the Germans, I scarcely know what would 
become of them. When a peasant woman — say Catherina 
— captivated by the attractions of Hans the butcher, or of 
Niels the tailor, entered into the bonds of wedlock with 
one or the other, she forthwith bore the name of the 
trade of her husband, and henceforth became Catherina 
Butcher, or Tailor, as the case might be. 

Very few names of real Danish origin are to be found 
among the titled nobility. They consist chiefly of the 
families of note who have been naturalized in the 
country since the year 1659 ; still some do exist of pure 
Danish descent — as Bielke, Bille, Brahe, Hardenberg,t 
Eosenkrantz, Thott, Trolle, Ulfeld, &c, though even 
among these are some of Holstein extraction. 

But now let us turn to those who, less euphonious, 
are noted among the oldest families of the kingdom. 
Many are marked as " Gammel familie uddod " — extinct 
— and I am sure for those who are blessed with sensitive 
ears it's a mercy they are so : — " And (duck), Alf (elf), 
Begger (pitch, old Danish), Bolt (bolt), Bier, Blaa (blue), 
Daa (doe), Demp, Dan, Eek, Fleb, Fos (waterfall), Flue 
(fly), Gagge, Glib (net), Glob, Glud, Glug (hole), Grib 

* It is only of late years that surnames have been adopted by the 
common people. A law was issued by which every one was ordered to 
remain somebody's son in ssecula sseculorum ; and as more Hans had 
sons than other individuals, Han-sen is the prevailing name among 
the lower orders. 

t The name of Hardenberg occurs as far back as 1095 ; Ulfeld in 


(vulture), Grip, Grim (soot), Gamut (vulture), Griis 
(pig), Greb (dungfork), H0 (bay), lis (ice), Kalf (calf), 
Knae (knee), Knat, Kud, Krum (crooked), Moth, Myg 
(gnat), Muus (mouse), Myrk, Naes (nose), Neff, Neb, 
Oxe (ox), Pee, Pig (spike), Prip, Quie (heifer), Rod 
(root), Rud, Skaal (cup), Saxe (scissors), Skytte (marks- 
man), Slet (plain), Sot (sickness), Splid and Split (discord 
and rent), Stud (bullock), Strucl (end), Ran (robbery), 
Snubbe (1388), Steak, Stick, Suur (sour), Svab, Sviin 
(hog), Taa (toe) — excessively ancient and now un- 
happily extinct. Fancy writing an elegy on the "last 
of the Toes " ! * 

The names of the great Norwegian families were just 
as simple. I find enumerated among those of Chris- 
tian I.'s time Sm0r and Ost — butter and cheese. 

Many of the earliest and most ancient Danish names 
are common in England, and are in all probability of 
Scandinavian origin : as they are all " noble " here, there 
can be no affront in supposing so : — Achesen, Baad 
(boat), Bagge, Basse (wild boar), Beck (streamlet), 
Bing (bin), Bie], Budde (messenger), B0lle (Buller, 
bilberry), Brand (fire), Brun (brown), Burns (1680), 
Byg (buck), Bourke, Dene, Due (dove), Gait (boar), 
Felden, Fleming (Olaf dictus, 1316, old record), Foxe 
(1268), Franke, Hind, Heye (hay), Frost, Graa (gray), 
Drage (dragon), Flint, Dyre (deer), Klerk, Keith (knot), 
Kidd, Green, Haar (Hore), Hair, Hare (1333), Hoste 
(cough), Jesson, Knap (button), Krabbe (crab), Krag 
(crow), Lang (law), Lester, Moss, Munk, Myre (ant), 
Orrn (worm), Paak (Poke), Paris, Pike, Piper, Portman 

* As so many of these names, and those of the following paragraph, 
translate themselves, it is unnecessary to give their meaning. 


(1471), Jermiin, Pott, Komer, Seefeld, ; Stser (starling), 
Tideman, Todde, Winter, &c. 

The family mentioned as iEldgammel par excellence 
is that of Grubbe, one of the oldest in the kingdom, and, 
strange to relate, this said name, certainly not imposing 
in its sound, bears in England the same palm of antiquity 
as its Scandinavian cousiu. Many years since, when 
Lord Lansdowne, as Lord-Lieutenant of Wiltshire, neg- 
lected to place on the list of magistrates the name of 
a certain Mr. Grub, a perfect ferment was excited in 
the county. The then youthful Lord Kerry, astonished 
at the excitement, inquired somewhat sneeringly, " Pray 
who is this Mr. Grub ?" The answer he received was, 
" Mr. Grub possessed lands in the county of Wiltshire 
centuries before Lord Lansdowne's family was ever heard 
of in Ireland." 

Among the list of noble families I find many of 
Scotch extraction, who have settled in Denmark during 
the middle ages ; but, strange to say, not one Irishman. 

First on the list of Scots appears the name of Sinclair, 
of whom there are two families. In the year 1380 
Henricus de Sancto Claro attested, as one of the council 
of the kingdom, that Erik was alone heir to the crown 
of Scandinavia: in 1389 he was created Count of 
Orkney by Erik, who was then associated in the 
government with Queen Margaret. This family bear 
arms nearly similar to those of the Scotch Sinclairs — 
a cross engrailed, quartering four ships with three masts. 
The later family of this name, who settled in 1607 at 
Sinclairs Holm, bear as their arms four lions rampant 
over a cross engrailed. 

The Sandersons, too, stand high, ennobled by Erik of 
Pomerania; Dunbar in 1616 ; Duncan 1685 ; Durham, 


an admiral, died in 1598 ; Balfour and Arnold in the 
last century ; Forbes 1560 ; Keith, a General under 
Frederic V., 1771 ; Lockhart, one of the earliest Scotch 
settlers in Denmark. Of English settlers I have found 
no mention. Two Frenchmen, de Fontenay by name, 
distinguished themselves as admirals in the Danish 
service — a most remarkable event in the page of 
northern history. 


From time to time I love to visit a second-rate gal- 
lery, where no first- class pictures of the Italian school 
entirely engross your attention, and prevent you from 
poking among artists good in themselves, but of less 
account in the world's opinion. This I found to be the 
case in the Eoyal Gallery, which, though by no means 
rich in first-class works, contains much to please in 
the Dutch and Flemish schools. The pictures of the 
Italian masters are few, and those, for the most part, 
have been sadly injured by injudicious restoration. 
It was raining " shoemakers' boys," as the Danes say, 
the morning of my first visit. I went, perhaps, not 
prepared to be pleased; but, when my eyes first 
lighted on a St. Catherine by Luini, bearing a palm 
in her right hand, and behind her the wheel on which 
she suffered martyrdom, recollections of Milan and her 
Gallery rose up before my memory, and I already felt 
in a better humour. King Louis of Bavaria, who 
well knows what he is about, offered a large sum of 
money for this picture. It has, however, suffered, like 
the rest, about the forehead and throat. It was pur- 
chased from the Gallery of Cardinal Valenti, some 


hundred years since, by the King of Denmark. Copies 
of it exist in the Borghese Gallery, as well as in the 
Palace of Hampton Court. Add to this the picture of 
"Cadmus sowing the Dragon's Teeth," by Salvator 
Kosa — a work highly esteemed, though more to be 
admired for the excellence of its painting than inte- 
resting in itself; a second, by the same master, of 
" Jonah preaching to the Mnevites," executed by order 
of Christian IV. for the chapel of Frederiksborg ; a 
"Murder of Abel," by Luca Giordano; and some 
heads by Carlo Dolce, — and you now know what in the 
gallery is best worth looking at of the Italian school. 

When Cardinal Valenti brought over his pictures 
from Italy to Antwerp, art was at a discount; after 
his death the collection was disposed of by his heirs, 
and the cream of the Dutch school I am about to 
describe were chiefly purchased at his sale. The " Christ 
at Emmaus," by Eembrandt, which has been engraved by 
Jean de Frey, is highly thought of; but I have never 
as yet been able to see it in a good light, so cannot 
judge of its qualities ; the portrait of a young Dutch- 
man of rank, called in the Nagler catalogue " his own 
portrait," by the same author, in velvet toque and 
sunny locks, is admirable. 

The "Judgment of Solomon," by Kubens, is the 
glory of the gallery; but, as often occurs in large 
easel pictures, the one half, containing the bad mother, 
the soldier, and living child, is so infinitely superior 
in composition to the rest of the picture, that Solomon, 
in all his glory, is, together with the real mother, 
thrown quite into the shade; added to which, -in the 
bad mother you recognise the sweet features and fair 
form of your old acquaintance Helena Formann. The 


drawing of the soldier and child, scimitar in hand, is 
excellent ; the infant hangs so boneless — so helpless, 
and the man is, in contrast, such a display of muscle, 
that you feel the sword must come down ; it takes 
away your breath.* In one corner of this picture is 
inscribed, around a coat-of-arms, "Mons. Josias de 
Eanzau, Marechal de France, me l'a donne ;" though 
who " me " was nobody knows — supposed to have been 
some Holstein nobleman. This Marechal de Eantzau 
was a Dane of noble birth, who took service under 
Louis XIII. , and was so highly in favour with the 
queen that the northern gossips of the century asserted 
him to have been the father of Louis XIV. himself. 
That Eantzau was a man of great personal attractions — 
fair-haired, a true son of the North — an engraving of his 
portrait, after Eousselet, leaves no cause for doubt, f 
There is another excellent painting by Eubens, the por- 
trait of Matthew Irselius, an aged abbot of the St. 
Michael's convent at Antwerp, died 1629, which was 
painted by Eubens to adorn the superb monument 
of his old and intimate friend, constructed of white 
marble ; but nothing looked well inserted in such a 

* An original pen-and-ink drawing of this picture exists, in the pos- 
session of Mr. Hartzer, in Hamburg ; it has also been engraved by 
Cornelius Visscher. 

f " Rantzau le Beau " he was called, though his beauty became 
later sadly mutilated, for he lost a leg, an eye, an arm, and an ear in 
Flanders, Arras, Dole, and elsewhere, but died in his bed, at Paris, 
aged 41, in 1640. Folks say he wore a sword with an enchanted 
handle, an heirloom descended to him from his great-grandmother 
Anne Walstorf, who was called by a mountaineer to aid his wife in 
childbirth underground, in return for which he presented her with a 
nugget of gold, which she caused to be made into a herring. This 
herring later formed the handle of Josias Rantzau's sword, and bore him 
good luck whenever he used it. 


frame, everything appeared dark, so Eubens executed 
the picture in his most glowing colouring. The con- 
vent was suppressed in 1793, and, during the occupa- 
tion of Antwerp by the French, was turned into a 
stable. What became of the epitaphium I know not ; 
the picture disappeared, and eventually found its way 
into the collection of the King of Denmark. 

The portrait, by Vandyke, of an English lady of the 
court of Charles I., holding in her hand a rose, is a great 
beauty. I was unable to find out who she was. By Both 
there are two good pictures ; one, a Sunrise in the environs 
of Terni, with'groups of shepherds driving their cattle by 
the side of the streamlet, is a glorious specimen of tin's 
favourite master ; Woodburn, when at Copenhagen, 
some years since, pronounced this painting to be one of 
the " imperial pictures of Europe." The second, a 
Muleteer descending a mountain pass, warm and sunny, 
has been considerably injured. 

Of Aldert van Everdingen* little is known out of 
Denmark. A Dutchman by birth, he was much 
employed in the painting of ceilings in Holland, as 
Yerrio and La Guerre were in England somewhat later. 
Wishing to procure employment, he determined to visit 
that country, and try his fortune, after the restoration 
of Charles II. He expected probably to find protection 
among the Cavaliers, perhaps from the king himself, 
whom he had met with in Holland during their exile : 
he embarked on board a merchant vessel, and some- 
how, encountering a terrific storm, got wrecked (the 
sailors must have been drunk or the compass gone 
distracted to steer so far out of their course) on the 

* Ob. 1G75. 


coast of Norway. Here a new light broke upon the 
Dutchman ; accustomed to the formal scenery and 
stagnant canals of his native land, fascinated by the 
glorious aspect of the fiordes and forests, he remained 
many years in the country where chance had cast 
him, and turned his talents from " sprawling gods " to 
the study of the wild nature by which he was sur- 
rounded. His works are almost exclusively to be 
found in Denmark ; and five charming landscapes of 
Norway's wildest scenery are to be met with in this royal 

A setting Sun in Switzerland, by Jan van Hackaert, 
is another of Woodburn's " imperial pictures ;" while, 
by Euysdael, a general favourite with all lovers of the 
Dutch school, there are several charming representa- 
tions of scenes in the wild Ardennes, of torrent and 
rock, with frowning heaven, menacing both man and 
nature. One of these pictures has been engraved by 
P. Schrobers. A group of flowers, freshly gathered, though 
some hundred and fifty years since, by Van Huysum, 
live and bloom immortal on the canvas — those old 
Dutch flowers of bygone times, carnations, poppies, 
narcissus, auriculas, and rosebuds, burst into healthy 
blossom, with birds'-nest, snai], and butterfly, worth all 
the orchidaceaB of the present century. 

Of Lucas Cranach there are many curious and inte- 
resting specimens ; among them a portrait of Luther 
and Catherine Bora, his wife. 

In Dutch sea-pieces the collection is very rich ; the 
taste of Christian IV. and his descendants naturally 
turned that way. The works of Dobbels, the master of 
Backhuysen, are much esteemed and rarely met with, 
and of him we have here one fine specimen. The pupil 


himself is a charming painter, and seems to be more 
ready with his pencil. Maat, Kleeger, and Zeemann, 
all excellent. The latter began life as a common sailor, 
without a name, fatherless, but with a talent for paint- 
ing. Whom he belonged to nobody knew or cared ; his 
shipmates called him " Kene." Finding he could turn 
his talent to greater advantage on land than on the 
ocean, he set up on his own account and adopted the 
patronymic of Zeemann, in allusion to Ins former occu- 

It would be tedious to describe the numerous cabinet 
pictures by well-known masters, such as Gerard Dow 
and Mieris, of whose pencils there are excellent speci- 
mens; the portrait of Ulrik Frederic Gyldenlove, the 
Field Marshal, date 1662, an exquisite little painting 
by Mieris, will bear comparison with the best works of 
this minutest of all artists. 

By Denner, too, " a Savant reading at his desk in 
his dressing-gown," the only pleasant work to gaze 
upon that I know of by this artist, who spares, gene- 
rally, neither the imperfections of youth nor age. 
Denner was much employed as a portrait-painter in 
Denmark, where he resided for fifteen years ; and in 
the year 1717 he is said to have painted, at Husum, 
twenty portraits of the reigning sovereign, Frederic IV., 
by whom he was invited to visit Copenhagen, where he 
spent ten months. Among the numerous interiors of 
the Dutch school, I must not omit a most exquisitely- 
finished painting by Slingelandt, entitled " The Interior 
of a Dutch House." Slingelandt was a pupil of Gerard 
Dow, and an amateur artist, a man of wealth and posi- 
tion, Burgomaster of Utrecht, who, painting for his own 
gratification, had time to finish his work with the care 

vol. I. o 


and attention which artists who earn their living by the 
pallet-brushes can seldom afford to bestow. 

There are many admirable portraits of the Dutch 
school ; of works of historic interest there are few, and 
those duplicates of the pictures contained in the Castle 
of Frederiksborg. A small head, by an unknown artist,* 
of the unfortunate Christian II., capped with a red 
velvet beret, like Edward IV. of England, I must not 
omit to mention. Few sovereigns appear to have been 
more often painted, and well painted too, than Christian 
II. and his family ; but that is easily accounted for by 
his wanderings during his exile. Albert Diirer, in 
a journal, mentions how he sat to him at Brussels, 
and how he dined at a great banquet given in his 
honour by the Regent Margaret, in company with 
the Emperor and Queen of Spain. "The next day, 
Lady-day, 1521," says he, "I drove to Brussels, sent for 
by the King of Denmark. I gave the King of Denmark 
the best of all my prints, worth five florins, but I spent 
two florins eating and drinking, one stiver for dishes and 
baskets ; also I saw how astonished the people were 
when they saw that the King of Denmark was such a 
fine man, and they marvelled that he should travel 
through his enemy's country with only two people. I 
also saw how the Emperor had ridden to Brussels to 
receive him with great honour and pomp." A collection 
of engravings by Albert Diirer, very fine impressions, are 
preserved in the museum of engravings at Copenhagen ; 
they are all signed with the monogram of the painter, 

* All they know is, that be followed in the suite of the Archbishop 
who conducted Elizabeth of Austria to Copenhagen at the time of her 


and date from 1508 till 1520, the year previous to 
his journey. Some of these are on iron, others on 
stone, but the best are on copper. Those on iron, far 
inferior to the rest, date from 1512-16. Although the 
engravings themselves are admirable as works of art, you 
are quite taken aback at the ugliness of his models, both 
male and female, as well as the want of breeding dis- 
played in his horses. The portraits of the early 
reformers, Melancthon and Erasmus, sour-visaged old 
fellows, do not render the collection more attractive. 
There is every reason to suppose this to be the collection 
mentioned by Albert Diirer in Iris journal. 

Christian II. also dwelt for some weeks at Wirtem- 
berg, in the house of Lucas Cranach, who painted him 
a genealogy with his portrait bust thereon.* Quentin 
Matsys and Jean de Mabuse were also employed to paint 
Christian and his family ; and pictures by these masters 
were forwarded as presents to King Henry VIII. of 
England, and to Christian's si#ter Elizabeth: what 
became of the English portraits none can say. 

Until I called to mind that the mother of King 
Charles I. was a Danish princess, the light-hearted Anne, 
I wondered how so many portraits of our early Stuarts 
came to be lodged in Denmark. Anne was proud, and 
justly so, of the beauty of her offspring, and forwarded, 
until the year of her death, numerous portraits of Princes 
Henry and Charles, as well as of their sister Elizabeth, 
to her brother, Christian IV. The greater part of 
these are preserved in the National Portrait Gallery 

* An engraving from which is preserved in the Kobberstik Museum 
at Copenhagen, after the portrait of Christian II. by this master, as 
well as one from a painting by Binck. 

o 2 


at Frederiksborg, where they are arranged in chrono- 
logical order. Two, however, hang suspended in the 
Royal Gallery, one of Charles I., then Prince of Wales, 
by Mytens. He is represented with short-cropped hair, 
much as young men now wear it, with moustache and 
budding beard, clad in a dress of violet velvet, braided in 
green ; he wears a starched ruff of the Jacobian period ; 
the love-locks, and that indescribable expression of 
melancholy so fascinating in the monarch of Vandyke's 
pencil, are here wanting. He appears ill at ease, and has 
a sort of unfledged appearance. A second portrait, by 
Paul van Somer, said to be of the same Prince at a more 
tender age, I believe myself to be that of his brother 
Henry. He is seated on a throne in his robes of state, 
holding in his hand a white rod, a small brown and white 
spaniel at his feet — a fine, handsome, beardless boy of 
eighteen, with short-cropped hair, full lip, sullen expres- 
sion, an air of obstinacy, and little animation, but a face 
which, animated, would become highly attractive. He 
looks bored in his starched lace ruff, collar of St. George, 
and rosetted shoes, and I dare say felt so. The small 
brown and white spaniel dog which plays at the feet of 
Charles (in Mytens's portrait) is not of the race which de- 
rives its name from that monarch, and which we so often 
see represented in his portraits as well as in those of his 
successors. It more resembles that which in former days 
existed in France, and which enjoyed as great a celebrity 
as the black and tan do at present in England. These 
little spaniels went by the appellation of " Mignons Henri 
III.," having been much affected by that monkey-loving 
sovereign, and are often to be seen represented in his por- 
traits, as well as in those of his mother, Queen Cathe- 
rine de Medicis ; the race is now almost entirely extinct, 


and to be met with only in the possession of one or two 
noble French families, who guard them with the same 
jealousy as the grandfather of the present Duke of 
Norfolk did their black and tan brethren. I never had 
the good luck to meet but with one of these little 
creatures, and a more exquisite little animal I never 
beheld, scarcely larger than a rat, brown and white, 
with ears like silk training on the ground ; the little 
creature almost disdained to walk, but when it did it 
scampered and ran like a fairy. 

In reply to my inquiries whether Denmark possessed 
any painters of note in earlier days, I was informed " No. 
Many Dutch artists settled in Denmark in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, and our portrait-painters, who 
have been always excellent, received their education in 
Holland, but we have no national school of our own." 
The first whom I find mentioned is a certain Peter 
Isaacs, who flourished in the reign of Frederic II. A 
Dane by birth, his father was Dutch Consul at Elsinore, 
and had a numerous family ; Peter, one of his sons, 
turned painter, and his portraits were much esteemed in 
his day. His portrait of Christian IY. is by far the most 
flattering to the personal appearance of that monarch as 
a young man ; most of these have been engraved by 
Haelwech. But, though Peter excelled in portrait-paint- 
ing, he was a man of no inventive genius ; he painted 
huge supper-parties in the so-called style of Paul 
Veronese, and servilely imitated the coarsest groups of 
Kubens and Jordaens' clumsiest allegories. 

Next on our list appears Carl van Mander, a Dane by 
birth, but of Dutch origin, court painter to Christian IV., 
all allegory and sprawl, but an admirable painter of 
portraits, as many in the Frederiksborg Gallery attest, 


as well as the engravings of others, long since destroyed 
by fire and damp, by Haelwech and Schalten, of which 
a large collection still exist. 

Some few years later Abraham Wuchter* appears on 
the scene, an artist of first-rate merit; but from the 
reign of Christian IV. downwards the art of painting 
gradually declined, and the masters of the Dutch school 
were gradually replaced by the effective trumpery style 
of the French court painter. Krock, of Flensborg, I 
have already alluded to, though I never recollect, except 
once in the dark, to have come across any of his works, 
and that, an altarpiece, was a poor imitation of the 
Flemish school. The Danes, like the Chinese, appear 
to be wanting in originality of talent, and, unless dis- 
placed from their own country, never seem to succeed. 
Much of this may be accounted for by the German 
feeling which has pervaded the court from the time of 
Frederic III., when foreigners were encouraged to visit 
Denmark, and not only held the highest appointments 
of the realm, but also were employed in all services, to 
the prejudice of the inhabitants of the country. 

The reign of Christian IV. was the golden age of art 
in Denmark; under his patronage not only were painting, 
sculpture, engraving, as well as architecture, brought to 
the very highest pitch of perfection, but in his own 
family the arts appear to have been cultivated with 
considerable success. His youngest daughter, Eleanor, 
was a pupil of Carl van Mander, and a most accom- 
plished carver and modeller. Duke Ulrik, too, his 
fourth son, showed much talent, as is affirmed in a letter 

* All strangers sat to Wuchter, among them Lord Edward Moun- 
tague, "Prefect classis Keipublicaj Angliae," and our English Admiral, 
during an interval of negotiations for peace. 


dated Breslau, Nov. 1, 1633, from the Imperial court 
painter, Bartholomew Strobel. He painted a portrait 
of AVallenstein Duke of Friedland, which was en- 
graved by Simon de Pas. Frederic III. also, as well as 
Count Valdemar, cultivated the arts with some success, 
though carving in ivory appears to have been the chief 
hobby of the former. Before concluding, I must not 
omit to mention Professor Juel, who nourished towards 
the latter end of the last century.* He studied in 
Paris for many years, and on his return to Denmark 
became the court painter. How any one man managed 
to complete the legion of portraits, all admirable, which 
bear his name, I can never understand. I infinitely 
prefer his pictures executed at Paris about the years 
1760 and 1770 to those of a later date, when he had 
too much business on his hands to complete his works 
with the care and attention devoted to his earlier pro- 
ductions. His pastels are of exquisite beauty ; but few 
now remain, the major part having been ruined by want 
of care, and injudicious exposure to damp and light in 
uninhabited apartments. 

On the whole, you may while away a few agreeable 
hours, if you be content with what is really good of its 
kind, in the Royal Picture Gallery at Copenhagen. 

* He died lxm. 



How we lived in Copenhagen — Flytte-dag — The poulterer's shop — 
Domestic economy — The furriers' shops: eider-down — Vieux Da- 
nois porcelain — Jewellery of the peasants of Amak — Danish love 
of locomotion. 


January, 1859. — My choice of Copenhagen as a winter 
residence arose chiefly from its geographical position ; it 
appeared a convenient pied a terre for one anxious in 
the ensuing spring to visit Jutland and the islands of 
the Belt, with a prospect of Sweden and Norway in the 
distant horizon of events. Stockholm is unapproachable 
after the winter sets in, so, without further debate, we 
made up our minds on the subject. I had always 
imagined that strangers visited and wintered at Copen- 
hagen as they do in Frankfort, Dresden, and other 
European capitals ; great, therefore, was our surprise 
when informed that such an event had never yet oc- 
curred within the memory of man. The corps diplo- 
matique looked upon us as demented, while the Danes 
themselves were all wonder and amazement at the 
extravagance of our idea. On our arrival we descended 
at the Hotel Royal, and there we remained comfortably 
housed for the space of five weeks, and on most reason- 
able terms. My old friend Madam (I forget her name), 
who kept the hotel some twenty years since, had lately 
been gathered to her fathers, rather an advantage 
than otherwise, for in an inn new proprietors infuse 

Chap. XIII. FLYTTE-DAG. 201 

new blood, new improvements, and new paint into the 
establishment, and the public are gainers thereby. We 
were soon deep in the horrors of house-hunting : here, 
as in Paris, people inhabit flats, which said flats are 
only let from 19th October to the " Flytte-dag" of the 
following April, and so on. There is no means or pos- 
sibility of hiring rooms for one month or three months, 
as in other towns. Six months is the time allotted by 
law, and for six months you must take them ; this term 
expired, the town of Copenhagen resembles the English 
game of post when a general post is proclaimed, and all 
the company in motion, one individual being left dis- 
consolate without the wherewithal to rest himself — in 
which direful situation I really thought we should find 
ourselves at the eleventh hour ; thanks, however, 
to the assistance of friends, we were at last com- 
fortably located. In hiring an apartment at Copen- 
hagen you hire the bare walls, and not always the bells 
of the house ; some of ours flitted with the last occu- 
pant, and those we did find rang nowhere — where they 
could be heard at any rate. You then arrange with the 
tapissier to furnish for a certain sum : you choose what 
you require, and have marked down in the agreement 
that if you want more later at any time he is to supply 
it ; but do not fancy your miseries end here. The 
tapissier furnishes neither carpets, curtains, china, glass, 
nor batterie de cuisine ; these articles you must hire or 
purchase, or send over from England, as best suits you. 
The transit from Hull by sea is next to nothing, and no 
difficulty is made at the Custom-house for objects already 
used. Do not imagine the police to have shown the deli- 
cate attention to housekeepers of arranging that servants 
are to be hired at the same period as houses ; nothing of 


the kind. Servants engage themselves from November 
1st; we consequently were compelled to remain from the 
19th of October till that day living out and about at a 
restaurant anyhow, till we were tired out, and our one 
man and maid, whom we had brought with us, were by no 
means in the most amiable of tempers. At last, however, 
" the pig did get over the stile," and we were fairly 
settled at Copenhagen. 

Living is decidedly not dear here in the capital ; 
meat of the best quality varies from fivepence to 
sixpence per lb. ; poultry and game are abundant and 
cheap ; and an entire stag may be purchased for 
about 11. English money. In the way of birds, the 
Danes, like the French, eat everything, and I own my 
feelings received a fearful shock one morning on being 
offered for sale, price sixpence, twenty little bullfinches 
tied together on a cord, and, on my indignantly refusing 
to purchase them, the offer was followed up by the 
exhibition of a bunch of silk-tails as they here call them, 
the Bohemian waxwing,* with somewhat sober plumage 
and lovely little yellow tails — a bird which the English 
naturalists value at fifteen shillings the skin to pur- 
chase, though, I dare say, if I had made a speculation in 
them, they would not have paid me more than sixpence. 
It is a curious fact that these little birds visit Den- 
mark but once in seven years, and never lay their eggs 
further south than Lapland. 

Firing, wood, coal, and turf, are all reasonable 
enough in themselves, but the servants and the stoves 
combined, manage to consume an unheard-of quantity. 
At the commencement of the season you get in a supply 

* Bombacilla garrula. 


which, in your delusion, you imagine is to take you 
through the winter ; never mind what the quantity may 
be, it never lasts beyond Christmas. The woodhouse is 
sure to be in some out-of-the-way place where nobody 
has any command over it. 

Denmark, as we all know, possesses colonies of her 
own — two small West India islands, St. Croix and St. 
Thomas, the latter " a hotbed of fever ; " the former 
furnishes sugar, as well as other produce, so groceries 
are on the whole cheaper than in France, much on a 
par with those of England, and less adulterated. 

Servants' wages are low, as, indeed, they ought to be, 
torments that they are ; and the cooks, whether they pro- 
fess to understand their business (of sending everything 
out of the house), with a kitchen-maid under them, or 
engage to do everything themselves, are equally de- 
testable. Passing on from the cook to the cuisine, 
although the native cookery of Denmark is far behind 
that of France, and of indeed many parts of Germany, I 
never recollect to have eaten so little rubbish as during 
my stay in this country : go where you will, travelling in 
the provinces, or residing in the capital, you are sure to 
meet with clean wholesome food, roasted, or rather baked, 
and boiled, with good compotes and salad; the fare 
may be simple, but it is always eatable. 

The milk and cream at Copenhagen are execrable — 
adulterated first by the peasant, then afterwards by the 
retailer, and boiled into the bargain. A little French 
law would be here serviceable. 

The Danes fabricate all manner of consoling drink- 
ables — to begin with, the celebrated cherry cordial, of 
which Molesworth makes honourable mention; at the 
same time he complains that the meat tastes of nothing, 


and, whether it lie with the beast or the cook, the same 
fault is to be found to the present day. 

A real Danish dinner rather confuses your appetite 
by the queerness of its arrangement, fish and sweets 
being served all out of order, and the roast frequently 
making its appearance long after the guest has satisfied 
all cravings of hunger. On the whole, you may con- 
clude that living at Copenhagen is reasonable ; the 
fault lies with the individuals themselves if they are 
cheated. The Danish ladies, even of the highest 
rank, are excellent menageres, and look after the ser- 
vants with a sharp eye, so that, when they enter the 
service of foreigners accustomed to domestics who know 
their business, the native servants, even if honest, are 
apt to run riot from want of proper directions ; and you 
may be certain of one thing, that the better class never 
enter into the service of perambulating English — birds 
of passage, who, after a six months' sojourn, pack up 
their baggage and are off again. Now we came to Den- 
mark to amuse ourselves, not to look after servants, and 
suffer accordingly. 

The shops of Copenhagen are good enough, and, on 
the whole, not expensive compared with the prices of 
other capitals. Indeed, articles of French manufac- 
ture are here sold at the same price as at the Montagne 
Russe and other shops in Paris, where you pay for 
the house-rent in addition to the price of the article 

The furriers, whose windows also partake of a 
museum of natural history, being filled with wellnigh 
as many stuffed foxes, ermines, and birds as they con- 
tain muffs and tippets, are well worth visiting — not 
that the more expensive furs, as sable, are to be pro- 


cured, but there are many kinds which do not appear in 
our English market, and are new to the eye of an 
English visitor. The Greenland fox, with its fur of a 
bluish hue, powdered with white, is of great beauty, and 
not to be met with in our own country ; as also the 
Norwegian squirrel, the same breed, I believe, as the 
gray American, but of a much darker colour, with a 
black tail. Then there is the white fox, and many other 
varieties too numerous to mention. 

The furriers display much taste in their bedside 
carpets, footstools, &c. &c, fabricated of a mosaic of 
skins ; the morsels that are cut off are thus turned to a 
very pretty account. 

The breast of the sheldrake and other ducks is 
employed for children's muffs, and the sum of 4s. 
British would purchase a most respectable one ; but the 
eider duck here forms the staple commodity of a fur- 
rier's trade ; independent of its furnishing the " duvet " * 
so common in Germany, which invariably falls off in 
the course of the night, leaving the unlucky occcupant 
of the bed half perished with cold, the skin of the 
flapper, or young duck previous to attaining its plumage, 
is much used for cloaks, muffs, &c. &c. Large blankets 
are formed of the skins sewed together, the same on 
both sides. These are as warm as they are light, and 
the furriers get them up with great taste, ornamented 
with a border of sheldrake feathers. Martyrs to gout 
or rheumatic ailments, to whom the weight of bed- 
clothing becomes insupportable, find these eider-down 

* Holger Jacobseus writes : — " In Tolsted kro, where travellers are 
taken in, was the bed so heaped up with feathers (duvets) that I almost 
required a ladder to mount upon it." 


coverlets invaluable acquisitions. They vary in price 
from 21. to 31. sterling. 

In the month of December I attended the annual 
public auction of Greenland skins, Polar bears, deer, 
foxes, &c. There was no great variety, and I returned 
home half devoured by fleas and by no means satisfied 
with my visit. 

Denmark is not at all a " pays industriel." I have 
seen table linen made by the peasants, somewhat coarse, 
but prettily fashioned ; and there appears to be a cotton 
manufacture at Eanders in Jutland, — at least I see 
Banders stuff advertised in the shop windows. Gloves of 
all kinds are excellent here and most reasonable, varying 
from fourteen pence to sixteen pence a pair. They 
may be rat or cat skin for what I know, but everybody 
here wears them, and, as they are well made and dur- 
able, we are only too glad to follow the fashion. 

The silversmiths, though not equal in richness to 
those of England, are far superior in the solidity and 
design of their wares to those of France and Germany. 
In the private houses you meet with much plate of 
antique design, and to this style of old silver they 
keep ; I have seen candelabras and other articles ex- 
posed in their windows, which would not disgrace the 
silversmiths of our own counfay. 

Of the Royal China Manufactory, out of respect to 
'Pottery and Porcelain,' I shall say little. The pate 
is not equal perhaps hi colour to that of Sevres and 
Meissen, but the forms are pretty and the painting good, 
and what I admire is that the views on the plates are 
national views, and the flowers chiefly copied from the 
' Flora Danica,' a splendid work of some twenty volumes 
on the wild flowers of Scandinavia. But the most in- 


teresting objects to be purchased in this manufactory 
are the copies of Thorvalclsen's figures and bas-reliefs, 
in white biscuit. Every six months an auction takes 
place of those articles in which a slight flaw has been 
detected, though these defects are invisible to the eyes 
of the world in general, and you may then purchase for 
the sum of five or six dollars figures which sell at the 
price of ten or twelve at the manufactory. 

In the bric-a-brac shops you may occasionally meet 
with specimens of the Vieux Danois, now much appre- 
ciated and sold at a high price. Many of the figures are 
most original — market-women with their geese, fish- 
wives, &c. — and form a good contrast to the Watteau 
and Boucher models of the early Dresden. The vases 
are exquisite both in form and painting, and the earlier 
artists seem to have greatly excelled even the Saxon 
in raised flowers ; I have never seen them equalled. 
Some of the models have been copied from our own 
Chelsea, probably from figures brought over from Eng- 
land, either by Queen Louisa, or later by Caroline 

The peasant girls of Zealand occupy themselves much 
in the manufacture of a species of guipure lace, sewn toge- 
ther with linen cut into crosses, stars, and various patterns : 
collars and sleeves of this fabric may be procured at the 
lingerie shops of Copenhagen ; they are cheap enough, 
and possess a cachet of their own. 

In the Vogumager Gade is the shop of Jacobs en, who 
works for the peasants of Amak ; the brooches, pins, 
and ornaments worn by the inhabitants of that island 
may here be obtained at reasonable prices. 

The print-shops of Copenhagen are essentially 
national in their productions : views of the public 


buildings, and scenes from Jutland and the islands, as 
well as the costumes of the country, abound, as also 
lithographs from many of the original portraits in the 
Gallery of Frederiksborg. 

The Danes are national in their feelings, and a 
thorough knowledge of the history and romance of their 
country is early instilled into their minds. 

Flytte-dag depends upon Easter, which this year falls 
late, and allows us an extension of ten days over the 
real six months to the 28th April, when all Copenhagen 
will be again in motion. 

I believe this love of locomotion to be the last 
remnant of the old Viking spirit of the Danes. They 
can now no longer seek adventure far and wide, but the 
ruling passion will out ; so, reduced in the area of their 
wanderings, they flit twice a year, from one street of 
their capital to another, working out by these means 
the native restlessness which might otherwise lead to 
trouble in these days of order and government. 



Castle of Eosenborg — The Horn of Oldenborg — Marriage ceremo- 
nials of King Christian II. — Badges of the Armed Hand and the 
Garter — Trial of Christina Munk — Funeral of Vibeke — Rise and 
fall of Griffenfeld — Queen Louisa of England — Juliana Maria — 
Fate of Caroline Matilda — Her portraits — Tapestry of the Eidder- 
saal — Regalia — The silver lions of Denmark. 


The Castle of Eosenborg, built by Christian IV., 
is of red brick and stone, in the style of Italian 
Eenaissance, grafted on the ancient Gothic of Northern 
Europe. It is a fine specimen of the period, and 
is unspoiled by modern improvements either within 
or without. An idea generally prevails among the 
English that it was constructed after the designs of Inigo 
Jones, but of this there is no proof either by plan or re- 
cord. It is certain that Inigo was attached to the 
person of Christian IV., who took him over to England 
on his celebrated visit to his brother-in-law, James I., 
and then introduced him to the notice of the English 
Sovereign ; but whether Inigo furnished the plan for 
Eosenborg is a point upon which the clironiclers of 
the time do not enlighten us. At the period of its 
construction the palace stood in the centre of spacious 
gardens, at a distance from the city. On the ex- 
tension of the fortifications it became enclosed within 
the bastions, and is now unfortunately, on the rampart 
side, obscured by ugly modern edifices, while a frightful 
VOL. I. p 


guard-house, tacked on to the original gateway, disfigures 
the entrance. The jewels, miniatures, and portraits 
have been re-arranged in chronological order, under the 
direction of Professor Worsaae, lately appointed warden 
of the castle. Rosenborg is now a deserted palace, a 
ficlei commissum and museum of the house of Oldenborg. 
In the last century it formed the first halting-place of 
the King, who inhabited it for a fortnight in the early 
spring, previous to continuing the Eoyal progress to 
Frederiksborg and other residences. 

You enter the palace by a long corridor, with richly 
wrought ceiling adorned with pendants, such as one 
sometimes meets with in the old country houses in 
England of the same or of a previous date. 

Passing through the audience-chamber, empanelled 
with pictures by Dutch artists, you come to the room in 
which Christian IV. died* — a room whose Cytherean 
decorations scandalized Wraxall when he visited the 
palace. In this and an adjoining cabinet are preserved 
the valuables of the sovereigns of anterior date, as well 
as those of the founder hhnself. 

First on our list comes the celebrated horn of Olden- 
borg, the work of a German artist, Daniel Aretaeus 
by name, a native of Corvey, in Westphalia, executed 
about the year 1455, by command of Christian I., 
whose intention it was, had he succeeded in his office 
of mediator between the Chapter of Cologne and their 
Archbishop, to have presented it as a votive offering 
to the shrine of the Magi in that city. The nego- 
ciation failed, and the horn remained an heirloom to 
the house of Oldenborg, in the capital of which duchy 

* 1C48. 

35S J1W- - iEc 


Vol. I . i 


it was preserved until its final removal to Copen- 
hagen. It is an exquisite specimen of the goldsmith's 
art, of silver gilt, enriched with ornamentations in 
green and violet enamel, representing scenes illustrative 
of feudal domestic life in the fifteenth century. An ancient 
gold ring, enriched with a rough sapphire, once served 
as the nuptial ring of Elizabeth, daughter of Philip le 
Bel of Austria, wife of King Christian II., who certainty, 
independent of her unlucky lot, underwent as disagree- 
able an espousal as ever bride was fated to endure ; for, 
on her arrival, Bishop Urne treated the assembly to 
so long a discourse, that, the rain falling heavily, — it 
lasted the greater part of the day, — king, queen, and 
court got wet through, and all their fine clothes and 
feathers were spoiled. At the time of her coronation, too, 
Elizabeth was sick of a tertian ague,* so she was crowned 
at home in the ante-chamber, where an impromptu 
altar was made with two chairs placed before and 
two behind. The ceremony, notwithstanding, appears to 
have been grand enough, and the banquet by which it 
was succeeded lasted four hours. As regards the menu, 
there were thirty-three dishes on table, five of which, 
however, were only made for show, not to be eaten. 

Curious and rich are the specimens of the jewellery 
of Christian IV.'s period, especially two bracelets of 
gold, one enamelled and set with rubies, at each joint 
engraved with the cipher of the monarch, surmounted 
by a crown ; the other of equally beautiful workman- 
ship, intermixed with plaited hair, once the property 
of Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, his queen. But it 
would be tedious to catalogue the jewelled mirrors, 

* 12th August, 1515. 

p 2 


Chap. XIV. 

sacramental plate, toys and toilets in gold enamel, 
glyptics of rock crystal and other precious stones, the 
properties of these sovereigns. Among them you will 

observe some badges of the 
"Armed Hand," a mailed arm, 
in green enamel, enriched with 
diamonds — a decoration of great 
beauty, and one which Chris- 
tian IV. gave only to his especial 
favourites. It is very rarely seen 
suspended round the neck even 
Armed hand. f the numerous worthies, or 

rather notabilities, for which his long reign was so re- 
markable. Here, too, are preserved the collar and linen 
stained with blood worn by King Christian in the naval 
battle off Femern,* in which he received twenty-three 
wounds, and lost his right eye ; also the badges of the 
Garter of the various Danish sovereigns who have been 
invested with the order — the earliest, from its workman- 
ship, I imagine to be that of King John, who received 
it from Henry VII. ; likewise the robes of the order sent 
by Queen Elizabeth to King Frederic II. — robes which 
he positively declined to put on, to the great scandal of 
her ambassador, Lord Willoughby. 

In company with numerous likenesses of Christian 
IV. and his first queen is an interesting miniature 
of Kirstine or Christina Munk, to whom he was mor- 
ganatically married in 1615, and by whom he had a 
numerous offspring ; and in a small allegorical portrait 
of Christian, painted on wood by Van der Venue, you 



may see the whole family group complete, amongst 
whom appear Ulfeld and his wife Eleanora. 

It was in the garden of Rosenborg that Christian first 
assembled his council, as well as his family, his mother- 
in-law, old Ellen Marsviin, and the children of Christina 
herself, and made known to them the nineteen points on 
which he thought fit to accuse Christina. Hannibal Sehes- 
ted,* his son-in-law, and Corfitz Ulfeld, who afterwards 
married his daughter Eleanor, the two best speakers of 
the day, were deputed as advocates, the latter for the 
defence, the former for King Christian. They grew so 
excited, that, ere long, both were engaged in a pitched 
battle before the Court-house. As for the proceedings 
and the accusation made before Christina's mother and 
her children, no historian has ever been able to make 
head or tail of it. Everybody spoke at the same time, and 
the continued exclamations of " Grandmamma," "Your 
Majesty," " Lady Ellen," interrupting each other, renders 
the whole affair a confusion ; but, when the trial was 
over, Christina was found " not guilty." t 

* There is a good portrait of Hannibal Sehested by Carl van Man- 
der, engraved by Haalwech. Sehested was son of the Chancellor 
Sehested, at one time ambassador, together with Jprgen Brahe, to 
King James I., when they got into a quarrel, about precedence, 
with the envoy of the Duke of Savoy. The Danes held out ; and it 
was said at Court they were foolish to make a disturbance at the very 
time their sovereign was sadly in want of friends. Both ambassadors 
dined with the King at Havering, and were served by the officers of 
the King's guard, to whom they gave ten gold pieces, and they, on 
their side, received from the King a present of 200 gold ounces. 
Hannibal was sent as ambassador to Charles H., who wrote a long letter 
in his praise to King Frederic P7. He found favour also in the eyes 
of the great Louis himself, who created him a Count of France, with 
leave to add to his arms, on a " chief azur, three fleurs-de-lys or." He 
was later employed (1GG4) to conclude a treaty of peace between 
England and Holland. 

f Christian IV. never forgave Corfitz Ulfeld his successful pleading 


This acquittal did not, however, serve her much, 
for she was deprived of her rank of Countess of Slesvig- 
Holstein, no longer prayed for in the churches, and 
banished to an old manor-house in Jutland, where 
she was kept in a sort of imprisonment — iron bars to 
her windows — with orders for the future to style herself 
Mrs. Christina, of Boiler. 

One of the arguments brought up against King Chris- 
tian at the trial by Corfitz Ulfeld was his connexion 
with Vibeke Kruse, once tire-woman to Christina. From 
this period Christian lived entirely with Vibeke, who, 
though far from beautiful, won his sincere affection by 
her gentle qualities. No sooner, however, was the King 
dead, than the Munkites drove her out of the castle, and 
demanded that she should be charged with " calumny " 
against their mother ; but we hear no more of her until, 
on the following 6th of May, appears an entry in the 
journal of Dr. Laurits Jacobsen, the king's confessor : — 
" This day was the Lady Tibeke's coffin interred in the 
church outside the north gate of the city." No grand 
funeral for her ; * though, in Dr. Matthisen's ' Tegne- 
bog,' I find good proof that no one plied this cele- 
brated " Liig predicaner " with better things than poor 
Vibeke. " Koe and red deer, carp and salmon, tons of 
apples, hams, large pike, pots of Rhine wine, wild geese, 
even to a ' stalled ox,' " all which presents were grate- 
fully received, but she died too late, and got no funeral 

in favour of Christina Munk, as may be seen by his complaints in his 
letters to the Chamber, 1647. 

* One of the allegations against Ulfeld was that lie sent the body of 
Vibeke to be interred at night in the cemetery outside the town 
allotted to the poor. 


Among the effects of Frederic III.'s time — whose 
enamelled cipher brooches, with pendent pearls, are 
well worthy of notice — are many miniatures of high 
interest, by an artist named Prieur, a painter of great 
merit. That of the sovereign himself, 16(33, is of great 
beauty, as well as one of Charles II. of England and the 
Duchess of Cleveland. Further on, somewhat in the back- 
ground — as she deserves to be — in a corner, sneaks Mrs. 
Sophia Moth, mistress of Christian V., the only portrait 
of her, I believe, extant — a fair-haired, insipid beauty, 
and one whose fame is not free from reproach for her 
share in the fall of Griffenfeld. She received, so de- 
clare the scandal-mongers of the day, sundry sacks 
of gold as bribes to use her influence with her sove- 
reign in compassing the overthrow of a minister to 
whom Denmark owed much. Daughter of the Eoyal 
physician, she was created Countess of Sams0, and was 
mother of two Gyldenl0ves, of whom all historians speak 
well. Molesworth says, "The young gentlemen are 
handsome and hopeful, and looked upon as necessary 
ornaments to the crown." On these children Christian V. 
conferred certain privileges, giving to them and their 
descendants the title of Excellency, as well as prece- 
dence over the rest of the nobility, with an extra fleuron 
on their coronets, and permission to wear the scarlet 
liveries, which put the nobles in a passion if it did 
nothing else. 

In an adjoining room is the portrait of Christian V., 
embroidered in silk by Eleanor Ulfeld during her 
rigorous captivity at Copenhagen in the Blaatam, or 
Blue Tower; around the portrait is worked the fol- 
lowing inscription in Danish verse : — " Behold here a 
king of angelic mind, who governs his people and his 

216 COPENHAGEN'. Chap. XIV. 

country in virtue and piety ; behold a great monarch, 
whose head is worthy to wear for a thousand years all 
the crowns of the universe." Awful flattery ! but, like 
the starling, she " could not get out." * 

A miniature of Queen Anne of England and her 
husband Prince George deserves notice. The portrait 
of Anne, a gem of beauty, fat, fair, and pretty, with 
pouting lips and lazy eye, in all the freshness of early 
youth, gives promise of an indolent disposition easily 
led. She could be peevish, too, at times. Prince 
George, admirably wigged, a thorough gentleman ; I 
believe few people have an idea how very handsome 
Prince George was in his youth — handsome as an 
animal, with no expression or intellect depicted in his 

Lastly, the enamelled portrait of Griffenfeld, the cele- 
brated minister, by whose advice Christian V. created 
the titled nobility, to console the old families for the 
loss of their feudal rights — a very wise coup d'etat on 
his part, for fearfully were the earlier sovereigns tram- 
melled by the arrogance of their nobles ; but like all 
reformers Griffenfeld became unpopular, and his ruin was 
soon compassed. £ 

* A portrait of Christian IV., by Eleanor Ulfeld, sold at an auction 
for ten rix dollars three marcs ; one of herself for eighteen rix dollars ; 
and that of Corfitz Ulfeld for twenty-five rix dollars ten skillings. — See 
Catalogue of the Museum Kleveufold. 

t In the Kobberstik Cabinet is preserved a curious engraving of 
Queen Anne — though where the original be I know not — with the 
motto, " Je pourrez etre Keine et mere du Eoi." 

% The power of the nobility must have been great in Ulfeld's day for 
him to have said to the Queen of France, " There is no real nobility 
in France, where the king can send a noble to the Bastile ; in 
Denmark, on the contrary, he could not compel a nobleman to go out 
of his own house." 


His rise, as always occurred in those ages of necro- 
mancy, was foretold by an old woman when he was 
a child in his nurse's arms : — " You hold a golden 
apple in your hand, my son ; take good care not to let 
it fall." After the death of his father he was taken 
into the house of Bishop Brochmand, who presented 
him to King Frederic IV., by whom he was given 
a pension of 300 dollars to travel. He visited Eng- 
land, and became so esteemed by the learned, that his 
portrait was placed in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, 
where he pursued his studies — not an uncommon 
eveirt in those days says Molesworth. On his return 
he became secretary to Vice-Chancellor Wind.* One 
day, having a letter to deliver to the king's page, he 
desired to speak with the king himself, and, having 
succeeded, told Christian his history, and from that day 
his fortune was made. By his talents he rose to the 
highest offices in the state, and possessed the entire 
confidence of the king. 

Louis XIV., in speaking of Griffenfeld to the Danish 
ambassador, is reported to have said, — " I cannot refrain 
from testifying the great esteem in which I hold the 
great Chancellor of the Danish kingdom, whom I look 
upon as one of the greatest ministers of Europe." Grif- 
fenfeld made the ancient nobles feel his power, and 
they formed a plot against him, at the head of which 
was Sophia Moth. The weak king was gained by 
the conspirators, and Griffenfeld was arrested on un- 
founded charges. One of the accusations brought 

* Son of Admiral Wind, who, conjointly with Christian IV., com- 
manded in the engagement off Femern. Admiral Wind died six weeks 
after from the wounds he had received. 


against him was that of having endeavoured to get 
created an English peer. His defence was admirable, 
but his doom was already sealed ; he was condemned 
to first lose his hand, be decapitated, and broken on the 

The sentence was ordered to be carried into execu- 
tion on the 11th of June. Griffenfeld lost none of his 
courage, but received the sacrament. Everything was 
done to make him feel uncomfortable ; in the even- 
ing his grave-clothes were brought to the prison, and 
the following morning his coffin, the outside of which 
was covered with pitch, and the inside with cotton. 
When he had tied up his hair (or rather taken off his 
wig) his escutcheon was broken to pieces by the execu- 
tioner, who exclaimed, " This is not without cause, but 
for your bad deeds ;" whereupon he replied without hesi- 
tation, " What the king has given me he has now taken 
away." When he had finished praying and given sign 
to the executioner to cut off his head, the general 
adjutant cried out, " Stop ! his Majesty in his mercy 
spares his life ;" to which Griffenfeld replied, " The 
mercy is more cruel than the punishment : I have not 
escaped death except for a more cruel fate ;" and 
he begged later through the medium of Count Schack 
to enlist as a common soldier. He died at Tronyem, 
where he had been removed from the castle of Munk- 
holm on account of his serious illness, after a rigorous 
imprisonment of twenty -one years. Hue and Cry re- 
presentations by Huusmann, of the execution of the 
" once Count GrhTenfeld, now Peter Schumacher," were 
not wanting, and I have seen several preserved among 
the Miiller collection of engravings in the Eoyal Library. 
The ex-minister is certainly not represented to ad- 


vantage — kneeling without bis wig before the block, 
in presence of bis executioner, Lutheran priest, and 
coffin : a look of pleasure is depicted on the face of the 
bystanders. Above the vignette stands a medallion 
portrait of the criminal, with the doggrel, — 

" With him has Fortune played as with a hall, 
She first has tossed him up, and now she lets him fall." 

The king missed his talented minister, and one day 
said at a cabinet council, " Griff enfeld alone knew better 
what served to the wants of the state than my whole 

The objects of the time of Frederic IV., though 
beautiful, are chiefly of local interest: compliments 
from sovereign to elector, from emperor to monarch ; 
pistols from Louis XIV., swords from Charles XII. of 
Sweden ; added to which is the celebrated collection of 
Murano glass presented to Frederic by the republic of 
Venice, and brought by him from Italy. There are 
also fine specimens of the engraved German glass, and 
the golden mounted ruby beakers are of exquisite 
beauty. In a small picture commemorative of the 
coronation of this monarch is represented a negro boy 
holding by a chain a huge mastiff, the king's favourite 
dog. It is related that the page had orders to hold 
the animal during the ceremony ; but, dazzled by the 
splendour of the scene, he stared around forgetful of his 
charge : suddenly, at the moment when the primate was 
about to place the crown upon the brow of the king, 
the dog, fancying some mischief was intended to his 
master, sprang from his keeper, and to the consterna- 
tion of those present rushed to the throne, and, placing 
his fore paws on the knees of the sovereign, growled 


defiance to all the court, displaying- his sharp white teeth 
ready to devour the bishop at the first movement made 
tp continue the ceremony : it required the authority of 
the king- himself to pacify the mastiff, and to induce 
the frightened officials to proceed with the coronation. 

And now with Frederic V. commences an era of 
peculiar interest to England and the English visitor. The 
portrait of this monarch* we have already commented 
upon in the halls of the academy of Sorp ; but here 
side by side he hangs with his first queen, Louisa,t 
daughter of George II. of England. Of a noble presence, 
nez en Fair, her head thrown back, her portrait is the 
ne plus ultra of regal dignity ; conscious of her birth 
as a daughter of England should be, t conscious of her 
beauty as a woman, and perhaps of the admiration she 
could never fail to command, she stands, beautiful, 
beneficent in expression, void of all Kussian hauteur 
and German morgue. I returned twice to gaze upon 
this portrait, and felt proud to see a princess of our 
royal stock stand out as a constellation among the 
coarser specimens of German royalty. " She was as good 
as she was beautiful," observed the custodian : " even 
now, and she died in 1757, the peasants will still relate to 
you anecdotes of her goodness. She gave ten thousand 
crowns annually out of her pin-money in pensions alone. 
And to think by what a bad woman she was replaced ! 
It was a sad day for Denmark when she died." There 
are many souvenirs of Queen Louisa, besides two snuff- 
boxes with her miniature painted on a purple ground. 

* Frederic V. in his youth hore a strong resemblance to his mother 
Queen Madalena. 

f The portraits of Queen Louisa as a girl, at the period of her mar- 
riage, by Pond, are charming. 

'"»> ,r&± 



' "I 



She devoted much of her leisure hours to the occupa- 
tion of turning and carving in ivory, of which are 
here preserved many specimens. 

We now turn to the successor of our English princess, 
Juliana Maria of Brunswick, married to Frederick V. 
the year after the death of his former queen. In 
countenance somewhat handsome (and I have seen 
other portraits far more flattering than that of Eosen- 
borg), in expression villanous, of a bad beauty, fine bust, 
and well rounded arm, a want of shade about her face, 
she appears a woman capable of fascinating any man 
around whom she spread her toils — for heart she had 
none — and driving him to perdition in this world and 
the next ; dangerous she looks, and dangerous she proved 
herself to be. Juliana held no place in her husband's 

The story of the intrigues by which she compassed 
the ruin of our English princess Queen Caroline 
Matilda, and organized the plot which terminated in 
the death of Struensee, are too well known to require 
repetition. But I will quote the account given by 
Wraxall in his memoirs, 1775, in which year he visited 
Copenhagen : — 

" One night, at a grand ball at the palace, the queen, 
after dancing as usual one country-dance with the king, 
gave her hand to Struensee for the remainder of the 
evening : at two o'clock in the morning she retired, 
followed by him and Count Brandt. The queen dowager, 
and her son Prince Frederic, hastened to the king's 
private chamber, where he was already in bed: they 
knelt down beside him, and implored him to save 
himself and Denmark from impending destruction, by 
ordering the arrest of those they termed the authors of 


it. The half-imbecile king at first was most unwilling. 
Count Rantzau came to the door of her Majesty and 
knocked ; a woman of the bed-chamber was ordered to 
awake the queen and inform her she was arrested. 
Caroline, seizing the infant Princess Louise * in her arms, 
endeavoured to gain the king's apartment, but without 
success ; she was then hurried into a carriage half 
undressed, and confined like a state prisoner in the 
castle of Kronborg, from which she was released by the 
argument of a strong fleet sent from England." 

From this period all good feeling between the courts 
of England and Denmark ended, the bombardment of 
Copenhagen in later days tending little to restore the 
cordiality between the two countries, who. for so many 
centuries had been bound together by the strongest ties 
of family alliance. 

I find, date July, 1771, a memorial from Peter Als 
to Struensee, concerning a portrait to be painted of 
Queen Caroline Matilda, with the Prince Royal on her 
knees, for the Duke of Gloucester. Als begs to know 
in what the first designs displeased, and suggests to paint 
her either as a goddess or Amazon, or else in the style 
of Vandyke, or in the gala costume of the day. The 
last was adopted, and the picture, a small full-length, is 
in the Eoyal Collection at Copenhagen. The Duke of 
Gloucester, on his visit, gave the queen unpalatable 
advice, and the portrait was never sent. Als also men- 
tions having painted a picture of the queen the same 
year, which she gave as a present to Count Eantzau, who 
subsequently arrested her. 

At the conflagration of the palace of Christiansborg 

Mother to H. M. the Queen Dowager. 

Chap. XIV. TAPESTRY. 223 

in 1795, eight different portraits of Caroline Matilda, by 
Angelica Kaufftnan and other artists, were consumed. 
At the period of her disgrace they were removed from 
the state apartments of the palace to a lumber chamber 
in the upper story, and there perished in the flames. 

The portrait of Caroline Matilda, which here hangs in 
the cabinet of Christian VII., side - by side with that of 
her mad ill-countenanced husband,* is unworthy of a 

With the eighteenth century expires the good taste 
and fine appreciation of art of the Danish monarchs : 
the bijouterie and cabinet-work of the earlier period is 
now replaced by the clumsy decorations, cotton um- 
brellas, and dancing pumps of the late King Frederic VI. 

But we must visit the Eiddersaal, with its richly 
decorated ceiling and its ancient tapestry, the work 
of the brothers Van der Eiken. This tapestry, which 
was made at Ki0ge, five miles Danish distant from 
Copenhagen, about the year 1690, represents the vic- 
tories of Christian V. : it is of admirable execution.! 

* Two engravings of Christian VH., after Pilo, one as a little child, 
and again as a youth, bear much resemblance to the queen his mother, 
though the madness is already perceptible in his eye, and later cannot 
be mistaken. Angelica Kauffman and Mrs. Ashby alone tone it down in 
their portraits. 

f Eelative to the tapestry manufacture of Denmark, we give the 
following extract from Fuller : — 

" The making of tapestry was either unknown or unused in England 
till about the end of the reign of King James, when he gave two 
thousand pounds to Sir Francis Crane to build therewith an house at 
Moreclark for that purpose. Here they only imitated old patterns, 
until they had procured one Francis Klein, a German, to be their 
designer. This Francis Klein was born at Rostock, but bred in the 
Court of the King of Denmark at Copenhagen. To improve his skill 
he travelled into Italy, and lived at Venice, and became first known to 
Sir Henry Wootton, who was the English Lieger there. Indeed there 


In front of the throne stand the coronation chairs of the 
king and queen, placed under a dais ; that of the king 
is formed of the ivory of the narwal. It was constructed 
by order of Christian IV., and was first used at the 
coronation of Prince Christian (called V.), elected to 
the throne during the lifetime of his father, who sur- 
vived him. 

Within this castle of Eosenborg is contained the 
regalia of the country, among which appear brilliant 
and dazzling the jewels of Queen Madalena ; she be- 
queathed them to the country with whose money they 
had been purchased. 

The crown of Christian IV., by Thomas Fiuren of 
Odense, of gold enamel and jewels, is perhaps the finest 
specimen of the goldsmith's art in the seventeenth cen- 
tury now extant. It is no longer used, being that of 

is a stiff contest between the Dutch and Italians which should exceed 
in this mystery ; and therefore Klein endeavoured to unite their per- 
fections. After his return to Denmark he was invited thence into 
England by Prince Charles, a virtuoso, judicious in all liberal 
mechanical arts which proceeded in due proportion. And though 
Klein chanced to come over in his absence (being then in Spain), yet 
King James gave order for his entertainment, allowing him liberal 
accommodations ; and sent him back to the King of Denmark with a 
letter which, for the form thereof, I conceive not unworthy to be in- 
serted, transcribing it with my own hand as followeth, out of a copy 
compared with the original." We spare the reader his Majesty's Latin 

"I perceive that princes when writing to princes subscribe their 
names, and generally superscribe them to subjects. But the King of 
Denmark detained him all that summer (none willingly part with a 
jewel) to perfect a piece which he had begun for him before. This 
ended, then over he comes, and settled with his family in London, 
where he received a gratuity of an hundred pounds per annum, well 
paid him until the beginning of our civil wars. And now fervet opus 
of tapestry at Moreclark, his designing being the soul, as the working 
is the body, of that mystery." — Fullers ' Worthies,' p. 353. 


an elected sovereign, open. The crown of Christian V., 
first hereditary monarch, very inferior as a work of art, 
is closed. His queen, not being of the Lutheran per- 
suasion, could not by law be crowned Queen of Den- 
mark : the queen's crown is of Madalena's time. The 
sceptre is of exquisite workmanship. 

Arranged around, stand, or rather crawl, the three 
colossal silver lions of Denmark. These royal quad- 
rupeds, like our own beefeaters, form part and parcel 
of all regal ceremonies, joyous or lugubrious. They 
emigrate to the cathedral church of Roeskilde and 
accompany the deceased sovereign to his last resting- 
place, and again appear at Frederiksborg at the coro- 
nation of his successor. 

VOL. I. Q 

226 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XV. 


The Danish language — Its difficulties — Its similarity to the English 
— The Vikings true ancestors of English — Haven of Odin — The 
Norman lions. 


Seldom in the course of my numerous wanderings 
have I felt so helpless as I did on my arrival in Zealand. 
Whilst travelling in the duchies, and even in South 
Jutland, our German, such as it was, proved of service 
to us ; but the Belt once crossed, we became the most 
isolated of mortals. This state of affairs was insupport- 
able ; and, as we were likely to remain some months at 
Copenhagen, we determined, on our arrival in that 
city, at once to put our shoulder to the wheel, and 
pick up something of the Danish language. For my 
own part, I abominate learning anything, and always 
did from my youth upwards. I like to pick up a lan- 
guage anyhow, and with as little trouble as possible ; so, 
after some debates on the subject, thanks to the kindness 
of Professor Thomsen, a student of the University was 
discovered not a whit more fond of study than myself, 
with a voice clear and ringing as a bell (N.B. — Never 
engage a language-master with a contralto voice ; they 
mumble their words from the depths of their stomachs, 
and you never catch the pronunciation). We studied 
occasionally, translated old ballads and the passages I 
required from various books, walked about, visited the 


museums and the galleries, and, as his knowledge was 
universal, I was very content with my bargain, and 
without any hard labour acquired a considerable know- 
ledge of the language. 

A six months' trial convinces me that Danish is 
not to be picked up so easily as French or German ; 
in the first place, in the society and shops, all the 
world speak either English or the above-named lan- 
guages. The grammar is simple enough ; but the pro- 
nunciation most irritating. After reading aloud for 
half an hour you feel a sensation in your mouth as 
though you had been eating sloes. The Danish lan- 
guage abounds with consonants, many of which are 
never pronounced ; the g and j are slurred over in a 
most inaudible manner. The d, except at the commence- 
ment of a word, is either never pronounced at all or as 
th. The ih, in the imperfect tense of the verbs, is most 
disagreeable ; for example, the word arbeidide (imperfect 
of the verb arbeide, to work) is pronounced arbeithethe. 
Why, it is as bad as the " thirty thousand thistles " 
when four or five words of this genus come together. 
When we had triumphantly mastered the auxiliary verbs, 
my student proposed that we should conjugate the verb 
To love. " My good fellow," I replied, " twenty years 
ago I would have done so with pleasure, but now it 
would be perfectly useless to me ; suppose we try some- 
thing more useful — let's conjugate the verb To eat ; and 
so we did. It is impossible to go through your ABC 
without being struck by the analogy of Danish with our 
own native tongue, and more so still when you devote 
yourself to the ballads and literature of the early cen- 
turies ; and I am informed that the laws of King 
Valdemar's time have even more resemblance still ; 

Q 2 

228 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XV. 

the terms which we now use having become obso- 
lete in Denmark, just as "the English of the New 
Englanders " appears antiquated to London society of 
the present century, though all those quaint expressions 
were court parlance in the days of Charles II. One of 
the very early chroniclers declares " the English lan- 
guage, as they spoke it in the time of Canute the 
Great, differs only a little from the Danish, because 
the Angles had come from Jutland, wherefore their 
language was called by the Avriter Cimbric, and this they 
spoke in the provinces which lay north of the Thames." 

Without entering too deeply into a subject beyond 
my depth, I merely remark that when later we visited 
Jutland we were still more forcibly struck with the great 
similarity of the two languages ; and recollect one thing 
— we none of us understand one word of North country 
patois : and beyond the fact that the Danish Jo (yoe) is 
the ancestor of the classic Yau of the north country boor, 
I am perfectly ignorant on this subject. 

Unfortunately, people are too apt to exaggerate these 
resemblances ; and when Bretons assert they find 
themselves " quite at home " on the Cornish coast and 
among the mountains of Wales, and Danes declare 
that the Yorkshire dialect is as familiar to them as 
their mother tongue, you must make allowance for a 
little embellishment. Professor Worsaae having written 
so excellent an account of this vexed question in his 
work, unluckily out of print, entitled ' The Northmen 
in England,' no more need be said on the subject ; still 
I own I have no patience with the Anglo-Saxon party, 
who wish to ignore the Northmen, and prove that the 
greatness of England is to be derived from a fallen 
German race. Who in their senses will for one 


moment allow that the maritime glory of our country, 
the dominion of the waves, could ever descend to us 
from German forefathers — a race incapable of crossing 
a duck-puddle without being sea-sick ; or our love of 
colonisation from a race who never possessed a single 
colony of their own ? The Vikings of old — blackguards 
though they might be — were fine, bold, dashing fel- 
lows. They cared little to settle, but were ever ready 
to seek new adventures — to launch forth on the un- 
known seas in quest of prey and conquest ; they robbed 
— they pillaged, murdered, burnt, laid waste — they 
struck terror far and wide. 

" A furore Normanorum libera nos Doniine ! " was 
added by the helpless Saxon to the Litany of the ninth 
century ; still, as they have long since passed away, let 
us forgive them their failings, and only admire what 
was glorious and heroic in their deeds, the romance and 
poetry of their existence. Your stay-at-home people, 
full of " sweet home " (mutton 10c?. a pound) and other 
like domestic comforts, may descend from Anglo-Saxons, 
if you will ; but our sailors, our explorers, our mission- 
aries, our adventurers of all sorts, have, depend upon it, 
running in their veins a dash of the Sea-king of Scandi- 
navia. Why, the duchy of Normandy itself, conquered 
by the Scandinavian Vikings, under Eollo, derives its 
name from the Northmen (Normans) ; and William 
the Conqueror, his descendant, is represented on the 
Bayeux tapestry as advancing to the battle of Hast- 
ings (a town named after the Northman pirate, Hasting), 
Ins banner borne by a mailed knight — a banner, semi- 
circular in form, from which hangs a fringe of nine 
points, in the centre a bird like the raven of Odin, of a 
blue-black on a yellow ground. After the conquest of 

230 COPENHAGEN. Chap. XV. 

England this raven-mark was entirely abandoned by 
the Norman kings, and in Denmark itself was later 
replaced by the white-cross banner of the Danebrog. 

The Danes, on their side, endeavour to prove too 
much, and pretend that the leopards of England are of 
Scandinavian origin, having been introduced into the 
country by the Northman duke ; now William, if he 
bore any at all, had but two on his shield, and the third 
is of later date, came in with tjie province of Aqui- 
taine ; but the early northern chroniclers stick at 
nothing — they declare the three blue lions of Den- 
mark, symbolical of their dominion over the Great and 
Little Belts and the Sound, to have been borne by Dan 
Mikillati the Splendid in the second or third century 
of the Christian era. 



Museum of Northern Antiquities — The Age of Stone — Scandinavian 
dust-hole — Age of Bronze; its artistic productions the work of 
some Eastern tribe — Ornaments characteristic of the period — 
Needles, and objects of the work-table — Bronze diadem — The 
golden horns — The Age of Iron — Chain mail — Silver cup of Queen 
Thyre — Swearing-rings — Bractese coins — Law of treasure trove — 
The Catholic Era — Queen Dagmar's cross — Crowns of the Northern 


Some forty-five years ago, when Miinter, Bishop of 
Zealand, applied to the Danish Government for a building 
in which to place the collection of Scandinavian anti- 
quities, his request was received with jeers by the minis- 
ters of the period. " A building ! " exclaimed they ; 
" why, a chest of drawers would contain your whole 
collection." Nothing discouraged, the antiquaries 
continued their exertions : and a royal edict has since 
been issued, by winch all antiquities of precious metal 
discovered in the kingdom are declared to be the 
property of the Crown. The clergy of the different 
parishes have received orders to see them forwarded to 
Copenhagen, and the finders are rewarded according to 
the full value of the articles. The harvest once over, 
the wheat stacked or gathered into barns, the season 
of excitement for the antiquaries commences. Scarcely 
has the ploughshare broken the first sod when rumours 
of treasures tinned up in Jutland, Funen, Zealand, and 
other localities, are rife, and small parcels directed to the 


Conservator of the Museum of Northern Antiquities 
daily arrive. This very week a trouvaille of great 
magnitude has been made in the neighbourhood of 
Flensborg — the relics of a battle-field — part of which 
will be placed in the almost infant collection of that 
city, the remainder sent to Copenhagen. 

The excellence of this collection, unrivalled in Europe, 
is owing to the indefatigable exertions of Conferenz- 
raad Thomsen, who for thirty or forty years has held 
the direction of the Museum. He occupies a suite of 
rooms in the Prindsens Palais, which, uninhabited by 
royalty for the last half-century, is applied by the 
Government to this national purpose. This aged 
professor, a " beau vieillard " with silvered locks, is 
devoted heart and soul to his duties: his knowledge 
on all subjects connected with Denmark and its posses- 
sions is astounding. He speaks English admirably, and 
is always at his post, ready and anxious to explain and 
display the precious treasures committed to his charge. 

I was one day gossiping with him in the Ethnographic 
Museum, when suddenly he touched me on the arm : 
" See," he said, pointing to three blue soldiers, who, cata- 
logue in hand, were examining the collection, " this is 
a triumph to me. Twenty years ago no soldier would 
have quitted his beer-shop to visit a collection of art,. 
I met those three men as I entered, and saw them club 
their shillings together to purchase a catalogue, and 
now see how attentively they examine everything. I 
am more proud of acting cicerone to men such as these 
than to a Grand Duke of Russia :" and off he went and 
addressed them, explaining the contents of the cabinets, 
until they passed on to another room. 

" Whatever people may bring me, be it of value or 


not," continued he, "I always treat them with courtesy, 
and show myself pleased with the desire they evince to 
be of service ; were I to act otherwise to the man who 
offers me a trifle, the same man, should he at any future 
time discover an object of value, would not trouble him- 
self to bring it to me." 

The Pagan Division of the Collection of Northern 
Antiquities is classed under three heads :* — 

The Age of Stone. 
The Age of Bronze. 
The Age of Ieon. 

1. The Age of Stone. — To the age of Stone the 
three first rooms are devoted. The date of this period 
is apocryphal, and to my inquiries on the point Pro- 
fessor Thomsen replied, "We know nothing, so it is 
useless to speak on the subject." 

In earlier days, before the attention of antiquaries 
was directed to these matters, all objects in stone were 
accounted as holy relics of bygone- ages. The wedges 
are even now called by the peasants " Tordenkile," — 
thunder-wedges ; and as early as the Bronze age, among 
the stores of a necromancer dug up, together with " eye 
of newt and tongue of frog," rats' tails, and other 
devilries fitted for the caldron of Macbeth's witches, 
was found an arrow-head of flint, enveloped in a leather 
case, evidently intended to be worn as an amulet round 
the neck. In Italy the same articles have been dis- 
covered, encased in gold, to be worn in similar fashion, 
as I have mentioned in my account of the Thorvaldsen 
Museum. In England also such objects are looked 

* There exists no catalogue of this collection. 


upon by the common people as having formed part and 
parcel of the cabalistic appendages of the necromancer 
of the middle ages. - 

The materials employed for making the various imple- 
ments of war and of household use are flint and granite : 
articles of the latter material are more rare than those 
of the former : bone is also met with, as well as amber ; 
and pottery, of a rude nature, but graceful in form, 
adorned with simple ornamentation. 

The sepulchral chambers of this period are found to 
contain the skeletons of the dead, with earthen vessels, 
ornaments of amber, spear-heads, and other articles in 
stone, placed around. It was not until a later date that 
the practice of burning the bodies of the dead came into 

In the first room as you enter the Museum are the 
utensils of stone in an unfinished state — wedges, 
hatchets, knives, arrow-heads, together with the whet- 
stones upon which they were fashioned. A quantity of 
these were discovered in a mass in the island of Anholt. 
The second chamber contains a large collection of 
hatchets of all sizes and dimensions, supposed to have 
been used for the felling of trees — in form that of a 
wedge, such as we now use, but broader ; some, with no 
regular end, are supposed to have been fastened to a 
handle of wood ; others are bored with round holes, 
pierced either through the centre or the narrow end of 
the axe. In the cabinet of the first division are many 
specimens in which the hole is merely commenced, or 
the place marked out, previous to handing it over to the 
workman. Others have been broken in the process of 
boring, and are marked for a second trial. Of chisels 
there are two varieties, some being square and narrow, 


and others hollowed out in a most artistic manner. The 
saws are of great beauty, of flint, and jagged at the 
edges with the greatest regularity, resembling the ver- 
tebra of a fish, from which the model has evidently been 

Of knives for household and other purposes there are 
several forms. Some are double-edged, and some have 
square handles, evase towards the hilt, with an almost 
imperceptible ornament running down the centre ; others 
have no handle at all. 

One specimen is of great rarity — a sickle- shaped 
blade, with straight handle ; and many of a half- moon 
form, not unlike the currier's knife, or the barbarous 
media lima used in the Spanish bull-fights to hamstring 
the wretched animal when he refuses to attack the 

The harpoons of flint are elegant in form, the arrow- 
heads heart-shaped and triangular, notched at the edge 
with a delicacy almost incredible ; some, long and narrow, 
are inserted into pieces of bone. The jaw of a stag is 
preserved, in which remains fixed the broken head of 
a flint arrow : the animal, it is conjectured, continued 
to live, having been only slightly wounded. 

One case contains a collection of ornaments in amber 
— girdles, necklaces, &c. — all discovered at the same 
time in one locality in Jutland, probably the contents 
of a shop. Some of the necklaces are strung with con- 
siderable attention to design, and do credit to the taste 
of this early period of Scandinavian history. 

A large collection of oyster and other shells, dug up 
en masse, were first claimed by the geologists as the 
relics of early times ; it was a regular stand-up fight 
— Anticpiaries versus Geologists; but, after a care- 

236 COPENHAGEN'. Chap. XVI. 

fill investigation, the antiquaries gained the day, and 
the shells were handed over to the custody of the 
Northern Museum. The oysters, mussels, &c., were 
found to be all single shells, the periwinkles to be 
empty. Bones were also mixed among the heap — 
those which had contained marrow were split asunder, 
plainly proving they had been used as food ; and bear- 
ing, as well as some fragments of pottery, marks of the 
action of fire. The whole mass proved to be nothing 
more nor less than the contents of a Scandinavian dust- 

2. The Age of Beonze. — That copper was dis- 
covered and came into use previous to iron there can 
be no doubt. The former metal is found in an almost 
pure state, and was used by the Asiatic tribes in the 
first ages of history. Subsequently they endeavoured 
to render it more hard by an admixture of tin. This 
produced the bronze of which we read in the earliest 
writers of the ancients. 

Tubal Cain is mentioned in the book of Genesis as the 
" instructor of every artificer of brass and iron," which 
must lead us to infer that iron was known from the 
most remote ages in the East, though not in more 
northern countries. 

In the Scandinavian Museum of Copenhagen the im- 
plements of the age of Bronze are supposed to belong 
to a period previous to the birth of Christ, and to have 
been the work of an entirely different race of men from 
those of the Stone age, probably a nomadic Oriental tribe, 
which emigrated from the East and passed away, giving 
place in later times to some more powerful invader. 
While the axes and sledge-hammers of their predeces- 


sors, ponderous and unwieldy, attest men of strength, of 
thew, and sinew, the delicate-hilted swords of this age 
are too small to be grasped by modern hands, the 
girdles and bracelets too narrow to encircle the waists 
and wrists of ladies of the nineteenth century. It is 
evident they belonged to some small-limbecl race, like 
the Hindoos of the present day, who had no connexion 
with their predecessors. Still the use of this newly- 
discovered metal did not entirely supersede that of stone ; 
the material, on its first introduction, was too costly for 
the poorer inhabitants. They profited, however, by the 
designs introduced into their country by the artificers 
of bronze. The hatchets of this period are novel in form, 
and of marked superiority in execution to those of the 
earlier period, plainly showing that the workman did 
not hesitate to take his models from articles cast in the 
more valuable material. 

Ornaments of gold were introduced at the same 
period, and soon among the richer inhabitants super- 
seded the use of amber and bone. Of silver we have no 
mention ; it was as yet unknown, and only occurs inter- 
mixed in the ore of the native gold. Of glass, the few 
beads that have been discovered merely serve to prove 
the existence of the material. 

The workmanship, in an artistic point of view, is so 
superior to that of the Iron age, as to make one almost 
regret the introduction later of this metal. 

The custom of burning the dead now prevailed ; the 
ashes of the deceased were collected and enclosed in cones 
of pottery, or small stone cists ; his arms, household 
utensils, and ornaments were ranged around within the 
barrow or h0i. Frequently when these objects were of 


gold or of bronze, highly wrought, the survivors, anxious 
to retain the property for their own advantage, but at 
the same time desirous of continuing on pleasant terms 
with the ghost of their departed relative, caused minia- 
ture models of the originals to be cast in bronze or gold 
and ranged them around the urn, in the place of the 
larger objects of more considerable value : so particular 
were they in their imitations that you find miniature 
swords, the hilts plated with gold, or twisted round with 
gold wire — facsimiles of the original weapons. In some 
cases, however, the surviving relatives were superior to 
any such meanness, as is attested by ten splendid cups 
(skaal) hammered out of solid gold, and richly engraved, 
which have been discovered in tumuli — two at Boeslunde 
near Slagelse, five in Funen in 1685, and three in 
Jutland. They are very beautiful, and must have been 
the property of personages of high rank and great pos- 

The ornaments characteristic of this period are four 
in number — the spiral, the double spiral, the ring, and 
the wave, of which the spiral is said to be the most 
ancient. The serpent decoration is of later date, when it 
appears to have been almost universally adopted. That 
these objects of bronze are of northern workmanship there 
can be no doubt, as many of the paalstabs and celts have 
been discovered with the mould over which they were cast 
still inserted within them. I recollect, some two years 
since, a discovery of a manufactory of these articles was 
made near Lannion in Brittany, on the banks of the 
adjoining riviere, as they there term a fiorde ; and I am 
afraid to say how many tons were brought to light, and 
for the most part melted down, in an incredibly short 


space of time. I had the good luck to procure some 
specimens, one of which retained the mould in a similar 
manner to these I now mention. 

The contents of a smith's shop are very curious, com- 
prising not only the tools he used and the articles he 
fabricated, but many of his moulds, together with heaps 
of broken, worn-out bronze, about to be melted down for 

Let us first glance over the domestic implements, 
previous to examining those of warlike use. We will 
give precedence, as is due, to womankind, who really 
appear to have been, in these remote ages, perfectly 
supplied with all the necessary wants of the work- 
table, scissors alone excepted. Of needles in bone and 
bronze we have many — some without eyes ; these were 
used only to perforate, the thread being drawn through 
by tweezers ; others have the eye pierced through the 
centre, and some, the later ones, at one end, like those 
manufactured in the present day. They are not quite as 
fine as Mr. Kirby's ne plus ultra diamond-drilled eyed ; 
but recollect in those times " thread 1300 yards for 3d." 
was not, and Scandinavian laches darned their Vikings' 
winter stockings, if they wore any, with the sinews of 
beasts, or narrow strips of hide, like those used by 
Queen Dido when purchasing the land for the site of 
Carthage. The same cabinet contains a golden needle, 
the only one in the collection. Stilettos for piercing holes 
in the " broderie Scandinavaise " are also common, as 
well as bodkins and pincettes or tweezers, such as we still 
see in foreign dressing-cases. Only last week I was 
introduced by Conferentsraad Thomsen to a pair of 
these latter articles, in solid gold, which had just been 
forwarded, and were about to be valued at the Mint, 


and, as soon as registered, to be placed in goodly com- 
pany with the sister needle I have before alluded to. 
Needles and pincettes, with a knife, are usually dis- 
covered in the same locality. Decidedly, there is no- 
thing new under the sun. Only imagine my astonish- 
ment at beholding a bronze ring, suspended to which 
hang a pair of these same pincettes, together Avith one of 
those nasty little foreign-looking spoons, inseparable from 
every French and German etui, for cleaning out the 
ears. Buttons we have in considerable variety : some of 
bone, of a quatrefoil pattern, others of amber ; heaps of 
various forms in bronze ; some also of gold, stud fashion, 
like the tawdry Brummagem jewellery of modern times. 

But I am forgetting the knives, of which there is a 
large provision: they are rather small, with a bent 
handle, and very rude in form. Others resemble those 
of the present day, a little old-fashioned, and look as 
though pulled out of the socket of their handles by that 
most ruinous of all inventions, the knife-cleaning ma- 
chine. To some, rings are attached, evidently intended 
to be worn from the girdle ; one has a pincette dangling 
from the same ring, and a something else, chatelaine 
fashion ; on some are engraved representations of ships, 
such as the Vikings sailed in, with dragon prow (vide 
tapestry of Bayeux) ; and on one, by the side of said 
ship, swims a little fish, of whose ichthyological name 
I am unable to inform you. 

Of the ornaments worn by females, and perchance by 
men also — for the latter are or were as fond of finery 
as the softer sex — there is an extensive assortment: 
bronze diadems, after the fashion of the goddess Juno, 
or of those worn by the Russian Ambassadress at the 
drawing-rooms in London ; large and solid twisted rings 


for the neck, one of triple circlet, most ponderous to 
look at, but less heavy to wear, being hollow and stuffed 
with wool; large hair-pins of gold, a foot in length, 
terminated in a coil ; and bracelets, plain and twisted. 

One cabinet puzzled me much. It contained what to 
my ignorant eye appeared a collection of wire elastics, 
rampant from some dilapidated arm-chair, and I began 
to imagine the Scandinavian Vikings slept upon spring 
mattresses, as we degenerate mortals of the present 
day. These said elastics were, it appears, worn as arm- 
lets, and served as preservatives against sword-cuts, and 
at the same time as money : you measured off a piece of 
your armlet, according to the value of the article pur- 
chased. Anything more irritating than these machines 
crawling up one's arms I can hardly imagine. The 
same species also is there in gold, and whole cases of 
rings of similar form and precious material. A pin or 
brooch for fastening the dress or plaid is a facsimile of 
those worn in the Highlands in the present day. 

Let us now turn to the heroes of the age of Bronze. 

Of swords this collection boasts of upwards of 300 — 
some long, but the greater part not exceeding two feet 
six inches in length, short like the Highland dirks, two- 
edged, the blade thickest towards the middle. The hilts 
are often ornamented with plates of gold, overlaid, for 
at this period the art of gilding was undiscovered: 
they appear as though ivory had been inserted between 
the plates, as we often now see. The scabbards were of 
wood, covered with leather both without and within. 
One sword, discovered near the Liimfiorde, in Jutland, is 
of bronze, and of exquisite workmanship. As the gem 
of the collection, it is honoured with a small case lined 
with black velvet. 

VOL. I. R 


Of bronze shields there are several, from 19 to 
24 inches in diameter. The handle is formed of a 
crossbar within the hollowed boss. These shields were 
only used by persons of the highest rank, being most 
expensive : they are mostly formed of wood, with 
bosses attached to the centre. One is ornamented with 
bosses hammered out; another with the double spiral 
decoration, from which issue two serpents with bird- 
like head — an ornament most rare at this period. 
Still the representations of animals and the human 
form' do now commence. I find three in the museum : 
one, the figure of a man, forming the handle to a knife ; 
the other two, also figures of men, I discovered in a 
case of objects like harness, the use of which is un- 
known. One of these appears to be a sort of tumbler, 
turned inside out, like the clown at a circus ; the other, 
with bronzed helmet, is kneeling with one hand on his 
heart, most sentimental. 

But I am forgetting the baton de marechal, a large 
bronzen axe, 16 inches in length and 10 inches broad 
at the edge, handsomely ornamented with raised knobs, 
and partly overlaid with gold. It was evidently cast 
for ornament, not use, being too light and delicate 
to crack the skull of an enemy, but very ornamental 
for state occasions. It is composed of a very small 
portion of metal, cast on a nucleus of clay, extending to 
the very edge, and is a wonderful specimen of the 
artificer's skill. Artists of the present day assert they 
could do no better, if as well. 

Strange to relate, of helmets only one single relic has 
been discovered — a chin-piece — plated with gold and 
ornamented with spirals. 

And now come the horns. Wild Hunter of the 



























Hartz Mountains, ghostly Knight of the Ardennes, Bobin 
Hood, Little John, and all such worthies, bow your heads. 
Never did I behold five bugles such as these. The cow- 
horn of the Polish serf may be longer ; but I'll back the 
" luurs " of the Scandinavian against all rivals. They 
are beautiful and graceful, reminding you of the legends 
of romance ; indeed, of everything unlike the present 
utilitarian century. They are supposed to have been 
war-trumpets, by which the signal for attack was given. 
If stretched out, they would be upwards of six feet in 
length : the disk is adorned with circular bosses and ring 
ornaments, and a bunch of bronze pendants is attached 
to the end, near the mouthpiece. I had one of them 
removed from its case for my inspection. When the 
mouthpiece is inserted between the lips, the horn tra- 
verses the shoulder and encircles the whole body. The 
sound is somewhat dull, as may be expected. These 
horns or some of them were discovered at Wedellsborg, 
in the island of Funen. 

Every day, at the hour of closing, all the objects of 
gold are removed from the cabinets and concealed in 
some secret fireproof place, unknown to any but the 
attendants. This is a most prudent precaution, for in 
1802 two horns of solid gold were stolen from the Kunst 
cabinet of Christiansborg, by a jeweller named Heiden- 
reich, and were melted down before the robbery was 
discovered. The robber was imprisoned for life, and a 
long imprisonment it proved, for he lived to be eighty 
years of age. 

The circumstances attending the original finding of 
these golden horns were singular. In the year 1639, 
near Tonder, in Slesvig, a young peasant girl, by name 
Katharina, as she was returning home one evening, re- 

E 2 


marked something sticking up out of the ground by the 
side of the road. Imagining it to be a piece of wood, 
she passed it by without examination. Some days later, 
walking along the same road, she struck her foot against 
the same object. Seeing it to be something curious, she 
endeavoured to pull it from the earth, and having, after 
great efforts, succeeded in extracting it from the ground, 
called to her companions to look at what she had found. 
They all laughed at her, declaring it to be an old hunter's 
horn, and advised her to leave it where she found it. 
This she refused to do. Having had the trouble of 
dragging it out from the earth, she determined to carry 
it home. She then washed it in the river, and, when 
rubbed and freed from the mud which adhered to it, it 
was believed to be brass. Everybody ridiculed her ; but 
she took one of the rings which hung from the horn and 
sold it to a goldsmith in the village, who discovered it to 
be of gold. The mayor of Tonder, having questioned 
the girl, caused excavations to be made at the same 
place, but without success. At last the rumour came 
to the ears of Christian IV., then on a visit to his son 
the Crown Prince at Gliickstadt. Christian purchased 
the horn from the girl and presented it to the Prince. 
The Prince placed it on his buffet, and amused himself 
with his court in endeavouring to quaff its contents at a 
draught. This feat, however, no one could accomplish, 
as the horn contained three pots and a half of wine. 
It weighed seven pounds, and was worth about 450?. It 
is now supjjosed to belong to the first or an earlier Iron 

In the year 1737, twenty-five steps from the place 
where the first horn was found, a peasant, by name Erik 
Lauritzen, whilst removing mould, at six inches from the 


surface struck against the second horn and took it up. 
Finding it to be of gold, he presented it to Count 
Schack, owner of the land, who gave it to Christian VI. 
The King sent the peasant 25/., the value of the horn 
being 500Z. The man was so delighted with His Majesty's 
liberality, that he wrote twice to thank the King for his 

The celebrated poet, Adam Oehlenschlager, composed 
a funeral elegy on these horns, when they had been 
stolen and melted down, so touching that it brought 
tears into the eyes of all antiquaries who perused it. 
For this reason I have not translated it, as it might have 
been too much for the reader's feelings.* 

3. The Iron Age. — We now enter into the third period 
of Scandinavian history — an era more difficult to describe 
and puzzling to comprehend than the two preceding ages. 
I do not myself believe that, as Christianity progressed 
among the Northern nations (from a.d. 826 to a.d. 
1000), native talent advanced with the civilization of 
the country. Models were procured from foreign parts, 
chiefly from the East : few were of original design. The 
merchants of Scandinavia extended their commercial 
expeditions to the city of Novgorod, at that time the 
chief mart of Oriental and European traffic, exchanging 
the ivory of the narwal and the amber of the Baltic 
for the produce of the East. 

The Varangian guard,t all-powerful like the Janissaries 

* A model of one of these horns has been lately executed in silver 
gilt by M. Dabl, of Ostergade, and presented to the Museum of Northern 
Antiquities by his Majesty King Frederic VII., and it is whispered that 
the companion is likely to follow. 

f The Varangian guard was chiefly formed of English Danes, who 


of later years, surrounded and by their presence pro- 
tected the tottering throne of the Eastern Emperor, and 
by their constant connexion with Constantinople inun- 
dated the North with coins and ornaments of the later 
and degraded period of Byzantine art. 

Our old friends, too, the Vikings, of glorious memory, 
after spreading fire and devastation far and wide — 
pushing their marauding adventures even to the coasts 
of Italy and Spain — returned loaded with spoil and 
plunder, and then, when, wearied with the chains of 
home and domestic life, thev were about to set out on 

7 4/ 

some fresh expedition, they buried and concealed their 
treasures in some secret place, unknown to all, even to 
the wives of their bosoms. There — the owner slain in 
some robber fight — they lay for centuries hidden in the 
bowels of the earth, and are now occasionally turned up 
by the plough. The fact that the objects were procured 
from so many different sources renders it very difficult 
to determine which may be really of Scandinavian origin. 
The mode of burying the dead, too, at this period of 
history, seems to have been in a state of transition — a 
question vexe'e, as the French term it. Urns of pottery 
have been frequently discovered, containing the ashes 
of the deceased, with the iron sword, bent or broken, 
laid across the top of the vessel. It is probable that 
many people remained constant to the old-fashioned 
habit, disliking new-fangled ideas, as certain old English 
ladies of the last century insisted on not being buried, 
as was then the law, in a woollen shroud, thereby causing 

deserted Britain after its conquest by the Normans, and took service at 
Constantinople. They were styled by the Greeks " Hatchet-bearers " 
(t£X£%i/^»«ouj), from the arm they used, which was called in England 
the Danish axe. 


a fine of 20Z. to be paid from the pockets of their 
residuary legatees to the government of the country. 

It was in Denmark that the ancient custom of burning 
the dead was first discontinued. It is known to have 
prevailed much later in the adjoining kingdoms of Sweden 
and Norway. According to the Icelandic historian, 
Snorro Sturlesen, who some 600 years ago wrote a 
chronicle of the Kings of Norway, Dan Mikillati was 
the first who, by his own direction, was interred whole, 
unburned, together with his war-horse, armour, harness, 
and other accoutrements. The Vikings are declared 
by the Sagas to have been burned in their ships, the 
very vessels which had carried them proudly over the 
billows, through storm and tempest: over the ship a 
tumulus was heaped, a grand idea — (Nelson should have 
been sunk in a 74) — but no traces of these interments 
have as yet been discovered in Denmark, though Pro- 
fessor Thomsen informs me that in Sweden, near Sigtuna, 
the remains of a ship have been brought to light from 
an excavated barrow. On the other hand, to meet with 
a human skeleton, with axe, sword, the bones of a horse, 
harness, stirrups, and other accoutrements, is no uncom- 
mon occurrence. 

The cases of this department of the museum contain 
large collections of all warlike implements — swords, 
javelins, arrow-heads, instruments for the shoeing of 
horses, &c, of corroded iron — interesting to the true an- 
tiquary, but to unlearned minds like my own suggesting 
uncomfortable ideas of " marine stores and receivers of 
stolen goods." I may be a heathen — I can't help it : rusty 
iron has no charm for my eyes ; it is rusty iron always. 
The swords are of larger dimensions than those of the 
Bronze age, the hilts frequently adorned with plates of 


gold, some even of solid silver — a new feature in the 
history of metallic art. Then we have shields and 
helmets, few in number — for iron soon rusts and perishes 
— and some small remains of chain armour. Formerly 
this kind of armour was imagined to have been first 
introduced into Europe from the East at the time of the 
Crusades ; but a discovery, made last year, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Flensborg, of several pieces of chain mail in 
a morass, together with coins of the Emperor Vespasian 
much worn, and others of Commodus fresh as though 
from the mint, will, it is supposed, set this question at rest. 
The relics of a battle-field discovered at Alles0, in the 
island of Funen, show that even in these early days the 
cleanliness and creature comfort of the Scandinavian 
soldier were not unattended to, for side by side with 
broken javelin and battered helmet lay numerous combs 
of bone, good sized and strong. 

The bronze of the Iron age is far inferior in design, 
execution, and quality, to that of the preceding period : 
a few, very few articles of stone, still occur in the " finds." 

Of bronze — or we must now rather term it brass — 
we have a bunch of keys of simple design, like the house- 
breaker's picklock, strung on a ring ; others more ad- 
vanced and intricate : diadems, too, one massive and 
fastening behind with a pivot cross. This may possibly 
have adorned the helmet of some warrior ; but I rather 
imagine it to have been a woman's ornament, uncom- 
fortable if you will, perched up probably on a cushion or 
plait of hah, in the style of the Eoman Empresses — for 
these Northern beauties boasted and still boast of great 
capillary attraction. It could have been, however, scarcely 
less ponderous and headachy than the diamond fenders 
by which we are still constantly dumfounded at the 


birthday drawing-rooms of Her Majesty in this the 
nineteenth century. 

Money in these early ages was unknown in Denmark. 
The first coin struck in that country was in the reign of 
Svend, father of Canute the Great, about the year 1000. 
Large masses of foreign money, however, have been 
discovered in various places — Cufic, Byzantine, Roman, 
German, and Anglo-Saxon (Danegelt) mixed together 
— with bars and ingots of silver and gold, rings sus- 
pended to others of large dimensions, broken bracelets, 
chains, and necklaces. In a small case near the window 
you will see exposed the " find " of this description, made 
in Falster, near Vaalse, some thirteen years since. 

Glass, too, now appears, not of home manufacture, but 
imported from other countries. Beads of this material, 
both coloured and mosaic, are numerous. Four of a 
large size are supposed to have formed knobs for the 
handles of swords. Then we have drinking- horns, 
graceful in form, both in bone and in glass — the latter 
opalized by the effect of long interment. Among many 
glasses of various design and colour, one specimen 
arrived only a few days since, moulded in the same 
diamond pattern that is used in the French cabarets at 
the present day. 

Of silver laid on to iron we have the remains of a 
girdle, in good preservation, and javelin-heads orna- 
mented with silver double-circular spangle ornaments,* 
sliming bright from among the rusty but more useful 
metal. Then come two small vases of Roman work- 

* The same ornamentation is used by the inhabitants of Borneo in 
the present day to mark the number of enemies who have fallen by the 
hand of the possessor. In the Ethnographic Museum I have seen spears 
with twenty or thirty of these double-circular spangles of silver. 


manship, tastefully engraved, and a silver cup, an inch 
and three-quarters high, taken from the grave of Queen 
Thyre Dannebod, at Jellinge, ornamented with the 
serpent decoration. Fibulas of every form and fashion, 
lyre-shaped, sword-shaped, in endless variety ; an ancient 
coin scratched over with Eunic inscription ; silver scales ; 
Eastern-looking beads, and rings with pendent bre- 
loques ; small hatchets, and other implements. Brace- 
lets, plain silver band, with perpendicular bark-like or- 
nament ; netted, twist, and chain of every device invented 
since the creation of the world ; one, too, of a suspicious 
horseshoe form, worn perhaps for luck ; then others of 
serpent coil, more massive still, rich and exquisite in 
design. A necklace composed of rings of netted chain- 
work, similar to the bracelets, very beautiful and perfect 
in execution, at the same time both massive and delicate. 
The more you examine the more you are astonished 
at the beautiful workmanship of the articles displayed 
before you. 

And now for the gold ornaments. You admire those 
large massive " bracelets " as you call them ; so did 
I till I knew better. They are the swearing-rings of the 
ancients, and hang, as you may see on examining some 
of the figures on the early bractere coins, to the collar of 
the warrior ; on these he placed his finger when taking an 
oath on any solemn occasion, which oath he would break 
in twenty-four hours afterwards with very little hesita- 
tion. Gold embossed beads, trumpery and Palais-Eoyal- 
ish in taste ; leopard-headed ornaments with jewelled 
pendants ; collar ornaments of filigree witk bractese 
attached, all betray their Byzantine origin. 

A girdle of solid gold, but beaten very thin, once 
adorned the statue of some favourite idol : it is very 


handsome, and must have been difficult to purloin, being 
made without a joint. 

Splendid and massive are the neckrings, rich also in 
ornamentation ; bracelets of exquisite and artistic beauty, 
and in great variety ; rings of twist and coil, some so 
large as to cover the whole joint of a colossal finger : one 
is formed of two griffin's claws, meeting in the centre ; 
another a sort of quatrefoil composed of four diamond- 
shaped lozenges. A curious — very curious — ring of thick 
and heavy gold, enamelled with Kunic characters, too 
ancient to be deciphered, was discovered in the neighbour- 
hood of Bergen and made its way to England ; thence it 
went to Paris, where it was repurchased and is now in 
the Scandinavian Museum at Copenhagen. 

The bractese coins, or imitations of them — sometimes 
Cufic, sometimes Byzantine — are very interesting: 
many have Eunic inscriptions. The coins are enclosed 
within a border, with a loop to attach them on to the 
collar. On some are represented the god Thor, and 
what do you imagine he is doing? Why, applying 
his thumb to the end of his nose, his four fingers ex- 
tended in the air. I never knew before how ancient 
this custom was, or whence the naughty little boys 
derived this excessively low-bred habit. 

But it would be an endless task to describe in 
detail the innumerable relics of this collection. The 
ancient adage " that riches beget riches " is here fully 
exemplified: each week, each day, adds to the trea- 
sures already accumulated. And shall we ever possess 
in England such a museum of early national antiquities ? 
I doubt it, even if space be allowed in some future 
building at Kensington, unless some antiquarian member 
of Parliament take up the matter and introduce a change 


in the law of treasure trove. Until that be effected, all 
objects of the precious metals discovered will be broken 
and consigned to the melting-pot. The poorer classes 
will not recognise the justice of manorial claims, nor is 
it to be wondered at. 

Some few years since, when Professor Worsaae accom- 
panied His Majesty the King of Denmark to Scotland, 
he remained some days in Edinburgh for the express 
purpose of inspecting the museum of that city. One 
morning he was informed that somebody desired to 
speak with him in private. An individual was intro- 
duced, who stated that he understood Mr. Worsaae was 
in the habit of purchasing antiquities, and offered him a 
splendid armlet — a serpent coil, heavy and massive, the 
gold alone of which must have been worth, at least, 20/., 
but for which he asked only a 107. note. He had dug 
it up whilst tilling his land, and, being aware that 
lie would receive no remuneration from the rightful 
owner, was anxious to get rid of it in secret. Mr. 
Worsaae, even had he been willing to do so, could not of 
course, being there in a sort of public capacity, purchase 
anything in an underhand manner. He mentioned the 
circumstance to some of the Edinburgh antiquaries ; 
inquiries were prosecuted, but too late ; the armlet had 
already become the prey of the melting-pot. 


We now enter upon the first Catholic era, of which the 
specimens are fewer than those of the Pagan period : 
— early croziers of the narwal horn ; a whole cabinet of 
mannikins and cock-horses of bronze, very rude and 
delightfully unartistic, new to my relic-loving eyes, 
meant to contain water to pour over the priest's hands 


at the conclusion of the celebration of mass ; a regiment 
of censers, engraved with beautiful Runic inscriptions, 
the more interesting because no one can understand 
them ; then we have an ancient Byzantine altar, re- 
liquaries, and candlesticks, all of the same style, ena- 
melled with fleurs-de-lys and other symbolical devices ; 
crucifixes and crosses, Queen Dagmar's among the 
number ; the carved door of an ancient Icelandic church 
— all allegory — an armed knight introducing Chris- 
tianity, falcon on shoulder, the lion crouched low before 
the foot of the cross. In the second panel the knight 
fights lustily with Paganism, a many-headed dragon, 
aided by the lion — the meaning of which I don't quite 
understand. But I must not forget to mention the 
crucifix of narwal ivory, bearing an inscription that it 
was once the property of Gunhild, otherwise Helena 
(the names are synonymous), daughter of King Svend, 
and niece (or sister) to Canute the Great. The exist- 
ence of this princess is only known by this record, no 
mention being made of her in history. In the adjoin- 
ing room are two splendid iron swords, with ivory 
carved handles, of serpent decoration, of the time of our 
Iving Canute ; ancient anchors, chain armour, and 
weapons of all kinds ; two cases of drinking-horns, 
among them that of the first abbot of Sor0, most un- 
ecclesiastical in its measure. Queen Margaret's cup, too 
— her favourite ten-sided rosace drinking-cup of silver, 
partly gilt ; queer ivory -handled knives and ancient 
silver spoons ; to say nothing of one of those wonderful 
ponderous iron casques, with a sort of curtain (such as 
ladies have on their bonnets, only going all round) of the 
same metal, and one cross slit to look out of. 

Mounting the staircase, we come to more Boman 


Catholic relics, altarpieces, and carvings : — two St. 
Georges and the Dragon, large as life (one of which is 
by Briiggeman) ; armour and shields, battle-axes, two- 
handed swords, more jewellery, more carvings, painted 
missals, parchment deeds, seals of abbeys and kings ; 
Runic almanacs and monkish calendars ; more censers, 
with, this time, intelligible Runic characters ; chalices 
of fine workmanship. The ivory portable altar of Chris- 
tian I., presented, in 1474, by him to the Pope. It re- 
presents the life of St. Olaf ; and a most disturbed life 
his must have been, too, for everybody seems knocking 
or cutting off everybody else's head. In more recent 
times the Pope returned this offering to Frederic IV. 
when he visited Italy, as being more valuable to him as 
a relic of his ancestor. 

We now enter the great salle ; but, before examining 
its contents, let us admire the tapestry, a chronological 
gathering of the kings of Denmark, beginning with 
whom I can't exactly say, for one part is missing (burnt, 
as everything is sooner or later in Denmark), and 
another part is at Frederiksborg Castle ; but it ends 
with Christian IV., represented as a boy, with the Castle 
of Kronborg and Elsinore in the background. I love old 
tapestry, and delight to examine it, and to make out 
all the kings, arrayed in their crowns and sceptres, look- 
ing so natural in the open air. Erik the Pomeranian, 
evidently en retraite in Gothland, his crown all topsy- 
turvy in the mud ; Christian II., looking very miserable, 
his crown off, too, and his sceptre broken in two, cracked 
by a blow from his uncle and neighbour Frederic I. 
Nothing like this sort of thing to make you study 
history. And then these hangings were the work of 
two Scotch brothers, of the name of King, who settled 


in Denmark ; they prospered, too, for the grandson of 
one of them became not only Bishop of Zealand, but 
one of the most popular of Danish poets.* 

Numerous are the objects of interest in this room — the 
carved wooden tankard, the rich bed from Jutland, the 
jewelled toys; the golden apple or orange, of which 
you touch the spring, and it falls into twelve " pigs " or 
divisions, each for a different perfume ; the ornaments 
worn by the peasants of Jutland, of Sweden and Norway, 
of Amak and the Faroe isles; also the goblet, half 
melted by fire, presented by King James I. to the Uni- 
versity of Copenhagen. One of the attendants now 
opens the cabinet containing the almanac of Chris- 
tian IV., with his own journal and remarks, and the 
autograph of Tordenskiold ; the petition written on blue 
ribbon by the daughters of Ulfeld, praying for the 
release of their mother ; and many other treasures. 

By this time you imagine you have seen everything 
in the museum — it is near two o'clock, and you are 
about to start ; when, at the last moment, arrives Pro- 
fessor Thomsen, followed by a crowd of attendants armed 
with a perfect forest of keys. " Come here ! come here ! " 
he exclaims ; " I will show you something. You see, 
when I purchased this cabinet it was empty ; but it had 
once contained spoons and tankards, so spoons and 
tankards I determined to have ; " and, opening the door, 
there they were, dozens of Apostle and christening 
spoons hung around it, complete. " Come on ! come on ! 
I will show you what gave me most trouble of all to 

* Bishop Kingo (he smartened up his name with an o) lies buried 
in the church of Frangde in Funen, with an elegy inscribed on his 
tablet from the pen of Ingemann ; he married three wives one after 
the other. 


collect ;" and, unlocking the door of a similar ebony- 
cabinet, he displays to our admiring eyes the " Crowns 
of the Northern brides:" ancient Icelandic, modern 
Icelandic, — ancient Norwegian, modern Norwegian, — 
ancient Swedish, modern Swedish ; all of silver-gilt, and 
of very curious workmanship. It was a real labour of love 
with the Professor to procure them. These crowns are 
usually either heirlooms in wealthy families or the pro- 
perty of the parish. In this case he had really cause 
to rejoice in the misfortune of Iris friends : one family 
about to emigrate to America gladly resigned their 
hereditary possession for an equivalent in money ; the 
priest of a consumed parish-church considered the sale 
of the ancient ornament a necessary evil to repair the 
damage of the flames. Each crown has its history, added 
to which let me state that this bridal gear is not always 
required ; pure and spotless must be the reputation of 
the maiden who durst appear and challenge the scandal of 
her village compeers ; luckless the girl who would clothe 
herself in undeserved plumage — the bridal crown and veil 
may be recklessly torn from her head by the indignant 
bystanders. No disgrace attends those who affect 
nothing, and often out of twenty brides scarcely two 
bear this symbol of maiden purity ! 



Environs of Copenhagen — Baths of Marienlyst — Palnatoke, the 
Danish William Tell — Bececling foreheads of the eighteenth century 
— Elsinore — The so-called Hamlet's tomh — The Hammer-mills — 
Grave of a Scandinavian dog — Legend of the cuckoo. 


A bright sun and a frosty morning in January induced 
us to visit the Palace of Frederiksborg, two miles dis- 
tant from Copenhagen. January is not the month usually 
selected for roaming through uninhabited houses ; but 
I was anxious to see a portrait of Sophia Madalena, 
Queen of Sweden,* of which Her Majesty the Queen 
Dowager had spoken to me. How bright the country 
looks on a fine frosty morning ! how bracing the air ! 
It is quite refreshing to quit the city. We passed by the 
square reservoirs of the water company, now firmly 
frozen over, where myriads of small boys in sabots, with 
satchels on back, were diverting themselves with the 
pastime of sliding (I trust not on their way to school). 
We then zigzagged off into a cross road, turned off by a 
butcher's shop — slagter-mester in Danish. He lives 
next door to the carrier, who announces to the public how 
daily he conveys " parcellen " of all sorts to and from 
the town. Near the gate of the palace gardens stands 

+ Wife of Gustavus III., daughter of Frederic V. and Queen Louisa ; 
married the same day as Caroline Matilda, and nearly as unhappily. 
VOL. I. S 


an admirably-executed statue of Frederic VI., the most 
popular and most beloved monarch that ever sat on the 
Danish throne. It is said to be an excellent likeness, in 
the frock-coat, semi-military, in which he walked and 
talked daily in that very locality — a residence he much 
loved. The palace is well placed, and commands a 
splendid view of Copenhagen and its environs. Frede- 
riksberg contains little to repay you for the trouble of 
wandering through dismantled rooms, beyond a portrait 
of the late Queen Dowager by Juel, and the full-length 
of the Queen of Sweden, by I know not whom. What- 
ever be the fate of Frederiksborg, be it inhabited again 
by some future sovereign or converted into a public 
museum, the government are wrong to allow it to fall 
into decay. I was shocked to see the fine stucco ceilings, 
gems of their kind, falling down from sheer neglect. 
They can never be replaced, and are fine specimens of 
the handiwork of an earlier century. The woods around 
the palace are charming, even at this season. The 
woodcutters were hard at work, thinning and carting 
away the trees, near the little Norwegian hut and 
bridge. There was life and freshness in the scene. 
Frederiksberg was built by Frederic IV. when Prince 
Royal. The pheasantry and " fauconnerie," for which 
the king received yearly supplies of birds from England, 
from his uncle Prince George of Denmark, has long 
since disappeared. 

The environs of Copenhagen are beautiful ; and the 
drives to the Deer-park, where in summer-time a fair is 
held, and the so-called Hermitage of Madalena, well repay 
the trouble. Frederiksdal on the lake, and Lyngby, with 
its palace of Sorgenfri, the residence of Her Majesty the 
Queen Dowager ; the forest of Jaegersborg ; Chaiiotten- 


lund, where the fireworks blaze of a summer's eve ; the 
bathing-place of Klampenborg, on the Sound — all form 
agreeable promenades on an idle day ; but there is 
nothing more to say about them. Blue fresh or blue salt 
water (as the case may be), beech-trees, deer, a villa resi- 
dence — when you have described one, you have said all 
that is or can be said about them. But the neighbourhood 
of Lyngby is a Vale of Tempe, and in early May the 
market-women come into town bearing baskets loaded 
with the lilac flowers of the Primula farinosa, mounted 
into little nosegays. The steamer to Elsinore will leave 
you at Bellevue, from which you may visit in a carriage 
the prettiest sites in the neighbourhood of Copenhagen. 


April 28th. — Flytte-dag has at length arrived, and 
to-day we leave our apartments in the Amaliegade, 
according to law, clean swept and garnished. It's an 
awful affair quitting Copenhagen. For the last three 
days cartloads of furniture have been carried off in 
succession, gradually reducing us to the strict necessaire 
of chairs and bedstead (I myself retired at once in 
dignity to my old quarters at the " Boyal "). We are, 
however, at last under way, and embark on board the 
fast steamboat " Horatio," which in two hours' time 
lands us at our destination. The weather is bright, 
but the wind easterly, and its sharpness gives proof of 
having passed over the broken ice of the northern lati- 
tudes. Vegetation has not advanced for the last three 
weeks. The buds of the horse-chesnuts swell, look 
ready to burst and unfold their leaves — but don't. 
They will all come into leaf in the space of twenty- 

s 2 


four hours. It's wonderful — like magic — " a northern 
spring," so people constantly tell me. Well, it may 
be ; but, like the " good time " of the ballad, " it's a 
long time coming." Our fast steamer was once a yacht 
— built for pleasure, now turned to profit ; she glides 
through the water like a serpent. We pass, to the right, 
the island of Hveen, where Tycho Brahe once held his 
court, and then later, like other mortals, grew out of 
fashion. The Danish coast is lined with fair country 
seats, embowered in beech en groves ; Skodsborg, the 
summer residence of his present Majesty ; that of the 
Landgrave, and many others ; then the church-tower of 
Elsinore appears. Kronborg later, grand and dignified, 
guards the entrance into the Sound. We turn round 
suddenly, enter the harbour, and in a few seconds are 
landed on the jetty. 

April 29t7i. — We are now completely established at 
Marienlyst; somewhat cold, if the truth be told, but 
where to go at this season of the year became a puzzler. 
Too early to travel, heartily tired of Copenhagen, we 
were glad of a change, and spring is sure to come some 
time or other. I must now give you some description 
of our present abode, which is situated at a half- 
hour's distance from the town of Elsinore. The house 
is of considerable architectural pretensions, built what 
the French call " a mi-cote," or, in plain, intelligible Eng- 
lish, half-way up the hill, overhung and surrounded by 
luxuriant woods. The garden in front, with its avenues 
of clipped limes, forms the public promenade of the 
natives. Beyond, from our window, we gaze on the dark 
blue waters of the Sound, ever gay with its number- 
less shipping, frigates, steamers, and merchantmen. Old 
Kronborg stands isolated, with her picturesque irregular 










I— I 




Chap. XVII.' PALNATOKE. 261 

towers, and the coasts of Sweden appear scarcely at a 
stone's throw ; the Kullen hills in the distance ; the 
rival town of Helsingborg, with her massive square 
watch-tower, looks poor and mean, quite cut out by the 
frowning turrets of her Danish sister. 

Palnatoke (Danish Knave of Spades now, as well as 
William Tell), the most celebrated skater of his age, 
one winter's eve, when intoxicated, laid a wager with 
Harald Blue-Tooth that he would skate down the 
Kullen Hills. Next morning, when he was sober, the 
king insisted on his performing the feat. "It is my 
certain death," answered Palnatoke ; " but better die 
than break my word." So he mounted the hills to fulfil 
his promise. Down he came with a fearful rapidity to 
instant destruction ; but, luckily, the band of one skate 
giving way arrested his descent ; he arrived in safety at 
the bottom, and escaped in a little ship which was lying 
in wait for him. 

Palnatoke was greatly skilled in archery ; so Harald 
Blue-Tooth ordered him to shoot an apple off his child's 
head, declaring that if he missed it he should forfeit his 
life. Palnatoke desired his boy to be steady — not to 
flinch. He cleaves the apple in twain, and the child is 
unscathed. But he has three arrows, and owns his 
intention, had he failed, to have shot the contriver of 
the death. Tins story, with all due respect to the Swiss, 
is related in the Sagas, some four hundred years before 
William Tell was born or thought of. 

Marienlyst boasts of a certain historic interest, par- 
ticularly to us English, for here was founded, early in 
the fifteenth century, a Carmelite cloister by our English 
princess Queen Philippa, of whom, the Danes think so 
much, and of whom we her countrymen know so little. 


Then came the Eeformation ; monks and nuns were 
swept away, and the convent and its possessions fell to 
the Crown of Denmark. The site was charming, and later 
Frederic IV. here constructed an Italian villa, where he 
resided in the summer season. From him it passed into 
the possession of the Counts Moltke, and again became 
royal property and a dower apanage of Queen Juliana 
Maria, from whose second name it derives its present 

Yes, from these very windows Juliana, in her joy and 
bitterness, may have gazed on the prison of her victim 
Queen Caroline Matilda, and triumphed at the success 
of her intrigue. 

Well, Juliana died ; Marienlyst still continued royal 
property, but was deserted. Apartments were granted 
therein to various dowagers, directors of the Sound dues, 
&c, until the year 1850, when the present king deter- 
mined to convert it into a sort of Chelsea Hospital for 
soldiers mutilated during the war. This idea was, how- 
ever, never carried out : the invalids preferred residing 
in their own houses, and the property, with its adjoin- 
ing woods, was then purchased by the town of Elsinore, 
who have relet it on a lease of ninety-nine years to its 
present proprietor Mr. Nathansen. The establishment 
opens on the 1st of June, so we are sure of a month's quiet 
at any rate. The bathing here is excellent, and I have 
no doubt, when more known (for it is now in its infancy), 
Marienlyst will become one of the most favourite 
watering-places of Northern Europe. 

We inhabit the premier. The "bel etage" — not ac- 
cording to rule, but on account of the view — is on our 
second ; a suite of apartments richly painted and deco- 
rated in the style of the last century; medallions of 


Frederic and Juliana surmount the mirrors, — lie in all 
the pride " d'une beautd insolente," she so handsome you 
could almost pardon her wickedness in later days. Here 
are the dining, reading-rooms, and restaurant. Views of 
Venice, not quite Canaletti, adorn the walls, — pleasant 
to look upon as old acquaintances, not as works 
of art. The view from the windows is glorious, and 
(the palace being built mi-cote) you walk out from 
thence across a wooden bridge straight into the 
woods above. On our staircase stand two large white 
glazed Fayence busts of Christian VI. and his son Fre- 
deric V., in all the glory of elephants and periwigs, 
— goodnatured faces, with the " front fuyant " so re- 
markable among all monarchs from the commencement 
of the eighteenth century. Look at the Bourbons, the 
Austrians, George III., and now the house of Olden- 
borg — all alike. The forehead recedes, giving an "air 
moutonnier" to their Majesties. How is this to be 
accounted for ? Christian IV. and his son have intel- 
lectual faces ; Louis XIII. and XIV. are not wanting. 
The Stuarts have foreheads straight and broad enough 
to contain the well-known hereditary obstinacy of their 
race. Unless the nurses of that century indulged in some 
peculiar bandaging or manipulation of the infant head, 
like that which exists among certain tribes of the Pied 
Indians, this formation can only be attributed to the 
weight of the pigtails attached to the wigs by which 
their youthful heads were disfigured. 

Kun your eye over a gallery of royal portraits of the 
later centuries, and you will see boys of the tenderest 
age, hardly able to toddle, bewigged and dizened out 
like men of seventy. It is not at all impossible that the 
weight of a pigtail, before the head was thoroughly 


closed and developed — still soft — might produce this 
malformation of the forehead. Royalties, in those days 
of etiquette, too, suffered more than humbler mortals. 
Be this the reason or not, when pigtails went out fore- 
heads came in again, as we may see by their descendants 
the monarchs of the present century. 

We mount au second. A door leads you direct into 
the woods, now carpeted with the flowers of the guul 
fugls melk (yellow bird's milk *), and terraces by 
which the palace is dominated : charming retreats in 
summer season, where you may enjoy those two luxuries 
so seldom found combined — shade, and the fresh, bracing 
sea-air. You turn to the right, and before passing 
through the open gate which leads into the forest find 
yourself in front of a raised mound, once surmounted by 
a cross (partly fallen), the so-called " Hamlet's Tomb :" 
no more his place of sepulture than that of Jupiter. 
Indeed, its origin dates from within the last thirty 
years. Hans Andersen assured me that, when he was 
a scholar at Elsinore, it existed not. In the good old 
times, when the Sound duties still were, and myriads 
of ships of all nations stopped at Elsinore to pay their 
dues and be plundered by the inhabitants, each fresh 
English sailor, on his first arrival, demanded to be con- 
ducted to the tomb of Hamlet. Now, on the outside of 
the town, by the Strand Vei, in the garden of a re- 
sident merchant, stood and still stands a hpi or barrow, 
one of the twenty thousand which are scattered so 
plentifully over the Danish dominions. This barrow, 
to the great annoyance of its possessor, was settled 
upon as a fit resting-place for Shakespeare's hero. 

* Omitkogalum luteuin. 


Worried and tormented by the numerous visitors, who 
allowed him no peace, he, at his own expense, erected 
this monument in the public garden of the Marien- 
lyst, caused it to be surmounted by a cross and a 
half-erased inscription, fixing the date of Hamlet's 
death the 32nd of October, Old Style, the year a blank. 
Admirably, too, it succeeded. The British public were 
content, and the worthy merchant allowed to smoke his 
pipe in peace under the grateful shade of his charmille. 

It is, however, most singularly disagreeable to have 
now, at the eleventh hour, one's feelings wounded, 
one's illusions upset, and to be told suddenly how 
Hamlet, instead of being a " beautiful Danish prince," 
in " black velvet and bugles," and dying at Elsinore, 
was nothing but a Jutland pirate, son of a rubbishing 
" smaa konge " of the isle of Mors, in the Liimfiorde. 
It is all of a piece with Hannibal not melting the Alps 
with vinegar — an historical fact pooh-poohed by those 
learned in chemistry of the present century. But I hope 
to tell you more of Hamlet hereafter, when we again 
visit Jutland. 

The monks of the convent of Marienlyst distinguished 
themselves greatly at the period of the Eeformation, 
especially one Paul Eliasen, commonly called "Turn- 
coat " — Vende-kaabe. He was nobody then, but later 
was made Protestant Professor of Theology in Copen- 
hagen. Another monk, Franz Wormordsen, became 
the first Protestant preacher in Scania — Skaane the 
Danes write it — much to the credit of Marienlyst, for 
she was but a poor convent. 

Afterwards, within the domain of the monastery hard 
by was founded a hospital for foreign seamen, and in the 
days of Christian IV. our garden was known by the ap- 


pellation of " Kronborg's Lundehave," and here the king- 
possessed a " lyst " house, where he loved to pass his 
leisure hours and drink his wine in company with Mrs. 
Karen Andersdatter, whose son, Hans Ulrik, one of the 
Gyldenl0ves — a distinguished man — became later go- 
vernor of the Castle. As for poor Karen, she grew blear- 
eyed, had to wear spectacles ; so the king married her 
off to a parson. You will see her portrait at Eosenborg 
— not the lady with pearls in her hair : she 's another, 
Kirsten Madsdatter, who died suddenly while sitting at 
her looking-glass, braiding those very ornaments among 
her golden tresses. An awful warning to bad Qvind- 
folk and others. 

Christian IV., in his journal of May 5th, 1629, notes 
down : " I Christian IV. went from Frederiksberg to 
Kronborg. A little boy opened the door by the 
chimney of the kitchen, out in the garden-house (Kron- 
borg Lundehave) ; and when I sent to see who was 
there, there was nobody." Not very alarming, but he 
was always seeing visions. Here too he made his 
" cure " and took his powder for " epileptic fits." Not 
that he suffered from them more than you or I. He 
got drunk, tumbled down like his neighbours, and on 
his recovery declared it was " epilepsy." No one con- 
tradicted his Majesty : it was not etiquette : so he believed 
it and betook himself to powders, — powders composed of 
" scrunched malefactors' skulls," mingled with some 
bygone nostrum : the greater the villain, be he hanged 
or decapitated, the more efficacious the remedy. 

Capital punishment still exists in Denmark : none 
of your new-fangled philanthropic guillotines, but 
decapitation, as in days of yore, by sword and block ; 
and now, even in the present century, when an execu- 


tion takes place either in the island of Amak or M0en, 
the epileptic stand around the scaffold in crowds, cup 
in hand, ready to quaff the red blood as it flows from 
the still quivering body of the malefactor. 

Alone: the coast extends for miles a beechen forest 
with walks cut out for the delectation of the visitors : 
no underwood — a shady canopy overhead, under which 
the exhilarating sea-air circulates. The beech are 
now leafless, but the ground is carpeted with green 
mosses, through which pierce the delicate flowers of the 
snowy wood-sorrel with its trefoil-leaf, and the wood 
anemone, its petals varying from rose to white; in 
the marshy parts below we find the golden heste-hov 
(horse's-hoof*), lamba blom,-f- fruers sterk (our lady's 
smock $), and the fladstierne; § the pale green leaves of 
the lily of the valley and the conval || have already 
protruded themselves, but shiver and tremble in the 
blast as though they had acted unwisely ; the cowslips 
(koe-driver, cow-driver, as they here call them) and the 
oxlips — shame on them for their effeminacy ! — tuck their 
blossoms sturdily under their stalks within their coronal 
of leaves, determined to bide their time and not be 
caught committing any imprudence. 

" Visit the Hammer-mills," said Hans Andersen ; " it 
is a charming walk." And who is a better judge of 
what is picturesque than Hans Andersen ? one of 
nature's poets ; none of your taught admirers of the 
beautiful, blessed or rather cursed with an artistic eye, 
a bore to everybody. We were not destined to arrive 
there on our first attempt : we passed the glass manu- 

* Tussilago farfara. f Saxifraga oppositifolia. 

J Cardaniine pratensis, § Stellaria. || Oonvallaria bifolia. 


factory on the sea-shore — very black it looked, with its 
smoke curling languidly in the clear atmosphere — and 
then turned off to gain the road. The beech-masts had 
sown themselves, and were springing up in thousands ; 
and here we met two unlucky pigs, tethered in the forest, 
left to cater for themselves, as though in October : poor 
wretches ! they ran up, evidently very hungry, as soon 
as they saw us, grunting their complaints most energe- 
tically. In this wood you will find a little dog's ceme- 
tery — small mounds of earth and heaps of stone, such 
as a Scandinavian dog should lie under. Danish ladies 
are apt to be sentimental, but in a menagere fashion, 
as the following anecdote will show. One day, observing 
a sniail tombstone in the Botanical Garden, — erected 
to the memory of a lapdog by a lady of rank, said the 
gardener, — I knelt down and deciphered the inscription, 
which ran thus : — 

Here lies Giordano, a faithful friend, 

Born at Eome in the 7th year of Pius VI.'s pontificate, 

Died at Copenhagen in that remarkable winter when 

sugar was sold at 45 sk. the pound. 

Eequiescat in pace. 

We were attracted by a pine wood to the left ; it was 
not the direct road, but womankind was sure we could 
get round somehow ; and so we did, and lost our way, 
and after some two hours' walking found ourselves near 
where we had set out, so gave up the Hammer-mills : 
but it was very beautiful — the forest diversified by 
mysterious dark blue lakes, full of fish they say ; some- 
how I should not like to bathe in their waters; they 
have a taarn-ish look, as though occupied by gigantic 
efts, and all sorts of abominations, such as one sees in 
Italian apothecaries' shops and necromancers' houses in 

Chap. XVII. HELLEBiEK. 269 

the theatre. We came across no deer, no game. Be- 
fore the year '50 these forests abounded with stags, 
chevreuil, hares, &c. ; now there are only foxes. These 
they shoot. Each year his Majesty gives a grand battue, 
and invites the foreign ministers accredited at his 
Court to assist at the execution. Last autumn the 
English Minister carried away the palm before all compe- 
titors, — shot more foxes than anybody. " C'est evident," 
said the Danes, " il est tellement habitue chez lui.' 

Our walk to the Hammer-mills and the village of 
Hellebrek did, however, come off two days later, and 
well it repaid our trouble. Suddenly, among the rich 
woodland scenery you come on a little village, with 
turning water-mills, gardens, and homesteads of almost 
Dutch neatness. This is the German colony — the con- 
gregation of St. Mary's — established by the celebrated 
Count Schimmelmann, in the last century, for the 
manufacture of arms. He appears to have under- 
stood business, as on its establishment he contracted to 
supply the government with 10,000 stand of arms annu- 
ally : his descendants do so still, and will I believe so 

The village of Hellebsek extends along the sea-shore. 
A miraculous draught of fishes had been taken two 
nights before in the nets ; every garden, every piece 
of waste ground, was hung with cod and flounders, 
split up, drying in the sun. In each cottage window 
blossom splendid tree carnations ; the rose de la Hollande 
and the Ardoisee, one mass of flowers. We returned 
by the sea-shore, and found the fluffy blue anemone — 
the " spring cow-bell,"* as it is here called — growing 
in the sea-sand. 

* Pulsatilla vulgaris. 


As we strolled through the woods, the voice of the 
cuckoo rang shrilly through the air, entirely, too, devoid 
of Danish accent. Many naturalists declare that the 
notes of the singing-birds differ according to the climate 
in which they dwell. Perhaps I am hard of hearing, 
for I have never yet found it out. But if you wish to 
know why the cuckoo builds no nest of its own, that I 
can easily explain according to the belief in Denmark. 

" When in early spring-time the voice of the cuckoo 
is first heard in the woods, every village girl kisses 
her hand and asks the question, ' Cuckoo ! cuckoo ! 
when shall I be married ? ' and the old folks, borne 
down with age and rheumatism, inquire, ' Cuckoo, 
when shall I be released from this world's cares ? ' The 
bird, in answer, continues singing, ' Cuckoo ! ' as many 
times as years will elapse before the object of their 
desires will come to pass. But as some old people live 
to an advanced age, and many girls die old maids, the 
poor bird has so much to do in answering the questions 
put to her, that the building season goes by ; she has no 
time to make her nest, but lays her eggs in that of the 

if LA. ' \ ' •. 

r U ■".'.■■,'- 



The town of Elsinore — Story of Dyveke and Christian II. — Her death 
— Execution of Oxe — Holger Dansk's spectacles — The fairy Mor- 
gana — The castle of Kronborg — Embassy of Queen Elizabeth — 
Marriage of James VI. of Scotland — His assumption of the Tudor 
badges— Prison of Caroline Matilda— The " green-bone "—Anecdote 
of a stork. 


May 3rd. — We have this morning lionized the town of 
Elsinore. It boasts of nothing remarkable ; its streets are 
narrow; the long, low, many-windowed houses are of 
respectable appearance ; many spacious, boasting an air 
of better days. On the whole, it reminds one of some old 
rotten borough, once a stronghold of corruption, now 
deprived of its iniquitous corporation, fallen from its high 
estate. The lately built Eaadhuus is a building of con- 
siderable pretension, modelled on the red brick Gothic 
peculiar to these northern climes — a most creditable 
edifice, but (there is always a but) badly placed in the 
centre of a long street, half concealed by the adjoining 
houses. Its construction was a regular job ; one side of 
the neighbouring square was offered to the authorities for 
a trifling sum ; the proposition was, however, negatived 
by tlie chief magistrate of the place, — " It would be too 
far removed from his own dwelling ; he had become fat 
and unwieldy, and could not bear moving." 

Elsinore possesses two churches, both of great an- 
tiquity, of red brick, well proportioned, but externally 


fearfully degraded. That of St. Olaf once piqued itself 
on its spire, which was blown down, in 1737, during a 
hurricane, which seems to have sent half the church- 
steeples in Denmark toppling over like ninepins ; 
either the hurricane was very violent, or the spires 
badly built. 

The interior is rich in carved and gilded altarpiece 
and ornaments of papistic times. Then there is the 
epitaphium of somebody who saved Denmark from the 
Swedes — so said the custode ; but when I heard who it 
was from, I no longer troubled myself about it. Den- 
mark was always being saved from the Swedes — quite 
an e very-day occurrence. In the adjoining cloister- 
church of St. Mary lies, or rather once lay, interred 
Dy veke, the celebrated favourite of King Christian II. 

Some historians relate that Dyveke died at Elsinore, 
otherwise it seems a strange place to have selected for 
her sepulture, when we consider the way in which 
her mother Sigbrit had treated the inhabitants of this 
city.* Dyveke, from all accounts, was much too simple- 
minded a girl to think of bequeathing her body to be 
buried anywhere. 

Whilst I am on the subject I may as well give some 
account of Prince Christian's first meeting with his 
favourite in Norway, where he was sent by his father 
King John.t 

* They had incurred her displeasure by refusing to receive a body 
of Dutch colonists she was anxious to establish there ; in revenge she 
removed the Sound duties to Copenhagen. 

f Christian got himself excommunicated by the Pope or clergy for 
causing the death of a bishop whom he had imprisoned on the accusa- 
tion of having taken part in an opr0r. The bishop cut his shirt into 
strips and let himself down from the window, but, being of a corpulent 
tendency, the rope broke ; he fell to the ground and broke his leg. 


According to Hvitfeldt, when at Bergen, young- 
Prince Christian was informed by Archbishop Walken r 
dorf that there lived in the town a very handsome 
Dutch girl, well-grown and modest, considered the 
beauty of the place. Her name was Dyveke or 
Dovekin, and she lived with her mother Sigbrit, who 
kept a huckster's shop there. So the prince invited 
her to a party with the principal burgomasters and 
their families. There was dancing, and he first danced 
with another girl who stood by, a friend of Dyveke's, 
and later with Dyveke herself, and was as happy as 
Paris when he first saw Helen. The more he looked, 
the more he was charmed; but, says the chronicle, "this 
dance caused him afterwards to dance away from the 
three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden." 
Dyveke later accompanied him to Copenhagen, together 
with her. mother, but for some years after King John's 
death nothing more is heard of her. She lived quietly 
enough, in consequence of the remonstrance of the 
Emperor Charles V. at the time of the marriage of 
his sister Elizabeth. The Emperor wished to insist 
on her dismissal, but Christian got into such a pas- 
sion, the minister dared not return to the subject. 
Svaningius declares that both Dyveke and her mother 
lived a long time poor and hated in Copenhagen until 

He managed to creep as far as a hollow tree, and hid himself therein. 
When his flight was discovered on the following day, the prince 
mounted his horse in pursuit of him. By the aid of bloodhounds he 
was soon discovered in a most wretched state ; but Christian, instead 
of pitying him, " blew him up," and threatened his life. The bishop 
answered, he considered himself to be perfectly at liberty to escape if 
he could, and would do so again : he died, however, of his injuries a few 
days after. Christian behaved cruelly, there is no doubt, but not worse 
than the rest of the world in his century. 

VOL. I. T 


the love of the king again awoke. He then built for 
her the house in the Amagertorv called " Sigbrits 
Palais," to which I have already alluded. According 
to an old record, Christian wished to create Dyveke 
Duchess of Zealand; but she, in her simplicity, when 
she heard it, fell down on her knees, and implored 
him not to expose her to the ridicule of the nation by 
such an unseemly joke—" very unlike the favourites of 
the present day," remarks Hvitfeldt. Dyveke died sud- 
denly, two days after a grand banquet, at which she 
had assisted, in the castle of Copenhagen : poisoned, it 
was supposed. Torben Oxe, the governor of the castle, 
had promised to send her a basket of cherries from his 
estate in Funen. These cherries arrived at the office 
of his secretary Faaborg, a monk, whilst he was busily 
engaged making out his accounts. Now, Faaborg was 
at a nonplus ; he had fearfully cheated his master. At 
this moment the confessor of Queen Elizabeth entered, 
and, finding him so engaged, tore out several pages from 
his books, by way of rendering any settlement impos- 
sible. Having thus got the monk into his power, he 
poured a vial of poison over the basket of cherries, the 
fatal result of which w r as the death of Dyveke. Faa- 
borg was hanged, but later, when Christian wished to 
accuse Torben Oxe of the crime, mysterious lights were 
seen, after nightfall, around the gallows upon which 
Faaborg had been executed : quite sufficient to prove 
his innocence ; and the king ordered his remains to be 
taken down and receive honourable bm-ial in the cloister 
of the Gray Brothers at Copenhagen. Some attributed 
Dyveke's death to the jealousy of the Queen Consort, 
others to the family of Torben Oxe, who, madly ena- 
moured of Dyveke, had announced his intention of 


marrying her. To the king he was already odious, 
who one day, long after Dyveke's death, asked him, 
as in joke, if it were true he was beloved by the deceased 
Dyveke. Torben replied imprudently, "Yes; it was 
true." Christian then determined on his destruction. 
He was thrown into prison, accused of adultery against 
his sovereign, and brought before the senate, who 
found him innocent. The king, still more enraged, 
declared that, " If Oxe had the head of a bull, he 
should lose it ;" dragged him before a jury composed 
of twelve peasants of the island of Zealand, and made 
in person his charges against Oxe. Intimidated by his 
menaces, the jury declared, " It was the actions of the 
accused, not they, who condemned him." Christian, in 
his rage, considered these words as condemnation 
enough. Neither the entreaties of the nobles, nor those 
of Elizabeth, who, with the highest ladies of her court, 
threw herself at his feet, imploring the pardon of Oxe, 
were of any avail. He was beheaded, declaring his 
innocence to the last. 

Dyveke's remains did not long rest in peace at Elsi- 
nore, for, when Christian II. came to grief, Knud Gylden- 
stierne,* cousin to the murdered Torben Oxe, caused her 
body and tombstone to be removed from the church and 
placed at the entrance of his manor of Thimgaard, in 
Jutland, with orders that every one, on entering therein, 
" should spit on the granite slab and curse the name of 
Dyveke," — a poor revenge, but characteristic of the 

* He was imprisoned with Oxe, but liberated on condition he never 
again appeared at Court. The last words of Oxe on the scaffold were 
— " Almighty Father, Creator of heaven and earth, have mercy upon 
me and my dear brother Gyldenstierne." 

T 2 


ruffian times lie lived in.* There it remained for cen- 
turies, and it was not until some few years since it was 
removed from Jutland to Copenhagen, and inserted, no- 
body knows why, among the Eunic stones in the ascent 
of the Round Tower. It consists of a massive stone 
slab of granite, sculptured with a cross ; the inscription 

The government have lately voted a sum of 80,000Z. 
for the enlargement of the harbour of Elsinore. Whether 
the town will once more regain a portion of its former 
prosperity is a problem which time alone can solve. 
Frederic II. was a great patron of the city, and the 
privileges he granted to it added much to its flourish- 
ing condition. He seems, however, to have been a most 
arbitrary gentleman, and interfered in all matters — 
many beneath a sovereign's notice, though his ordi- 
nances were well-judged in themselves. 

In 1572 he writes a letter to the magistrates of Elsi- 
nore with his own royal hand, expressing his virtuous 
indignation at the dissolute conduct of the " Qvindfolk," 
and commands a proclamation to be issued, ordering all 
such like to quit the town. Should they return, for the 
first offence they are to be soundly and publicly scourged ; 
for the second have their ears cut off; for the third to 
be sewn into a sack without more ado, and tossed into 
the Sound. Something like legislation that ! This 
sovereign seems to have had an eye to sanitary amend- 
ments ; for he again, 1575, writes and forbids the keep- 

* This appears to be a Danish custom. See the case of Queen Beren- 
garia atEingsted. A tombstone, which is always moist, every one who 
goes into the church spits upon, for " there a dog lies buried." What 
can this superstition mean ? 


ing of swine, or loose dogs being allowed to ran about 
the streets of the city. 

The walks in the neighbourhood of Elsinore are charm- 
ing, particularly that along the Strandvei, by the shore 
of the Sound — a succession of country houses and fishing 
villages, and well-kept gardens bright with flowers : 
they have a well-to-do prosperous air, as everything has 
in Denmark. An hour's walk brings you to a maisonette 
called Dahlsborg, beyond which you turn to enter the 
forest of Egebaeksvang, a favourite summer drive of the 


A ten minutes' walk, avoiding all dusty roads, across 
the common or waste land wjiich runs down to the sea- 
shore — in England it would have been the paradise of 
geese, cricketers, and donkeys, but here it is deserted, 
except by the sharpshooters, who keep up a cross-fire, 
practising at their targets from eight o'clock till six of an 
evening — brings us to the castle of Kronborg. 

The road lies between two dirty stagnant ponds, dig- 
nified by the appellation of Holger Dansk's Spectacles : 
if they fitted his face, he must have had one eye con- 
siderably larger than the other. Instead of snoring 
away his time within the dungeons of Kronborg — his 
beard growing into the marble table— he had far better 
employ his leisure moments in cleaning out and sweet- 
ening his " brille ;" but he only appears, they say, when 
Mr. S0rensen (the Danish John Bull or Brother Jona- 
than) really requires his services. Effectual drainage 
and sanitary reforms are sadly behindhand, and looked 
upon as new-fangled vagaries by the inhabitants of the 
island of Zealand. 


If in your early youth you have devoured the 
'Fabliaux et Contes,' 'King Arthur and the Knights 
of lus Round Table,' and other legends of old Eomaunce, 
you will recognise in Holger Dansk,* or rather Augier 
le Danois, an old and favourite acquaintance. Some few 
years since I brushed him up when I visited the ruins 
of " La Joyeuse Garde " and the classic sands of Avalon, 
on the coast of Brittany. The French romancers assert 
him to be still confined at Avalon, together with King- 
Arthur, held in durance vile by the enchantments of 
the fay Morgana. Occasionally she removes from his 
brow the Lethsean crown, when his services are required 
to fight against the Paynim for the good and welfare of 

Morgana, she of the Fa^a, was own sister to our good 
King Arthur. With other mighty fairies, she assisted 
at the birth of Holger the Dane ; later she loved him. 
Seduced by her blandishments, he espoused her: no 
good ever comes of marrying an old woman, be she 
mortal or fairy. Holger the Dane slumbers in the 
dungeons of Kronborg, not at Avalon, as the French 
would have it, no more than King Arthur, who we all 
know received Christian burial at Glastonbury ; but 
French romancers do tell such wicked stories. Endless 
are the traditions, numerous the ballads, of the exploits 
of this the favourite hero of Danish story : when in- 
voked, after much pressing, and, I must own it, exacting 
first the promise of "a good dinner and plenty to drink," 

* Oluf, called God-drcng, who reigned before King Ring, is by 
Adam of Bremen supposed to be the real Holger Dansk : he accom- 
panied Charlemagne to the Holy Sepulchre, and helped to place 
Prester John on the throne of India. 


he has frequently come to the assistance of fair maidens 
in their trouble and distress, and fought their battles with 
his enchanted sword, mounted on his good steed " Pa- 
pillon." Morgana, the fay, has never deserted entirely 
the country of her beloved : she still sports and exercises 
her witcheries to favoured mortals, when least expected, 
among the barren heaths and wide-spreading moors of 
the ancient provinces of Jutland/' 

I have no intention, however, of visiting his prison 
down below : the wind is east, my limbs are rheumatic 
— let younger people be more adventurous. But we 
pass the drawbridge and enter the second gate of the 
castle. Verses in the Danish tongue by the Scotchman, 
Bishop Kingo, and the more illustrious pen of Tycho 
Brahe, adorn the portals and celebrate the erection of 
the buildings. There is one thing sure in this world — 
monarchs never allowed their good works to be hid in 
secret : on every side you see inscriptions, in letters of 
gold, announcing how Christian Y. restored this, and 
Frederic IV. whitewashed that. But I must give you 
some account of the history of the castle. 

There is no doubt but, from the earliest period of 
history, a castle of some kind, built for the protection of 
the Sound, existed on the site or near where Kronborg 
now stands. In the year 1238 the preceding fortress 
of Flynderborg — situated at the other end of the towu, 
near the Strandvei, named after the flounders, of which 
quantities are taken in front of the batteries — was in a 
state of excellent repair. This fortress being found 
unsuited to the exigencies of the times, King Frederic II. 
determined to rebuild it on a scale of unprecedented gran- 
deur : the whole of the expenses were to be discharged 
from his privy purse, and the building was to cost his 


subjects " not one penny." This was more easy of exe- 
cution to Frederic, first crowned Protestant sovereign of 
Denmark, than it would have proved to later monarchs. 
He had made a good haul of suppressed monasteries, 
church lands, plate, and treasure — was flush of money, 
and did not mind spending it. The existing castle was 
then commenced in the year 1577, and completed in 
the course of nine years. Bishop Kingo and Tycho 
Brahe both sung its praises, and the talents of Rubens 
were called into play— somewhat later I imagine— for 
the decoration of the chapel. The castle is strongly 
fortified with double-bastion, moat, and rampai't, after 
the manner of preceding ages. 

Kronborg possesses one great advantage over the 
other Danish buildings of the sixteenth century : it is 
built of fine sandstone, the only specimen in the kingdom. 
Though quadrangular and four-towered, it is relieved 
from all appearance of formality by the quaint onion 
pagoda-like minarets by which its towers are surmounted. 
The lofty clock turret,* too, rising from its centre, higher 
than those which flank the corners, acids to the dignity of 
the building. Few castles in the space of three hundred 
years have suffered so little from modern additions and 

* In the year 1538 the citizens of Lund received orders to pull down 
the stone churches in disuse since the Eeforrnation, and forward the 
materials to Copenhagen to be employed for the building of the new 
castle ; and again, in 1552, a second supply was sent. Even Laura 
Maria, the big bell purchased with the legacy of Bishop Absalon, was 
not spared ; she got cracked on the journey, was melted down and 
recast into two little ones, which still hang in the clock-tower of Kron- 
borg. Laura Maria was looked upon almost as a saint, and Valdemar 
Atterdag, who believed in nothing, when on his death-bed is said to have 
roared out in a paroxysm of pain, " Help me, Sor0 ! help me, Esrom ! 
help me, Laura Maria, you big bell of Lund !" 

Chap. XVm. THE CASTLE. 281 

improvement : one tower has unfortunately been de- 
stroyed. In an old engraving from Puffendorf, of 1688, 
I see the original had already been altered : it was 
an eyesore, but, in accordance with the style of the 
remainder, capped and ornamented. It, however, fell 
into decay during the reign of Frederic VI. , at that 
unfortunate epoch when taste was bad taste, and art 
atrocity : it was repaired — square and hideous — a fearful 
monument of the age. Formerly it served as a tele- 
graph, now as a powder magazine ; and unless it be blown 
up, or the powder becomes damp, will, I fear, remain 
untouched. You enter the interior court through a 
richly ornamented gateway, guarded by statues and 
overhung by a beautiful oriel window, enriched with the 
arms and ciphers of its founder. Opposite to you stands 
the chapel (the works of Eubens have long since dis- 
appeared) ; the fittings of the time of Christian IV. have 
been lately restored, not too carefully. It is curious to 
trace, as you can by the turret to the right of the clock, 
the gradual transition from the Gothic to the Renais- 
sance. The whole of the ornaments are of the latter 
period ; but there is still occasionally a sort of feeling 
as if the architect was not quite decided in his views : 
whether he was or not, Kronborg is one of the most 
perfect specimens of its era — unspoiled, untouched, and 
unrepaired — to be met with in Europe. It has long 
ceased to be occupied as a royal residence. One side 
is alone retained for the use of His Majesty ; the rest 
is occupied by the General Commandant, the officers, 
and the garrison. Above the entrance of the clock- 
tower, surmounting the ornaments, appears the head 
of a huge mastiff, holding in his fore paws a heart- 
like shield, with the cipher of Frederic II., and below 


the favourite device of the King, "T. I. W. B., Treu 
ist Wiltbratt." The same Wildbratt, whose por- 
trait is above, was the favourite of King Frederic, and 
bit everybody save his royal master. Over the other 
door appears the device of his queen — good Queen 
Sophia of Mecklenburg — "Meine Hoffnung zu Gott 
allein " (My hope is in God alone). Within the dungeon 
of the corner tower, that of the restoration — adjoining the 
wine-cellars of Christian IV., where a jolly fat tun carved 
in stone above the entrance leaves no doubt of its 
identity — was situated the torture-chamber in days gone 
by : none of your papistical virgins, who enticed you to 
their arms, and, larded like a fricandeau, then stuck you 
brimfull of penknives, but good wholesome Protestant 
thumbscrews, boots, and wooden horses, and scavengers' 
daughters, such as Queen Bess, of glorious memory, and 
our earlier Tudor sovereigns, to say nothing of later 
Stuarts, loved to employ on their rebellious subjects who 
refused to convict their masters, rightfully or wrongfully, 
and bring them to the block — and very persuasive imple- 
ments they were, I doubt not. In the centre of the court 
once stood a fountain, tossing the water high in the 
air; judging from the old engravings, it must have 
been very ornamental. Some thirty or forty iron hooks, 
fastened into the wall, remain, once the larder of King- 
Frederic, hung, when game abounded, with deer, hare, 
and capercailzie — like Bolton Abbey in the olden time 
— a pretty scene, only too near the torture-chamber. 
After the peace of 1659, when Skaane was lost to Den- 
mark for ever, the windows of Kronborg Castle, which 
commanded a view of the Swedish coast, were walled up, 
to exclude a sight which caused so many heartburnings. 
Let us now turn to a few events connected with 


English history which have taken place within these 
walls. Among the first is the embassy sent by Queen 
Elizabeth to King Frederic II. In the sixteenth 
century resident ambassadors at the court of Denmark 
were unknown ; and although a good feeling was enter- 
tained between England and that country, still no 
regular treaty of alliance can be said to have existed. 
In the year 1579 Queen Elizabeth, somewhat alarmed 
at the hostility of the King of Spain, the intrigues 
of Catherine de Medicis, and of the partisans of 
the imprisoned Mary, determined to strengthen her 
relations with the Northern powers, and, by way of con- 
ciliation, announced to King Frederic II. in a Latin 
letter, penned by her own hand, that on the 24th April 
of that year he had been elected a member of the Chap- 
ter of the Order of the Garter, 363rd Knight from the 
period of its institution. 

For various reasons, which Queen Elizabeth explains 
to the satisfaction of King Frederic,* it was not until the 
year 1582 that Lord Willoughby d'Eresby (son of the 
Duchess of Suffolk), accompanied by Garter King of 
Arms, the Somerset Herald, and a numerous suite of 
attendants, was despatched from England as ambassa- 
dor extraordinary to invest the King of Denmark with 
the insignia of the order, and endeavour at the same 
time to adjust sundry little commercial grievances ; 
but Elizabeth, with a good taste and delicacy of feeling 
I should hardly have given her credit for, in her letter 
of instructions to Lord Willoughby, desires him not to 

* He it was who discovered and forwarded the letter from Erik 
XTV". of Sweden to Philip II., by which it was brought to light that 
Erik was at the same time soliciting the hand of Queen Elizabeth 
and of her ill-fated cousin Mary Stuart. 


" importunate the king on such an occasion," but to put 
himself in relation with those members of his council 
His*Majesty shall think fit to appoint. 

The embassy landed at Elsinore on the 22nd of July ; 
but it was not until the 19th of August that the installa- 
tion took place in the castle of Kronborg, in consequence 
of the Danish king declaring that, although he accepted 
the order, he positively refused to be dressed in the full 
costume, to allow the garter to be buckled round his 
leg, or even to take the oath. He would receive the 
order and dispense with the ceremony ; he hated all fuss 
and bother. 

Such was the cause of the delay, and great the con- 
sternation of Lord Willoughby and his followers at so 
unheard-of a decision on the part of the monarch ; and 
the good offices of Charles Dantzay, ambassador from 
Charles IX. to Frederic II., were then called in aid to 
arrange the matter amicably. The ambassador writes to 
Queen Elizabeth, " To satisfy his misconceiving opinion, 
I informed him how honourable the order was " — and, in 
fact, he enters into such a tirade of its turns and points, 
and of the multitude of renowned emperors, kings, &c, 
winding up the whole by sending the king a doll dressed 
up as a knight should be, together with a copy of the 
statutes of the order — that Frederic, fearing more cor- 
respondence, for very peace sake consents to publicly 
accept the insignia, only he insists on putting them on 

After interminable negotiations the French minister 
asks to deliver " the loving commendation " of Eliza- 
beth to the Queen of Denmark. This Lord Willoughby 
refuses, suspecting, though he declares it only contains 
proofs of Her Majesty's affection, he might read them 


on the way.* Dantzay cites " precedents," but without 

On the 19th of August " the king, very royally pre- 
pared, received the habits with his own hands, and, with 
great contentment, accepted and wore the garter ;" and 
moreover promises to forward to England the document 
of the oath, with " many loving and affectionate speeches 
to Her Majesty and all of the order." What more could 
be expected? Then they fired cannon, and there was 
a royal feast, and very beautiful fireworks. Orders are 
given to present the poor of the town of Windsor with 
ninety gold dollars in the king's name, according to 
custom. This largesse is refused by the ambassador — 
the Koman Emperor and the king of France having 
omitted to give it at the ceremony of their installa- 

On the following day Lord Willoughby dines with 
His Majesty, and after dinner the king declares him- 
self a true friend to the English queen and a severe 
enemy to her foes, and expresses a wish that Her 
Majesty would give to his son (later Christian IV.) one 
of her royal blood in marriage. 

Of this demand we hear no more, though what alliance 
could have been more advantageous to English interests 
than a marriage between the families of the two greatest 
Protestant monarchs of Europe ? and where could a fitter 
spouse have been found for the youthful Christian (born 
1577) than the daughter of the Earl of Lennox, the fair 

* Lord Willoughby was perfectly right not to let Queen Elizabeth's 
letter out of his own hands, for Dantzay writes to Catherine de Medicis 
" that he suspects the Queen of England of desiring to strengthen the 
Protestant alliance," and adds he " will leave no stone unturned to 
discover what she is after."- 


and unfortunate cousin of Elizabeth, niece of Queen 
Mary, the Lady Arabella Stuart ? but Elizabeth, child- 
less herself — jealous of all who came near the succession 
of the English throne — loved not the aggrandizement of 
her relatives ; she preferred keeping them under lock 
and key, imprisoned in her own dominions. Though 
she paid no attention to his wishes in that respect, 
Elizabeth appears to have remained on most comfortable 
terms with the Danish sovereign ; they redress their 
mutual commercial grievances, have a long confab about 
that everlasting nuisance, now happily suppressed, the 
Sound dues, — all which matters were amicably adjusted 
by John Herbert, at Haderslev, in 1583. 

Then there is a mutual exchange of presents. King 
Frederic, in a Latin letter, dated Vordingborg, thanks 
Elizabeth for a couple of pointers, whose good qualities 
the king praises greatly, and begs her acceptance of 
certain " Icelandic dogs, fit for hart-hunting." He asks 
the queen to send him some " good English amblers," 
because in his advancing years he finds it more commo- 
dious to ride such horses than any others, and offers the 
queen in return a carriage for four horses or more (I 
wonder what a Danish carriage of the sixteenth century 
could have been like), that should be as commodious as 
a sedan.* 

* Carriages appear to have been considered articles of luxury in 
Denmark to a late date, for I find, in 1664, Frederic III. presents one to 
Ins favourite Hannibal Sehested, as well as to Archbishop Svane, " to 
distinguish them from other people." No sooner was this innovation 
made, than " the stones became too hard for folks in general " (and 
indeed they are so now, as those who have resided in the city of 
Copenhagen can testify), and those who could not afford to keep horses 
got sedan-chairs ; and a certain Angelo Tonti, an Italian, was summoned 
to contract and furnish the town with chairs. 


Frederic and Lord Willoughby hit off matters ad- 
mirably,* and appear to have become great friends. 
In 1583 he sends the king as a present the portrait 
of Queen Elizabeth,! together with several English 
pointers, a hunter, and other trifles. In a letter to 
Frederic, 7th October, 1587, Lord Willoughby tells 
how in hard fighting in Holland, without other weapon 
than a sword the king had given him, he met with 
a Spanish captain of cavalry, who, though armed 
with spear and sword, gave himself up as prisoner; 
but he broke on this occasion the point of his sword, 
and a blackish horse, which Frederic had frequently 
mounted himself and presented to Lord Willoughby, was 
shot in the battle. 

In 1588 was celebrated in the castle of Kronborg 
the marriage by procuration of King James VI. of 
Scotland with Anne, daughter of King Frederic II. 
of Denmark. Anne was then in her fifteenth year. 
Marshal Earl Keith acted as proxy. This marriage 
settled the vexed question of the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands, pawned to Scotland when the Princess Margaret 
married King James III. Christian III. meditated an ex- 

* He is said to have returned to Denmark several times on various 
missions (1584, 1585). 

t Concerning the subsequent fate of this portrait we have no accurate 
information ; but in the gallery of Frederiksborg there hangs a well- 
painted portrait of a lady, which bears her name. She is dressed in the 
Spanish costume of the century, a black figured velvet. The hair or 
wig is of a reddish hue, and studded over with pearl pins,— her age may 
be from forty to fifty,— and round her neck hangs a fine string of pendent 
pearls, answering much to the description of that so meanly purchased 
for one fifth of its value from her cousin Queen Mary. This picture 
differs from those we generally meet with of Queen Elizabeth, and is 
far more flattering in consequence of the shadows being put in by 
the artist, who is supposed to be Jonas van Cloves. 


pedition against Mary of Guise, then Regent of Scotland, 
for their recovery, and later offered to repay the 50,000 
florins for which they had been pawned ; but Dantzay, 
by order of Catherine de Medicis, put a spoke into the 
arrangement, and they were never redeemed. We all 
know the history of King James's adventures, and how the 
real marriage took place at Agershuus, in Norway. The 
royal couple then visited Denmark and passed a month in 
the castle of Kronborg, where they assisted at the nuptials, 
19th April, 1590, of the queen's elder sister, the Princess 
Elizabeth, with Henry Duke of Brunswick. Which were 
the apartments occupied by King James and his bride 
during his residence no one can say — the interior 
of the building has been much altered since that 
period, the stories divided for the occupation of the 
garrison — but in all probability it was the suite called 
the apartments of Christian IV., now set apart for his 
present Majesty. They are not remarkable for their 
size, but contain fine chimney-pieces, with the cipher of 
the sovereign, and the doorways are ornamented with 
marble and richly-carved ebony. Tales are still current 
in Elsinore of the drinking bouts held by King James and 
his brother-in-law Prince Christian in the halls of Kron- 
borg — how they fell intoxicated under the table, rolled 
into the ditch, &c. 

On the exterior of the castle, called Frederic III.'s 
battery, under the windows of the upper story, runs a 
cornice richly ornamented in the style of the earlier part 
of the seventeenth century, in the divisions of which 
are represented medallion portraits of certain person- 
ages of the royal family of Denmark. Among them that 
of King James himself, with his peaked beard, side by 
side with the full features of his consort Queen Anne : 


in the divisions of each side are sculptured two Tudor 
roses, and in the ornamentation of the cornice is con- 
stantly introduced the portcullis of the same family. The 
date of this cornice is unknown ; but it was "in all pro- 
bability put up to commemorate the nuptials of the 
King of Scots with the Princess Anne of Denmark. 

Lucky for James was it that the embassy of Lord 
Willoughby to Kronborg took place some few years 
before his marriage, and that this Scottish assumption 
of the English badge came not to the ears of the Virgin 
Queen. Tudor he was in all right by his ancestress 
Margaret, in the female line, and nearest heir to the 
English throne ; but Elizabeth, when the ' succession 
was mooted, brooked no child's-play. How she would 
have stormed had she known it, and sent a fleet per- 
chance to intercept the return of James to his domi- 
nions! and the youthful Anne might have found a 
prison in Fotheringay, and a jailer in that exceeding 
unpleasant individual Sir Amyas Paulet. Such are the 
souvenirs of King James I have met with in the 
chronicles of Kronborg. 

One day, when on an excursion to the back slums of 
the town of Elsinore, I came on a small, narrow lane, 
dignified with the appellation — in honour, I suppose, of 
the royal nmrriage — of Anna Qveen Street.* 

* Many of the letters of King Christian IV. are dated from Kronborg, 
a residence to which he was attached ; and it was from here that 
Christina Munk, very uncomfortable at the gloomy state of her affairs, 
packed up her jewels and her valuables, and was on the point of escaping 
to Sweden, in which affair two of her maids, " Stumpy Dorthe and Miss 
Maria," appear to have been implicated, as Christian writes with his 
own hand ordering their dismissal ; " they may go where they like, and 
be paid their wages ;" better in luck than " the lazy cook-boy who is 
idle and don't attend to his business," and is ordered to be kept in irons. 
VOL. I. U 


Having finished with pompous pageants and royal 
nuptials, we come to a sadder period of Kronborg 
story. Scotland still mourns the fate, and proclaims 
the innocence, of Mary Stuart, the murdered Queen ; 
and had she not been a Papist, England — yes, intole- 
rant England — would have long since done her justice. 
France, who, in the last century, vented her venom, 
her calumny, against the Autrichienne, now exalts 
the memory of Marie Antoinette to that of a saint and 
martyr. So, in Denmark, all voices proclaim together 
the innocence, and deplore the fate, of the youthful queen 
of Christian VII., our English princess Caroline Matilda. 
Here in Kronborg was she confined a prisoner, torn from 
her palace in Copenhagen, half-dressed, in the middle 
of the night, expecting daily to suffer the fate of 
Struensee and Brandt, until the arrival of a fleet from 
England effected her liberation. Accompanied by the 
Commandant one morning (General Lunding, the hero 
of Fredericia — military men will tell you all about it), 

I must say he looked into everything, — writes to the coppersmith to 
make a hrass hraudy-kettle to contain twenty -four gallons, as well as 
milk-tubs, hut this time the handles are to he made of iron. Christian 
was not more free, however, from superstition than his neighbours, for 
in Laurits Jacobsen's journal, 13th August, 1647, I find marked 
down, "I was called to Kronborg Schloss this morning at six o'clock, 
where the king had caused to be fetched an old woman from Malm0, 
by name Karen Kege-holdis, who had nursed the lady Vibeke in her 
illness. She was examined in Secretary Krag's presence, before the 
clergy of the castle, and asked if she could really tell if Vibeke were 
bewitched or not ? She desired that they should give her one of ' Vibeke's 
shirts.' So they gave her ' a very old one ; ' she buried one-half in the 
ground, but the other she took with her to Malm0 and back again. 
She then answered, ' that the witchcraft had been done in Skaane, and 
money paid for it, and that it had been done by one who would for- 
swear the king and betray the land,' which announcement made 
everybody at court very ill at ease." 


I visited the apartments in which she was confined on 
her arrival — two small rooms on the ground-floor, one 
overshadowed by the bastion, the other looking on the 
courtyard of the castle. Later, I believe, the com- 
mandant placed his own apartment at her disposal ; 
and in the small octagon closet of the lighthouse turret, 
which terminates the apartments of Christian IV., it is 
related how the captive queen passed hours and days 
with anxious brow and straining eye, gazing at the waters 
of the Sound, in momentary expectation of the appear- 
ance of the fleet from England, she having received 
some secret tidings of its coming. No relics of her 
incarceration here remain : the ancient furniture of 
the palace was unluckily removed, destroyed, and ne- 
glected in Frederic VI.'s reign. He detested Kron- 
borg, and never visited Elsinore ; these recollections 
of his mother's imprisonment were odious to him, and 
the royal'apartments fell into decay. General Lunding, 
with that true courtesy always to be met with by 
strangers in Denmark, begged us not to quit without 
first mounting one of the towers to admire the view : 
we did so ; and glorious it was. The castle, Sweden, 
the Sound at our feet, with her myriads of shipping — 
even the insignificant town of Elsinore from above 
looked picturesque, with her quaint staircase-gables and 
high-pitched roofs ; the ascent was rather fatiguing up 
the circular staircase. 

The ramparts of Kronborg form our favourite walk of 
an evening. You require a " tegn " or card to visit 
them — your compliments to the General, and a dollar 
to the soldier who brings it. This is one of the 
few complaints I have to make against the Danish 
Government ; they are much too exclusive, and close to 

u 2 


the public many of the most enjoyable walks. Those 
who by their position are entitled to the possession of 
these cards seldom or never use them, while others to 
whom the admission would be a boon are deprived of 
the enjoyment. But, as I said before, the ramparts of 
Kronborg are charming : before them the fishers ever- 
lastingly ply their trade — flounders, and a fish called 
" green-bone," * a horn-fish, are their prey. Had Shake- 
speare searched the world round he never could have 
selected so fitting a locality for the ghost-scene. I can 
see the ghost myself — pale moon, clouds flitting o'er her, 
frowning castle, and the space necessary to follow him ; 
but the romance of Kronborg is over ; her bastions are 
redolent with deep-purple violets, and the roseate buds 
of a statice — Krigskarl, or the Warrior, they here 
call it — which looks as if it should be something 
better, but will, I dare say, turn out common thrift 
after all. When the fishing-boats return at sunset, a 
little girl runs down to the shore side, and waits ; as 
they pass by, a small flounder is thrown to her from 
each boat ; she gathers them up in her apron, and 
then returns to the castle. I wonder if this be a relic 


of hereditary blackmail, exacted in former days by the 
governor from the fishermen who cast their nets under 
the shadow of the fortress. A man-of-war enters the 

* The horn-fish, called " green-bone " on account of the colour of its 
bones, forces its way into the Baltic from the North Seas through the 
Sound early in the spring, at which time it is thin and poor ; it returns, 
however, in the month of October, weighing some pounds more 
than on its previous voyage ; you might boil it down in its own 
fat. The manner of taking these fish is singular ; they are timid by 
nature, and afraid of the nets : no sooner does the shoal approach than 
the fishers commence a regular bombardment with stones, and so 
frighten them into their meshes. 


Sound — boom, boom ; what a row the guns do kick up, 
shaking my very window ! 

loth. — Old May-day. The storks arrived this morn- 
ing, so we may really expect summer ; for storks, unlike 
mortals, are never wrong in their calculations — odd 
birds they are. It must be a curious sight to witness 
one of their gatherings previous to departure at the 
approach of winter. A friend of mine came across an 
assembly of four hundred perched on the eaves of a 
farm-house in Zealand, and watched their proceedings. 
Before starting they passed in review the whole flock, 
and singled out and separated the aged, and weakly 
from the rest, and then, with one accord, pounced upon 
them, pecking them literally to pieces ; this ceremony 
over, they started for Egypt. How they got their 
reputation for filial piety I cannot imagiue. I heard a 
curious anecdote about them a few days since : an 
English manufacturer, settled somewhere in Zealand, 
amused himself by changing the eggs laid by a stork, 
who annually built her nest on his house, for those 
of an owl. In due course of time the eggs were 
hatched, and he was startled one morning by a tre- 
mendous row going on in the nest of the parent storks. 
The male, in a violent state of excitement, flew round 
and round his nest ; the female chattered away, pro- 
tecting her nestlings under her wings : it was quite 
evident that the stork was not satisfied with the produce 
of his helpmate : there was something " louche " about 
the whole affair ; he would not recognise the offspring. 
After a violent dispute the male flew away, and shortly 
returned, accompanied by two other storks — birds of 
consequence and dignity. They sat themselves down 
on the roof, and listened to the pros and cons of the 


matter. Mrs. Stork was compelled to rise and exhibit 
her children. " Can they be mine ? " exclaimed the 
stork. " Happen what may, I will never recognise 
them." On her side Mrs. Stork protested and fluttered, 
and vowed it was all witchcraft — never had stork 
possessed so faithful a wife before. Alas ! alas ! how 
seldom the gentle sex meets with justice in this world 
when judged by man or, in this case, by stork kind. 
The judges looked wondrous wise, consulted, and then 
of a sudden, without pronouncing sentence, regardless 
of her shrieks for mercy, fell on the injured Mrs. Stork, 
and pecked her to death with their long sharp beaks. 
As for the young owls, they would not defile their bills 
by touching them ; so they kicked them out of the 
nest, and they were killed in the tumble. The father 
stork, broken-hearted, quitted his abode, and never 
again returned to his former building-place. Six years 
have elapsed and the nest still remains empty — so stated 
my informant. 

Chap. XIX. 



Expedition to Sweden — Helsingborg — Marriage of King Erik and 
Ingeborg — Mineral waters of Kaml0sa — Valdemar Atterdag and His 
castle of Gurre — His impious speech — Queen Pbilippa reforms the 
coinage — Destruction of the storks. 


May 16th. — The storks were right : the wind veered 
round to the south, a refreshing shower of rain has laid 
the dust, the air is soft and balmy, and vegetation 
imperceptibly bursts forth in all the glory of a 
northern summer. To-day is a birthday in the family, 
so we celebrate it by an expedition to Sweden. If 
birthdays are to be celebrated, let them be, like John 
Gilpin's, out somewhere, not at home — Bell at Edmon- 
ton better than nowhere ; so we started at twelve in the 
steamer, and were in twenty-five minutes in Helsingborg. 
I can't say much for the town —a most deserted, deplor- 
able affair altogether : most of the houses have been lately 
rebuilt and the streets widened ; they only look more un- 
sociable in consequence. We adjourned to the inn — ycu 
might have put two Danish hostels of the same calibre 
inside. It reminded me more of France — all straggling 
and disconnected : a large salon, at the end of which were 
placed two beds not three feet long. " Why, it's im- 
possible anybody can sleep in such atrocities ! " we 
exclaimed. On examination, we discovered they were 
made to draw out ; so they may have the advantage 


over their Danish neighbours — 'twould be difficult were 
it otherwise, the art of sleeping being not " well under- 
stood " in Denmark. In the early ballads a deserted 
damsel or afflicted queen invariably lies down on her 
" bolster blue," than which nothing can sound more un- 
comfortable. If, after threats, tears, and implorations, 
you do manage to get a bed long enough for a moderately 
grown individual, in revenge it will prove narrow as a 
coffin ; the clothes too are narrower still ; and you have 
either the choice to be pegged down, like Queen Gunhild 
in her mose, or pass a weary night, the blankets and 
coverlets everlastingly tumbling off. The only remedy 
is to procure a double supply, and place them trans- 
versely ; you can then move and turn yourself like a 
wheel on your own axis. 

Helsingborg boasts of one church similar to most of 
these northern countries, with rich carved altarpiece 
and pulpit gorgeously gilded and picked out in divers 
colours. There is a fine double monument — a gravestone 
of blue lias, and an epitaphium of the same material — 
to Steen Bilde and his wife, of the end of the sixteenth 
century; in the latter the "nobilis heros," as he is 
styled, is represented engaged in prayer, armed cap- 

The lofty square tower I see from my windows 
proves to be the sole remains of the once strong- 
castle of Helsingborg. We mounted it; and in a 
terrible tumble-down state it is. In one of the rooms, 
called the chapel, the guide showed us what he called 
a rack, with four huge rings attached to it : it may be 
so ; but I believe it to be nothing more than a large 
door dismounted from its hinges. It was very windy 
on the summit; the Swedish coast is flat and bare. 


To the right lay, embosomed in woods fronting the 
sea, Hamilton House, the country residence of Count 
Hamilton, a Swedish nobleman, descendant of one of 
those brave Scots of ancient lineage, soldiers of fortune, 
who joined the Protestant banner of Gustavus Adolphus, 
and at the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War adopted 
Sweden as their country. I know nothing of the Castle 
of Helsingborg, its legends, and its histories. In the 
city of Helsingborg (1296) was celebrated the marriage 
of Erik Menved with the Princess Ingeborg, concerning 
the splendour of which ceremony the chroniclers descant 
greatly ; damask and cloth of gold, mead and ale, wine 
both white and red, drums and trumpets, dances and 
tournaments, but above all towered in beauty Duke 
Erik, the queen's brother, "a true angel come down 
from heaven." Skaane was a Danish province until 
the peace of 1659, so Helsingborg castle was allowed 
to fall into decay, Kronborg sufficing for the protection 
of the Sound ; it must, however, have been of great 
extent, as the ancient moat, still existing at a con- 
siderable distance, proves. We returned home by the 
wells, whose waters our cicerone declared were most 
efficacious for liver, rheumatism, consumption, and all 
manner of opposite complaints : good for something 
they must be, for such double-distilled essence of cor- 
roded marine stores I never saw running in any country. 
The women sat employed at their looms (I looked in at 
one window) in the fabrication of strong brown Holland 
pocket-handkerchiefs with a white border. I wish the 
King of Denmark would cause some thousands to be 
distributed among the respectably dressed population of 
his good city of Copenhagen ; it would be much to their 
advantage and civilization, and a most paternal act. On 

298 RAML0SA. Chap. XIX. 

our way to the hotel we purchased a pound of the " bon- 
bons " for which the town of Helsingborg is justly cele- 
brated — don't forget that. 


At four o'clock we drive (Councillor Both, the Hanove- 
rian consul, had kindly placed his carriage at our disposal) 
over to Eanil0sa mineral-waters, at twenty minutes' dis- 
tance from Helsingborg. I had never heard much about 
them except that they were out of fashion, so we were 
most agreeably surprised on our arrival. The springs 
are situated in a glen, most picturesque to look upon 
— the hotels, bazaars, &c, in a forest on the plateau 
above. There are numberless wooden houses and 
chalets planted about in every direction. Here the 
birch and ash predominate over the beech. We wan- 
dered about the forest and glen for some time, bright in 
all the glory of the new-born foliage — a carpet of lilies 
bursting into flower and fragrance, varied by patches 
of the yellow wood-anemone,* the blaae simmer,! and 
other offspring of the forest. Independent of its walks, 
its wooden houses, its cheapness, its flowers to pluck, and 
its vipers to shriek at, Eaml0sa boasts of one advantage 
seldom found combined except in the baths and wash- 
houses of London town : you are near the sea, the 
waters are ferruginous ; you can wash your exterior and 

* Anemone ranunculoides. The last time I found this plant growing 
wild was upon the mountains at the convent of Laverno, near Florence. 
I suppose the vegetation of an Italian mountain differs little from a 
Danish wood. The Hepatica again, in the South, is an Alpine plant, 
as also the Primula farinosa, — common, all three, in the plains of 

f Hepatica. 

Chap. XIX. THE WELLS. 299 

iron your interior by the same occasion — kill two birds 
with one stone. The season commences about the 
20th of June, and lasts until September. The baths are 
still well frequented, though their heyday is over ; and 
the balls are so arranged, that, while the higher classes 
waltz and polk within the salle-de-danse, the peasants 
profit by the same music, and enjoy their recreation on 
the green without. I can imagine this a most enjoyable 
place in summer-time. We had prolonged our walk 
beyond the boundary of those cut out for the visitors, 
and suddenly came on to swampy ground in the glen 
below. " Don't go there ; you'll get wet, and catch 
your deaths," exclaimed Prudence : we paid no atten- 
tion, and were rewarded ; for we found the lilac-flowers 
of the Primula farinosa blooming in all their glory, the 
leaves and stalks of the plant fresh powdered. We 
dragged up a basket-load, and, on our return home, 
planted them in the white china spittoons, with a pair 
of which each bedroom at the Marienlyst is provided ; 
and there they blossomed for many a day. 

Some twenty or thirty years since Eaml0sa Wells 
were much frequented : then there were gaming-tables ; 
and Oscar, at that period Crown Prince of Sweden — 
young, handsome, and gallant — visited them every 
summer season. But time rolled on, and Oscar grew 
old like the rest of us, married, and came no more ; 
then he bethought himself how wicked roulette was, 
how iniquitous too was rouge-et-noir, and consequently 
suppressed the tables. The men now voted Eaml0sa 
slow, and deserted its shady groves ; the ladies too — par- 
ticularly those of Copenhagen, who had always derived 
" such benefit from its waters," and the society of those 
Frenchmen of the north, the Swedish gentlemen — sud- 

300 GURRE. Chap. XIX. 

denly discovered it was unhealthy ; there was a miasma 
which rose from the glen after nightfall ; during their 
last visit they had decidedly felt a touch of intermittent 
fever : so the wells grew out of fashion. Be that as it 
may, I know no place like Eamksa ; it has a cachet of 
its own, though deprived of the charms of gambling- 
tables, and unhonoured by the presence of the once 
youthful and gallant Crown Prince of Sweden. 

We returned to Helsingborg, embarked on board the 
" Horatio," which, after a ten minutes' passage, landed 
us safe on the pier of Elsinore. 

Friday, May 20th. — Common-prayer day, the " holy- 
day " par excellence of the Danish church — dactylised 
holiday — a commemoration of something very dreadful, 
nobody seems exactly to know what — fire, pestilence, 
or tempest ; each individual will give you a separate 
account. As I am only a stranger, it's no affair of mine. 
I shall ever look on it as the first day of spring; 
all the old people appear for the first time in the open 
air. Up till to-day they sent forth their children, like 
doves from the ark, to see if spring really did approach, 
and they returned bearing branches of fresh-opened 
beech to ornament the domestic hearth as token of the 
coming spring, bringing, as they call it, " the summer 
into town ; " you met them in procession, like Birnam 
wood coming to Dunsinane. To-day, for the first time, 
they returned branchless ; so spring is, I suppose, really 


Saturday, 21st. — Drove in the afternoon to Gurre, 
three quarters of an hour distant, a place of historic 
interest, though little remains now to gratify the eye. 


It is, however, so mixed up with legend and romance 
you soon pardon its shortcomings. In days of yore there 
here existed a small summer castle of King Valdemar 
Atterdag, Queen Margaret's father — a mere hunting- 
lodge, as the remains of the foundation testify — flanked 
by four round towers, and moated, after the neces- 
sities of the day. Built on the banks of the Gurre 
lake, surrounded by glorious beechen forests teeming 
with game of every description, no wonder the sports- 
man king loved to sojourn there ; and often would he 
impiously exclaim, " If God gives me Gurre, I do not 
care for heaven ! " Tradition relates how, in punish- 
ment of this blasphemy, night after night, from sunset 
till crow of cock, King Valdemar is doomed to hunt 
through the adjoining forests mounted on a black horse, 
with dogs having fiery tongues. Since 1850 game has 
become scarce in Zealand ; and sadly must he grieve at 
the revolutionary extinction of stag and hare in the royal 
preserves ; and more still when he witnessed the demo- 
lition of his favourite castle by the ruthless hands of 
his German descendant, King Frederic II., to be re- 
built into the towers of the new-constructed palace of 
Frederiksborg. There was something mean and pitiful 
in this destruction of old castles, royal and historical, 
residences of their ancestors, for the sake of a few 
barrow-loads of bricks and stone, to which the Danish 
Sovereigns (Frederic II. and Christian IV. especially) 
were much given. Our ancient fortresses in England, 
as well as those of France, met with a nobler finale. 
Tonquedec, that glorious ruin in Brittany, fell by the 
order of Richelieu : a hundred others shared its fate. 
Raglan, Goodrich, and all that tribe, sustained sieges 
against Cromwell, known, and oft told, in England's 

302 GURRE. Chap. XIX. 

story. Pulled down for their materials ! and by a king, 
too, rich in the spoils of the Church. 

The peasantry will relate to you many a legend 
of Valdemar and Tovelil (the Rosamond of Danish 
romance), here concealed in the stronghold of Gurre 
Castle. I am sorry to destroy the illusion ; but this 
never was. Tovelil — the Tovelil of ballad and old tale 
— was of earlier date. Erik the Pomeranian affected 
his castle of Gurre ; and in the late excavations made 
by his present Majesty coins of his period were dis- 
covered, with other relics, among the ruins. 

The first decent coinage*. Denmark ever possessed 
was that of Erik the Pomeranian. The money of Queen 
Margaret's reign was disgraceful to any country even in 
the fourteenth century — silver pieces stamped with the 
effigy of majesty, as works of art inferior to the contre- 
marcs of a Parisian theatre. In the absence of King 
Erik in the Holy Land, our English Philippa, greatly 
disgusted at the rhymes and pasquinades sung through- 
out the land ridiculing the clipped money of the day, 
took the matter in hand. Who should be a better judge 
than she ? — her dowry one large gold rose-noble ; and 
at her own expense she produced a coinage creditable to 
the country over which she reigned. It is curious to 
relate, 9000 English nobles of the Queen's dowry were 
devoted to the re-purchase of Gothland, the last refuge- 
place of her husband King Erik. 

* Up to the period of King Sveud, father of Canute the Great, no 
coins were ever struck in Deumark, though frequently money is disco- 
vered in England coined by the Vikings who settled themselves in the 
northern counties 200 years previous to the reign of King Svend. 
Anglo-Saxon and Cufic coins are generally dug up together, and by the 
former the date of the " finde " is determined. Sometimes a coin is 
found scratched over with Runic characters. 


Tlie ruins of Gurre are, alas ! nothing : four round 
holes where the towers once stood, the plan of the castle 
just discernible ; and the well below — where the fair 
Anna of Jutland, of whom we shall hear later, may 
have quaffed her morning draught — now half stopped 
up with rubble, teems with horse-leech and eft — most 
unpalatable to look at, and worse, I should imagine, to 
taste ; so we quitted the ruins and invaded the forest 
by the lake side — Valdemar's Lund, as it is still called. 
The sun was up and about, so we had no fear of ghosts ; 
and if King Valclemar had appeared, we should not have 
dreaded him — his spirit could not have felt otherwise 
than gentle in such a sylvan scene, among those gigantic 
beeches, which may have seen his day. 

The waters of the lake were somewhat low, and we 
ran a chance of getting bogged by its banks ; but 
the landscape was exquisite — so soft, so mild, like a 
picture by some pupil of Claude Lorraine who had 
never visited Italy, and contented himself with such 
beauties as the north of Europe afforded. A stork has 
built his nest on the roof of an adjoining cottage. I 
dare say his ancestors were there in the days of Yal- 
demar. Last season a sad event occurred : the storks, 
when homeward bound, came to grief and destruction. 
While crossing the Belt, a sudden storm arose ; the 
younger birds, foolhardy, would set forth; the more 
prudent bided their time in Funen. The novices paid 
for their rashness ; upwards of a hundred corpses were 
found floating on the sea, and later cast ashore : twelve 
nests or upwards, in this neighbourhood alone, remain 
still untenanted. 



The Island of Hveen — Tycho Brahe and his golden nose — The Ura- 
nienborg — " Magister Jacob " pays him a visit — Walkendorf, and the 
dogs of Tycho Brahe — His persecution — Rantzau "the learned" 
— Tycho Brahe's days — His death at Prague. 


Tycho Beahe and his golden nose — who has not 
heard of his fame? Something connected with the sun 
and the stars, beyond which most of us know little 
about him. So, having got him well up, we took boat 
from Elsinore, and with a favourable wind were, in 
two hours' time, landed at the island of Hveen, but, 
when we got there, found nothing to see : not a vestige 
of the far-famed Observatory save its foundations. The 
palace was pulled down by one of Tycho's successors, 
and the materials carried over to build a castle in 
Funen. All we could do was to come back again, not 
much gratified by our visit to a desert isle, the habita- 
tion of a few peasants. 

Sprung from an illustrious line of ancestors, among 
whom he numbered the well-known Saint Bridget, Tyge 
or Tycho first saw the dawn of day in the year 1546. He 
was son of Otto Brahe, lord of Knudstrup in Skaane, and 
later governor of Helsingborg Castle, the man who was 
supposed by Queen Mary to have witnessed the confes- 
sion of Bothwell in the fortress of Malm0. Tycho was the 
eldest of ten children, and adopted by his paternal uncle 

Chap. XX. TYCHO BRAHE. 305 

J0rgen Brake. His parents declined to part with him, 
so lie was kidnapped by his uncle, who gave him a 
good education, and sent him later to the University of 
Copenhagen. The eclipse of 1560 made a great im- 
pression on his mind, and he turned his attention to the 
study of astronomy, much to the disgust of his family, 
who looked upon such a pursuit as unworthy of a noble- 
man, and immediately removed him to Leipsic, where 
he was placed under the charge of Wedel, the translator 
of Saxo, as a boy who had imbibed " low tastes, and 
required the strictest watching," 

After his return to Denmark his uncle came to an 
untimely end ; he was drowned in an attempt to save 
Frederic II. from imminent danger, caused by the break- 
ing of the bridge over the canal to the isle of Amak. 
Annoyed by the slights of his relations and jeers of the 
nobles, Tycho quitted Denmark, and at Rostock lost his 
nose in a duel with some young nobleman who spoke 
disrespectfully of his tastes or of the moon. From that 
time he replaced the gift of nature by one of gold, very 
unbecoming, and which gave him the appearance of a 
wizard. I have seen many engravings of Tycho Brahe 
after Falck and Heyne, and certainly his appearance 
was far from prepossessing. In disgust he resolved to 
renounce the stars, when the comet of 1572 — an ominous 
year in the history of Europe — set him all agog again. 
He then married a poor peasant-girl from his estate 
of Knudstrup, virtuous and beautiful, a mesalliance 
which only added to the fury of his relations, who never 
Avould allow the marriage to be legal, and only looked 
upon it as " boelskab." We find the Lady Anna Bryske 
writes in her ' Slaegte Bog ' (book of genealogy), 
" The eldest of Otto Brahe and Frue Bille's sons was 

VOL. I. X 

306 TYCHO BRAHE. Chap. XX. 

never married. He was a wondrous astronomer, and 
died in Prague in Bohemia." In another genealogy it 
is said, " He never married, but had by a bondwoman 
eight children, who followed him to Germany, where 
two died before their father ; the other six, four daughters 
and two sons, survived him." 

Frederic II. gave him the island of Hveen,* and here 
Tycho constructed a chateau and observatory, which he 
styled Uranienborg. The country people looked on him 
with awe ; what with his mechanism and his golden 
nose, they regarded him as a magician, added to which 
he proved a hard and rapacious lord of the soil. But 
this was the fashion of the day. 

No one visited Copenhagen without paying their 
respects to the astronomer. Tycho, however, was not 
a well-bred host, and treated Duke Henry of Bruns- 
wick with great rudeness when at the period of his 
marriage with the daughter of Frederic II. he visited 
his island. With James I. of England he appears to 
have got on better. James passed a week at Hveen, 
and desired the astronomer to ask him a favour, to which 
Tycho replied by begging a copy of Latin verses of the 
King's own composition. " Magister Jacob," as Henry 
IV. of France nicknamed him, delighted at the chance 
of displaying the elegance of Ins Latinity, immediately 
complied. Luckily, they are not lost to posterity : — 

" est nobilis ira leonis 
Parcere subjectis et debellare superbos." — Jacobus Rex.] 

* This little island lies between Zealand and Skaane. Hoffman says 
it was called by the English mariners " the Scarlet Island," because 
Queen Elizabeth was said to have offered for it as much scarlet cloth 
as it would take to cover it. 

f " Est nobilis," &c, appears to have been a standing dish of King 


The king then granted him the privilege of "copy- 
right " in Denmark (as far as Scotland was concerned) 
for the space of thirty years — the earliest instance 
recorded in history — and presented him with the very 
hounds which later were the cause of his downfall ; for 
Tycho's first quarrel with the minister Walkendorf arose 
from a kick given to one of these royal dogs. Tycho 
burst out into such violent abuse of the culprit, the 
minister never pardoned him, and from that day com- 
passed his ruin. Among the bitterest of his enemies 
may be numbered his own brother Axel, who looked 
upon his family as degraded by the pursuits of his re- 

With the reign of Frederic II. ended the good 
fortune of Tycho. One visit alone did Christian IV. 
ever pay him, on which occasion he gave the astro- 
nomer Ins portrait, which compliment Tycho returned 
by presenting him with a globe of glass. 

During his residence at Uranienborg the best artists 
were engaged in painting his various instruments. In 
1586 Hans Knieper was employed in decorating his 
telescopes, on which are represented mountains and the 
setting of the sun. Another artist of the day, Tobias 
Gamperlin, was employed to paint Tycho's own por- 
trait on his instrument called " Quadrans muralis," or 
" Tychonicus." 

In 1596, the year of the coronation of the youthful 

James, for I find it again, date 1590, in a Psalm-book given by 
Frederic II. to Henrik Ramel, governor to Christian IV., and later 
ambassador to England, together with autographs of Frederic II. and 
all his family. Queen Anne writes, " Tout sarrest en la main de bien. 
Anna princhesse a Dennemarck, 1588." This book is now in the 
library of Count de la Gardie. 

x 2 

308 TYCHO BRAHE. Chap. XX. 

king, the stars were already out of fashion ; not one of 
the notabilities who visited Copenhagen made the accus- 
tomed pilgrimage to Hveen, and now the influence of 
Walkendorf became visible. Tycho was pronounced 
"a bad Christian;" for eight years had elapsed since 
he had received the Holy Communion, and, worse still, 
he lived on with a woman of low extraction, who 
was not his wife. The University (always a body of 
sycophants) scoffed at his treatises ; his revenues were 
no longer paid, and he was compelled to quit Denmark. 
He wrote from Rostock a suppliant letter to Christian IV., 
imploring his aid, to which the king replied harshly. 

Tycho then went to his friend Henry Count Rantzau, 
known in his time as " Rantzau the learned," and passed 
a year with him in his chateau of Wansbek, near 
Hamburg. Here it was he wrote in the album of his 
host those beautiful Latin verses known as ' Tycho's 
Lament/ * which on reading in later years caused Chris- 
tian to shed tears of remorse. While at Wansbek he 
received an invitation from the Emperor Rodolph to 
visit his dominions, and, after lingering on in hope of a 
recall to Copenhagen, he, in 1599, proceeded to Prague, 
where he was given the choice of three palaces and a 
pension of 3000 gulden. 

Tycho did not long survive his exile. Two years later, 
when at a party at Count Rosenborg's, he was suddenly 

* Tycho Brahe's Elegia de Exilio suo. 

Dania quid merui? quo te patria, laesi 

Usque ades, ut rebus sit minus acqua raeis, 

Scilicet illud erat, tibi quo nocuisse reprendar 
Quo majus per me nomen in orbe geras. 

Dei age, quis pro te tot tautaque fecerat ante 
Ut retreat fainani cuncta per astra tuam. 

Chap. XX. HIS " DAYS." 309 

taken ill, and expired, after five days' suffering, on the 
24th of October, 1601, aged fifty-four. The Emperor 
quite forgot his promise of providing for his family, but 
gave him a splendid funeral, and a marble monument 
was erected to his memory by his relatives, on which 
he lies extended in full armour, as a gentleman should 
be, with his motto, " Non videre sed esse." No allusion 
to the stars*— nothing so vulgar; a skue penge was 
later struck in his honour. 

Tycho Brahe was not free from the superstition of 
the age ; indeed, at one time he turned his attention 
to astrology. Thirty-two days in the year did he 
consider as unlucky ; one for matrimony (some folks 
consider many), another to fall sick upon, a third to set 
out on a journey, and so forth ; these days were known 
under the name of " Tycho Brahe's days." | 

If you follow my advice, you will never take the 
trouble of visiting the island of Hveen. 

* The prejudice against science seems to have gradually faded away, 
for among the engravings of the Brahe family I find the portraits of 
one or two of its female members of later date, who bear a star upon 
their brow in honour of the astronomer, 
f These were — 

January 1, 2, 4, 6, 11, 12, 29. July 17, 21. 

February 11, 17, 18. August 20, 21. 

March 1, 4, 14, 15. September 16, 18. 

April 10, 17, 18. October 6. 

May 7, IS. November 6, 16. 

June 6. December 6, 11, 18. 



Kirstine Kostgaard and tlie Swedish officers — Fredensborg, or the 
Castle of Peace — Frederic the Hunchback, the Arveprinds — 
Death of Queen Juliana — Tragic story of Adrienne, Countess of 
Bevern — Norwegian amphitheatre — The Hell-horse — Esrom, its 
convent and lake. 


Monday 23rd.— The weather is bright It would be 
imprudent to defer any longer excursions within the 
limits of our neighbourhood, so this morning we started 
for Fredensborg. We drove past Gurre (the carriage- 
hire of last week might have been spared). Our road 
then lay through the Marianalund Forest ; the foliage 
golden green — uniform, unartistic, if you will — and 
most unpaintable. How happens it that what is most 
fair in Nature seldom succeeds in art or meets with the 
approbation of a painter ? I always say, and shall say, 
that eyes essentially artistic have no real appreciation 
of Nature. They look on her as secondary to art, and 
would reduce the glories of creation to the scope of 
their own smudgy little pallet-brushes, and what they 
can't paint and do justice to declare not to be worth 
looking at. 

But the carriage stops by the wood-side. We are at 
Eostgaard S0. At the foot of the hill, fringed with the 
feathery flowers of the bukblad (bog-bean),* lies a small 

* Menvanthes trifoliata. 


blue taarn, of that peculiar blue unproduceable by Prus- 
sian, cobalt, or ultramarine, by Irish eyes, or the reflex on 
a raven's wing : a blue of its own ; I must term it " mose 
blue," — a tint produced by the reflection of the sun over 
the waters of a dark morass. The labourers are engaged 
cutting deep into the swamp ; they carry off the black 
mud in their carts and spread it in thin layers to dry, 
to be used as fuel for winter consumption. These 
morasses become dry as touchwood in summer season. 
A few days since, some boys engaged in searching for 
plovers' eggs, desirous to frighten the parent birds from 
their nests, set fire to the barren turf: the conflagration 
extended wide, and caused great anxiety before it was 
effectually extinguished. 

We stand by a circle of stones, the centre of which, 
of large dimensions, is inscribed with the cipher H. R. 
and the date 1659, denoting the scene of some unfor- 
gotten story. 

You may call to mind, perchance, how, in my men- 
tion of St. Olaf's church, I somewhat disrespectfully 
pooh-poohed the epitaphium of some native hero who 
once saved Denmark. It was that of Rostgaard. He 
never saved Denmark, yet the story of his fair wife (the 
Danish Penelope) must not be passed over. 

When in the year 1659 Kronborg was in possession 
of the Swedes, Hans Rostgaard, together with Parson 
Gerner, student Tikj0b, Steenwinkel the Danish en- 
gineer, and the English Colonel Hutchinson — who had 
been bribed by the Danes for the sum of 1000 ducats 
to desert from the Swedes — formed a plan to retake 
the castle. Student Tikjpb endeavoured to gain Copen- 
hagen in a boat, charged with letters and despatches re- 
lating to the proposed attack. He was, however, boarded 


by a Swedish vessel, when to save the letters intrusted 
to his care he fastened them to a stone and east them 
into the Sound. As ill luck would have it, the string 
slipped, the stone sank, and the papers floating on the 
water were picked up, read, and the plot discovered. 
Hutchinson immediately took refuge on board an Eng- 
lish vessel. Steenwinkel was taken and met with the 
just punishment of his double treachery. Eostgaard took 
horse, but, finding himself pursued, when he reached the 
spot where this circle of stones now stands he killed his 
charger, slipped out of his clothes, cast his plumed 
hat and his sword into the lake — thereby deceiving his 
enemies, who, imagining he had been killed, ceased in 
their pursuit — and he in disguise gained Copenhagen. 

His fair and youthful wife inhabited her manor of 
Eostgaard, at a short distance from Elsinore, one of the 
most beautiful residences in the neighbourhood. A 
widow (for such she was supposed to be), young, rich, 
and pretty, was too great a prize in the matrimonial 
market to escape the notice of the Swedish officers. A 
company was now quartered at the manor-house, and 
the whole corps, from the colonel down to the beardless 
ensign, commenced paying their addresses to her. 
Kirstine Eostgaard was a femme d'esprit, and well she 
played her cards. Eeveal her husband's existence she 
dare not : the soldiers would have no longer treated her 
house and gardens with the consideration they now 
showed, each hoping, in course of time, it might become 
his own possession. 

AVhen pressed by the most ardent of her adorers, she 
begged for time — she was so late a widow, and, though 
she had her troubles with Eostgaard, still she owed it 
to her own self to wait till the year of mourning was 


expired ; and then she coquetted so cleverly that each 
individual of the whole band imagined himself to be 
the favoured one. " How," she asked, reproachfully, to 
the colonel, "can you imagine I could look for one 
moment on that beardless lieutenant, with blue eyes 
and pink cheeks, like a girl in uniform, when you, a 
proper man, are present ? But be prudent ; think of 
my good name." To the younger officers she termed 
the colonel " vieille perruque ;" and so on, till the year 
elapsed and the peace was signed ; she then made them 
a profound reverence, thanked them for the considera- 
tion they had shown to her goods and chattels, intro- 
duced to them her resuscitated husband Hans Eost- 
gaard, and showed them the door most politely. 

Such is the history of Rostgaard. Kirstine died soon 
after and he married a second time. He is represented 
in his epitaphium with his two wives, a rose, and a 

The Esrom lake appears in sight ; we arrive at the 
village of Fredensborg, halt at the inn, order dinner, 
and then proceed to visit the palace and its far-famed 
gardens, planted at the termination of the village, 
for the Danes have no conception of the grandeur of 
isolation in their country residences ; provided one side 
looks on a wood, a lake, or a garden, the entrance-court 
may be " cheek by jowl " with the humblest cottage. 
A dozen clipped lime-trees form their idea of an ap- 
proach, with a pavement like the " pitching " of our 
Saxon forefathers. At Fredensborg the entrance-court 
is paved ; the stones run up to the very lime avenue, 
to the pedestal of the statue of Peace, by Wiede- 
welt, now all blackened and lichen-grown, which cost — 
I am afraid to say how many thousand thalers to his 


Majesty King Frederic IV., founder of the palace. 
Stone — stone — stone! not an ell of verdant turf to 
refresh the eye. Then, too, the palace, of brick and 
stone copings, never boasting of any architectural 
beauty in its most palmy days, has been most igno- 
miniously and glaringly whitewashed. 

The origin of the palace — " Castle of Peace," as its 
name implies — was this. King Frederic IV. and his 
Queen Louisa of Mecklenburgh were accustomed, 
when they desired a little rest and quiet, to drive 
over from Frederiksborg to a farmhouse in the manor 
of Endrup, dine, sup there, and fish in the Esrom 
lake, with no other attendants than the worthy farmer 
and his wife, whose portraits, depicted in their farm- 
house kitchen, you may see among the extensive 
collection of rubbish which adorns the walls of the 
state apartments. Gradually royalty became satiated 
with the delights of farmhouse fare ; they deter- 
mined to build — -just a mere nothing — a maisonette. 
An architect was summoned, plans laid out before the 
august eyes. " Too small ! too small ! no place for my 
ladies of honour ! " exclaimed the queen. The ladies of 
honour entailed ladies' maids, and the overhofmarskal 
aides-de-camp. " And suppose a foreign ambassador 
should arrive — such a bore to return to Frederiks- 
borg to receive him." And so, like Mr. Briggs's loose 
tile in 'Punch,' the buildings, or rather the plans, 
were enlarged and added to, and in the year 1720 — 
year of the signature of peace between Sweden and 
Denmark — was completed the present not beautiful, 
but most comfortable of all royal residences in Den- 
mark — the Palace of Fredensborg. 

" Don't visit the interior," said the Elsinorians ; " not 

Chap. XXI. 


worth seeing." I didn't dispute the point, but followed 
my own devices. I plead guilty to a taste for visiting 
the interior of uninhabited houses, royal, patrician, and 
plebeian : it's the taste of an idle man— a flaneur, per- 
haps, who has nothing better to do ; but I like a fine 
suite of rooms, richly-moulded and painted ceilings, 
and in all the buildings of Frederic IV. you have these 
to perfection. I never saw his pi aster- work surpassed 
in any country. Then there are rich old cabinets and 
mirrors, finely-carved sofas and consoles; a bureau of 
marqueterie, much used by our friend Juliana, an 
exquisite piece of furniture, falling to decay among 
the rest. The Danes are fearfully ignorant on these 
subjects, or, rather, the royal " mobilier " is in the hands 
and under the direction of people unfitted for the charge 
and ignorant of its value. They should follow the 
French fashion,— establish the "Garde meuble de la 
Couronne ;" have the furniture sorted according to its 
date, and a sale or bonfire made of the rubbish. I am 
certain that in the three or four deserted royal palaces 
I have visited, with a little judgment and restora- 
tion, there would be found sufficient furniture to render 
them habitable and a credit to the country. Sneer, 
if you like, but the history of civilization is as much 
illustrated by the furniture and objects of luxury oi> its 
century as by the progress of manufactures, machinery, 
guns, cannons, and implements of war. The hall where 
the celebrated treaty was signed (though this is now 
become a disputed point) is grand and imposing. I was 
sorry to see the roof defective and the water streaming 
in over the pictures painted to celebrate the event. 
The palace is a most habitable abode ; the bedrooms 
have all separate exits into the gallery which surrounds 


the great hall — an uncommon luxury. The pictures are 
the refuse of the royal collections ; among them I ob- 
served one good portrait of the founder Frederic IV., 
and a charming full-length likeness of the Arveprinds, 
son of Juliana and father to Christian VIII., a beautiful 
boy, — Frederic the Hunchback he was popularly termed. 
At the age of eleven he fell down the staircase at 
Arnalienborg, injured his spine, and never recovered 
from the effects of the accident. There is also a portrait 
of the brother of Queen Juliana, the celebrated Duke 
of Brunswick, who fell at Jena. 

Of all extraordinary puzzle-brained inventions is a 
frame arranged like a Venetian blind, with portraits of 
sovereigns of the house of Austria, painted on triangular 
pieces of wood. First the Emperor Joseph ; pass your 
hand, turning the wood, Maria Theresa comes out ; turn 
again, and the Emperor Francis makes his appearance. 
We were pointed out the "growth" of King Frederic VI, 
pencilled on the door-posts, and, courtier-like, were pro- 
foundly astonished how his Majesty had increased in 
stature from the year 78 to that of '83. 

We next visited the Eoyal Chapel, fitted, in accordance 
with the date of the building, with closets and pews — 
no questions of sittings here — the royal household all 
arranged and marshalled according to rank and prece- 
dence, their offices registered on the doors : women on 
one side, men on the other; hof-damerne (ladies of 
rank), hof-damerne piges (maids), &c, down to the wives 
of the very stablemen. Then, on the male division, 
hof-marshals and kammerjunkers, physicians, cooks, " the 
livery " of his Majesty, " livery " of her Majesty ; the 
whole concluding with the stable-folk. The royal closet 
is situated on the floor at the end of the chapel, beyond 


the seat allotted to the grooms, — a disagreeable vicinity ; 
but years since — thanks to snuff-taking — noses were less 
sensitive than they are in the present generation. 

Here, at Freclensborg, in her latter days, Queen 
Juliana held her court right royally, and, whatever may 
have been her faults, was kind and liberal to the poor 
and to those around her. She was by nature a queen, 
and loved the pomp and state from which sovereigns in 
the present age withdraw themselves as much as their 
position allows them. On the 4th of September, 1796, 
the queen celebrated her sixty-seventh birthday. 
Juliana was strong and robust, and, as far as human 
foresight could foretell, might live for years. Con- 
gratulations, offerings, arrived from all quarters ; visitors 
from the court, from. Copenhagen ; all was gratifying ; 
and when the banquet prepared in honour of the event 
was announced, never had she walked into the dining- 
room with firmer step or in higher spirits. "How 
well her Majesty looks ! " whispered the courtiers one to 
another ; " a wonderful woman of her age ; she will live 
till she is eighty, if not longer." 

The toast of the day, " the queen's health ! " was 
proposed, and drunk by the guests with enthusiasm ; 
all appeared couleur de rose ; but at that very banquet 
Juliana had signed her own death-warrant, though she 
little suspected it. Each successive year, on the anni- 
versary of her natal day, the queen caused to be served 
to her a national dish — " 8eble-gr0d og faaremelk " — a 
compote of apples, thick and glutinous, immersed in 
fresh warm sheep's-milk : a dish she much affected. 
Of this she ate somewhat too freely. An indigestion 
ensued, from which she could never be relieved. Her 
death-knell already sounded ; and now, as she saw her 


end approach, sick in mind and in body, knowing not 
where to turn for comfort and consolation — for her 
trust was not in heaven — the sight of this pomp 
and parade, in which she so much delighted, her 
attendants, her guards, her sumptuous couch — all 
became o'dious to her. She sighed for repose and 
for the solace of one kindly spirit on whose affection 
she could rely. Among the numerous attendants of 
the queen was a certain Juliana Maria Jensen, her 
namesake and goddaughter, who filled the office of 
" dame lectrice " in the royal household. Brought up 
from her earliest youth and educated by the bounty of 
Juliana, she was much attached to her royal mistress, 
by whom she had been ever treated with kindness and 

To her the dying queen now turned. On her bed 
of agony the regal apartment was insupportable. She 
caused her bed to be removed, and herself, sick and 
sinking, to be transported to the room of her favourite 
attendant. The staircase was narrow and steep, the 
chamber small: with difficulty the bearers mounted 
the narrow steps leading to the chamber ; to enter the 
doorway they must have literally shaken the dying 
queen in her bed : but her will, while still alive, was 
law, and no one dared to oppose her commands. Here 
in this small chamber, alone with her humble attendant, 
she passed the last hours of her existence. The re- 
putation of Juliana has always been that of a bad 
woman, but she appears to have been made the scape- 
goat of the sins of her century, and the accusations 
against her are so atrocious I cannot help believing 
many of them to have been unfounded. When I hear 
that she administered poison to Frederic VI. in his 


infancy, how the physician saved his life, but that his 
hair turned white from the effects of the deleterious 
mixture, I look upon it as a fable. The poison which 
was strong enough to turn a child's hair white would 
have first made an end of his existence. Juliana had 
a difficult part to play : married in early life to a 
widowed monarch, inconsolable and a drunkard, step- 
mother to an idiot and a vicious one, mother to an 
only son — a lovely child, contrasted with his elder half- 
brother — she fell a prey to the toils of those who desired 
to use her as a tool, and to the dictates of her own 
ambition. To act rightly in her exceptioual position 
would have proved difficult to a well-disposed, right- 
principled woman : impossible for one of her intriguing 
nature. The room in which Juliana breathed her last 
is situated on the first floor of the left wing, as you 
approach the third and fourth windows from the corps 
de batiment, looking upon the court. 

But the concierge looks mysterious, unlocks a heavy 
door, and ushers us into a corridor. We can just dis- 
cern the light at the bottom of a narrow quadrangular 
well staircase ; a door at the top of the landing-place 
leads into a bedroom adjoining. " What a ghostlike 
place ! " we exclaim. " You are right," he replies, 
with a solemnity of manner (quite gave me the creeps) : 
" this is a ghostlike staircase, where, in the days of King 
Frederic V., a German margravine fell down from 
the heights to the cellar below, and died on the spot ; 
her ghost has since taken possession of these stairs, 
and frightens all those who pass by. But you have 
all heard the tale of the Countess of Bevern and her sad 
death ? " No, we had not ; had seen her name upon 
a closet in the Koyal Chapel, — so begged him to relate 


the story. Adrienne, Countess of Bevern — Bevern ? 
who was she ? you will ask : why, Juliana was of Bruns- 
wick, of which family there existed a junior branch, 
Brunswic- (I spare you the intervening appellations) 
Bevern — Frederic the Great married the eldest of 
the Beverns. Adrienne was young, beautiful, and a 
coquette, lady-in-waiting to Queen Juliana, and be- 
trothed to Kammerjunker Fechner, one of the dowager's 
gentlemen-in-waiting. All went on smoothly until there 
arrived at Fredensborg a lady with her son, Harald 
Lynemark by name. He was twenty years of age, 
handsome and accomplished. Before long he was a 
constant guest at the palace, where he was no favourite 
among men, though much petted by the women, and 
became a serious cause of heartburnings to the be- 
trothed kammerjunker as his rival with the fair Adri- 
enne. His passion was returned, though the fickle 
fair one dared not yield to his entreaties to break 
off with her affianced bridegroom. One morning a 
rumour was spread that the countess had disappeared 
since the preceding night, and her corpse was later 
discovered at the bottom of the black staircase. A 
wound in her left temple corresponded with a stone 
lying at the foot of the steps below. How she had got 
there nobody could tell. Fechner mourned deeply her 
loss, and, after her interment, left Denmark. There 
was no suspicion of foul play ; the whole matter was a 
nine days' wonder, and soon forgotten. 

One day, as Lynemark was walking with a friend in 
the Fredensborg garden, he encountered his tailor, who 
peremptorily demanded payment of his bill. This the 
youth refused ; the tailor, furious, took from his pocket 
a piece of stuff, and declared his intention of going 


before a magistrate and revealing something he knew 
concerning him. This he immediately did, and Lyne- 
mark was arrested and lodged in the jail at Esrom. 
The piece of stuff which the tailor possessed proved to 
be part of the dress worn by the countess on the very 
day of her fatal accident. Lynemark, by the aid of 
his friend, escaped from prison, and, before his departure, 
related to him the story of the countess's unhappy end. 
He said she had consented to give him a meeting, in 
which he in vain persuaded her to break with Fechner, 
remove to her estates in Holstein, and there espouse 
him. She had promised to give him a definitive answer 
that very night, but came to no decision. Miserable 
at her want of feeling, he was about to quit her, when 
she opened the door of the staircase and followed him 
out ; he endeavoured to seize from her hair a little knot 
of ribbon, and succeeded ; she, on her side, tried to 
regain it, and, with a jerk, snatched it from him, 
reeled, lost her balance, and fell headlong down below. 
In vain he tried to save her : her dress gave way, 
leaving in his hand the remnant discovered in his 
pocket by the tailor. She fell with a piercing cry. 
Frantic, he rushed after her ; she still breathed, pressed 
the hand of her lover, endeavoured to raise herself, 
sobbed, her head fell heavily on his shoulder, and the 
chill of death spread over her — she was dead ! Lyne- 
mark was afraid to confess the truth, so kept silence. 
He later escaped to France and thence to Naples, where 
a Neapolitan noble, jealous, but afraid to fight him, 
denounced him to the police as member of a secret club. 
He was tried and sentenced to be shot ; his mother died 
of grief soon after. 

The palace has a melancholy, deserted air, and some 
VOL. I. y 


of the rooms are lent out to poorer members of the 
nobility. Its gardens are renowned, laid out in the old 
French style. " How like Versailles ! " we exclaimed ; 
" with its statues and avenues of fragrant limes ! ' 
In the so-called Marble Gardens are many small statues, 
of no particular excellence, by Stanley, an English 
artist, the same who executed the monument of Queen 
Louisa in the cathedral of Roeskilde. 

Then there is the lion of the palace, the Norwegian 
Amphitheatre, in three tiers, round which are ranged a 
series of stone statues in Norwegian costumes. The 
appearance of this assembly is so strange I could not 
help laughing, but to a Norwegian they are most in- 
teresting. It is now 120 years since they were placed 
there, and the peasant still remains dressed as though 
it were yesterday — the drummer, the priest, the fisher- 
man, and mountaineer from Tronyem, Bergen, and 
elsewhere ; the bride — a crowned bride too — all the 
wedding party. I should like to watch them by the 
pale moonlight : they must surely become animated 
from time to time, and hold dance and revel together. 
How Hans Andersen can ever have let such a subject 
slip through his fingers, to me is a mystery. 

The French garden amalgamates itself into the 
native woods, which run down to the lake's side. Here 
is situated the skipperhuus, where you may hire boats, 
sail or row, fishing-rods and hooks, with bait accord- 
ing to your fancy. Esrom lake is renowned for its 
perch. Our time, however, was too short to fish, and 
I was glad of it. I hate fishing when ladies are of the 
party ; they always expect you to worm their hooks for 
them, — an operation I am not partial to. In a secluded 
spot near the water's edge, within the walls of a small 


fishing-house, tradition relates that the minister Guld- 
berg, in concert with Juliana, concerted the ruin of 
Caroline Matilda and the overthrow of Struensee : they 
were there safe from all listeners and spies who might 
have betrayed the conspiracy. 

We dined at the little inn in the open air " unter den 
Linden :" a good little dinner, served on old china — 
three marcs, coffee included ! 


At seven o'clock we started on our journey home, taking 
Esrom and Splyst on the way, through the woods by the 
bank of the lake. The foliage is somewhat relieved this 
evening by an admixture of larch and birch. Our 
road ran by a picturesque village, proud of its healing 
spring; but as the water runs through the church- 
yard, I had no fancy to test its virtues, and would 
prefer most ailments to cure by such a remedy. In 
olden times there was a strange custom in Zealand, and 
may be elsewhere, of interring a living horse in every 
churchyard before any human being could be buried 
there. This horse reappears, and is known under the 
name of the " Hell-horse." It has but three legs : 
but ill-luck to the man who sees it, for it foretells his 
own death. Hence it is said of one who has recovered 
from a dangerous illness, "He has given a bushel of 
oats to the Hell-horse." Further on stands the rustic 
fishing-house of his Majesty, with a rude stone kitchen 
range outside, sufficient to fry your perch — or boil them, 
if you like it better. S0lyst is a small house on the 
lake's side, where strangers breakfast or drink their 
coffee on the terraces. 

y 2 

324 ESROM. Chap. XXI. 

And now we approach Esrom. There stands the old 
black jail, and the antique farmhouse, whitewashed, once 
her kloster. Our horses stop to water ; so we walk 
down to the farmyard gates, and, in defiance of the 
opposition of two furious watch-dogs, enter the court. 
Esrom was mother church to Sor0 and also to others 
in the island of Kugen. Few and slight are the re- 
mains of her former glory. A convent of Cistercians of 
Clairvaux, founded by Archbishop Eskild in the 12th 
century, it stood high in rank among the klosters of 
Zealand. Here Queen Hedvig found her last resting- 
place, and two of the ill-fated offspring (Magnus and 
Erik) of Erik Menved and Queen Ingeborg. 

After the Eeformation the lands fell to the Crown ; 
the materials of the church were used by that ruthless 
destroyer King Frederic for the construction of Fre- 
deriksborg. I observed a stone inserted in the wall 
bearing his cipher, F, encircled by the serpentine S 
(Frederic and Sophia), surmounted by a crown, the 
date 1569, a sort of Protestant seal he placed upon 
all ecclesiastical buildings which came into his pos- 
session. Another, later, of Christian V., 1697: he 
repaired the outhouses, and wished the world to be 
aware of the fact. Some ancient iron cramps in the 
wall, fleur-de-lise in honour of Mary, were all that 
remained of Eoman Catholic times : the carved chairs 
of its abbots are preserved in the museum at Copen- 
hagen. Then out came the proprietor, Councillor 

, and, politely carrying a lantern, showed us the 

underground crypt, vaulted and supported on columns, 
which undermines the whole building and keeps it dry in 
this watery neighbourhood, and the worthy fathers from 
rheumatic pains and ague. He took us into his garden 

Chap. XXI. ESROM. 325 

— rich, fertile ground ; two nightingales sang among 
the bushes, answering each other with their clear vibrat- 
ing melody, sweet as the choral strains which rose to 
heaven from the cloister church in old papistic times. 
Nine o'clock — still light, but dusky : it was half past 
eleven before we were safely landed at Marienlyst. 


326 ODINSH0I. Chap. XXII. 


Otlinsh0i — " Oldenborgers " — Madalena's palace at Hirschholm — Edu- 
cation of Christian VI.— His marriage — Bonfire of the Archives — 
His household — Court etiquette — Yawning-stocks — Madalena's ex- 
travagance — The Hanoverian duchess— Court preacher — Death of 
Queen Louisa — The poet Ewald 


Wednesday, 25th. — A drive to Odinsli0i by the Hain- 
mermills (you can tea at the keeper's lodge if you 
will), — I need not say how beautiful. 

Odinshoi is the highest eminence on this part of the 
Danish coast : why it is so called I am unaware ; I hear 
of no tradition about Odin.* We arrived in time for 
the sunset ; the atmosphere was not clear, nor were the 
ships passing through the Sound numerous : sometimes 
in summer time 300 sail through at the same time. The 
Swedish mountains appeared more distant than usual. 
We were just ready prepared for a grumble (oh the 
gnats and pest of cockchafers! called by the Danes 
" Oldenborgers," in compliment, I suppose, to the reign- 
ing family), when the sun burst forth from behind the 

* Odin was a lawgiver, in his way, and imposed a " nose " tax over 
the land ; but he was a bad economist, for he ordered that every one 
should be buried with his valuables. Considering the dull life great 
people are supposed to lead, Odin was not to be pitied, for on his 
slioulder sat two ravens, Hugin and Mugin by name, who flew round 
the world every morning, and on their return related all the gossip 
they had collected to their master. 


violet clouds, and fell into the Kattegat — a long pillar of 
fire, gilding the waters with (as Milton has it) " heavenly 
alchemy." Drive to Odinsh0i by all means, and make 
a drawing of that pretty striped house near the Ham- 
mermills, under the large oak-tree, with the overshot 
wheel and the cart always ready prepared, in a most 
picturesque attitude. 


TJiursday, 26th. — Well up in Kostgaard, we deter- 
mined to visit his manor ; so jumped into the steamer, 
and in twenty minutes we landed at Hurnlebsek, which 
derives it name from some old fabulous Danish king, 
Humle (Hops), said to be buried under the adjoining 
hoi. The manor is now in the possession of Mr. Bruum, 
and celebrated for its " apiarium," arranged on the 
Austrian system — paternal — but despotic. 

I do really from my heart pity the poor bees, who in 
these times are compelled to make honey by rule, without 
a voice on the subject — deprived of their annual excur- 
sion with their queen in swarming-time ; no escape to 
the beech-tree or eaves of the nearest farmhouse, hang- 
ing like a hedgehog from the branches, and seduced 
home or caught in a hive to the dulcet sound of poker, 
tongs, and shovel, sakbut and psaltery — a foolish waste 
of time, like May-day, country fairs, and Christmas 
mummings, put down and abolished. Now we save your 
lives — don't kill you with sulphur — so remove the par- 
tition, and just please to swarm into the adjoining box 
according to rule, and give no more trouble to anybody. 

Here is a jolly little inn, with garden, looking on 
the Sound, where you may breakfast, tea, and eat fresh 


shrimps. The manor gardens are open to visitors : rich 
in ornamental flowering shrubs, lake and platebancles. 
In the wall lay imbedded some stones engraved with 
the arms of the ancient possessors through two genera- 
tions. On the whole, Eostgaard manor and a pretty 
widow of nineteen — the Swedish officers could not have 
done better. 


Saturday, May 2Sth. — I could not leave Elsinore with- 
out visiting the site where once stood Hirschholm, the 
most splendid of Madalena's palatial creations; so we 
took the steamer, and in one hour were landed at the 
village of Eongsted ; from whence we pass through a 
forest — a very wedding nosegay of white flowers ; Skov- 
stierne or forest star,* and bifolia, the most delicate 
and youngest of the conval tribe, we found blooming for 
the first time. We stop to gather them by the way ; a 
half-hour's w T alk it should have been to the palace, but 
somehow or other time slips on unconsciously. Lilies 
abounded not, for a girls' school had picnicked that 
day in the forest, and we saw them bright and happy 
looking, in their round hats, with their mistress, seated 
on the turf, tying up their nosegays. We now came to 
an obelisk, decorated with cornucopias tumbling inside 
out, very symbolical — erected in 1761,-j- to celebrate 

* Trientalis Europsea. 

f Molesworth, speaking of the Danish peasantry, says : " They 
are ahsolute slaves in Zealand, as in Barbadoes, with this difference, 
that they are not well cared for, and suffer greatly from the 
quantity of soldiers who are billeted upon them — a nuisauce of 
which our English yeomen complained in olden times, when they 
were domineered over by tho Danish troops ; and the name of 
' Lazy Lordane ' became in after times a byword. Previous to the 


the manumission of the royal serfs appertaining to the 
widowed Queen Sophia Madalena, most creditable to 
her memory, some twenty-seven years, too, before serf- 
dom was finally abolished by her grandson ; then we 
arrive at a square deserted place, backed by fine woods, 
surrounded by water, in the centre of which a hideous 
church marks the spot where once stood Denmark's 
Versailles, the far-famed palace of Hirschholm. 

There is absolutely nothing to see, beyond the in- 
terest attached to the locality : it boasts no site, no 
commanding view ; like Versailles, it was the triumph 
of art and the handiwork of man, or rather woman ; 
Nature lent no aid, or, by her smiles, countenanced, 
Madalena's extravagances. Still, when horse-chestnuts 
blossom, and the fruit-trees scatter their petals like 
roseate snow-flakes on the turf below — when spring is 
young and verdant, and the sun shines brightly, Art may 
snap her fingers at Nature — she planted them — you no 
longer think about the ups and downs of this world — its 
mountains and its valleys — but content yourself with 
the beauties before your eye, such as Hirschholm, riant 
in her desolation, now still affords you. We visited the 
church — as ugly as Calvin himself could have desired. 
The sacristan pointed out to us a broken, old, carved 
oak chair, once covered with stamped leather, as a relic 
of Caroline Matilda, and turned it round to exhibit the 
initials C. M. and a crown (burnt by himself, I dare say, 

peace of 1669," he adds, " the peasants were well to do : in every 
house you would see a piece or two of silver plate, gold rings, silver 
spoons ; and the women wore gold ornaments ; and quantities of 
feather-beds and holsters, not only to lie upon, hut cover them in lieu 
of blankets." The peasantry of Denmark have neither lost their taste 
for one nor the other. 


with a red-hot nail) on the back of it. We were tired and 
hot, and glad to adjourn to the village inn and get some- 
thing to drink. In the common room of the inn hangs 
a portrait — well executed too — of Juliana, bearing date 
1755, with a complimentary inscription, regretting, 
although her features were portrayed on the canvas, 
her virtues could not be expressed also ; and Tyge 
Wilsted was grateful ; to him Juliana had proved a 
kind patroness — she had honoured his house with her 
presence, and granted it a free licence to sell beer. 

Hirschholm appeared animated : hussars in their 
uniforms paced about, and rough-riders galloped their 
unbroken chargers around the rotten Champ-de-Mars, 
appearing and flitting picturesquely among the trees. 
So, as 'it is too sultry to return, suppose we sit down 
quietly on the grass, and I will tell you something about 
the early history of the place, which I can best illustrate 
by giving a slight sketch of the court and times of its 
foundress Queen Madalena. 

Frederic IV., as we all know, was a loosish sort of an 
individual, and did not live happily with his queen, Louisa 
of Mecklenburg, a gloomy, jealous-minded woman — at 
least there is every reason to suppose so ; otherwise he 
would have scarcely, nine years previous to her decease, 
have married * with the left hand Anne Sophia Eevent- 
low, daughter of his grand-chancellor — a most extraor- 
dinary proceeding on his part, even in that century of 
slack morality. Queen Louisa, as was natural, considered 
herself an injured wife. Had she been less gloomy and 
disagreeable, this catastrophe probably might have been 

* And not the first, for he had previously contracted his " con- 
science " marriage with the Countess Viereck. 


averted : but " what's done can't be undone ; and all 
Louisa had to do was to remain quiet at Copenhagen, 
and bring up her son Christian in the way he should go, 
and not let him turn out a ne'er-do-well like his royal 
father." So Queen Louisa, and Catherine Buchwald 
the grande maitresse, laid their heads together and pre- 
sided over the heir-apparent's tuition. His education 
appears to have been modelled on the Chinese system, 
with a little dash of the old Venetians, who, though 
they did not cramp the feet of their womankind, caused 
them to wear heels of so lofty an altitude as to prevent 
them from walking otherwise than with difficulty. The 
young prince was set down to his studies— dry dis- 
sertations on theology, most incomprehensible to his 
youthful mind — and made to recite prayers so sen- 
tentiously worded that he forgot the commencement 
of each sentence long before he came to the conclusion. 
His attendants were aged, sedate men ; he had no 
companions of his own age ; was never allowed to see 
strangers. His dress was, like his education, strait- 
laced : he was arrayed in tight, stiff jackets ; neck and 
throat bound tight-laced round with a stock, the very 
essence of buckram, preventing the circulation of his 
blood; his gaiters cut into his very flesh; his small- 
clothes scarce allowed of his seating himself; while his 
extra high-heeled shoes, hard and tight, lamed him, and 
a full-blown peruke weighed down the budding inspira- 
tion of his youthful brain. Not much chance of the 
prince running a muck, is there ? 

He grew up under his mother's petticoat-govern- 
ment German to the backbone : in person small, thin, 
and weakly, with a peculiar shrill-toned voice ; he 
knew nothing of war, was shy, and expressed himself 


with difficulty. In the spring of 1721 Queen Louisa 
died, and in the autumn of the same year Christian, 
then twenty-two years of age, espoused Sophia Ma- 
dalena, daughter of the Margrave of Brandenburg.* 
She was proud as she was poor; and, without loving 
her husband, tormented him by her eternal jealousy. 
From her portraits, I should judge her to have been a 
perfect gentlewoman — one of those women to whom 
beauty was no object if she only chose to be pleasant and 
agreeable. Vain she was, but she never painted. The 
somewhat dissolute court of Kins; Frederic was thrown 
into positive convulsions of amusement when the 
' Gazette ' first appeared announcing the appointments 
in the household of the newly-married couple. Mada- 
lena has selected as her hof-ladies the four ugliest women 
of quality to be found in the capital of Copenhagen. 
They now retire to the small castle of Homings - 
holm, accompanied by their ugly attendants, where 
we will leave them to bicker and squabble until the 
death of their royal father,! which occurred some nine 

* The king, wishing to celebrate the occasion with the greatest 
possible rejoicings, ordered a display of fireworks of unprecedented 
magnificence. The paper necessary for their fabrication being diffi- 
cult to procure, Frederic issued orders to all the towns, governments, 
cloisters, &c, to forward their archives to Copenhagen. Carts upon 
carts arrived from all quarters full of the ancient records of the 
kingdom, which were quickly sacrificed for the enjoyment of one 

t Frederic IV. saw with his own eyes, and, with all his liberal ideas 
of matrimony, governed well. Every Tuesday from 10 till 11, and on 
Sundays before going to church, he went to a chamber where every- 
body could go to him and lay their complaints before him. On the 
table stood a box to receive petitions ; and when the hour of audience 
was over, the box was carried to his cabinet, and he looked over its 
contents himself in the evening. His economy was great, and he did 
not wantonly give away pensions, which in 1729 only amounted to 


years later. The first act of the new monarch 
was to send flying about her business the Kevent- 
low Queen, who had shown them great kindness 
on their arrival from Germany, and stood their friend 
on all occasions with her royal consort. 

As for Queen Madalena, she had no time to regret 
her father-in-law ; she had her coronation to look after, 
and a fine coronation it was, cost two millions of specie 
to the country ; all her family came over from Ger- 
many to witness it, and then, finding the climate of 
Denmark conducive to their good, remained there 
altogether; among them, her mother the margravine. 
Germans arrive now like cockchafers : Denmark, very 
much disgusted, &c. " We must really establish some- 
thing like etiquette," declared Madalena; "how well 
they manage these things at Versailles ! " So she pub- 
lishes her ordinances, and that of her dinner appears to 
us common mortals to have been dignified in the ex- 
treme, but singularly inconvenient, especially if she cared 
to dine hot : the hofjunker first cuts up her meat, while 
a kammerherr stands behind her chair ; he then delivers 
it to the page in waiting, who passes it on to the kam- 
merherr, who gives it to the queen. " We must imitate 
the splendour of the Saxon court ! " cries Madalena. 
" We must insist on the people going to church ! " ex- 
claims King Christian ; and each went their own way 
about gaining the object in view. The one pulls down 

11,150 dollars. Frederic, with all his immorality, was the restorer of 
the royal finances. When he died (1730) he left thirty barrels of 
gold in the treasury, which, considering the sum he gave for the 
building of Copenhagen after the fire, is enormous ; when he ascended 
the throne the country was eleven barrels in debt. 


the new-built castle of Copenhagen, the other inflicts a 
fine on those who absent themselves from Divine service. 
Twice must they attend by law each Sabbath ; the gabs- 
stocken (yawning-stocks) are placed at the church door, 
in which the victim convicted of a second offence is com- 
pelled to stand fixed with his mouth open. The gates 
of the city are closed * until four o'clock, at which hour 
the Lutheran Sunday terminates; the Christmas yule 
log anathematised ; while " at ride sommer i by," — the 
Danish May-day festival of the farmers — put down as 
an offence to Heaven. Smarting under the irritation 
of this new Popish dominion, the world became more 
wicked than ever — freethinkers or hypocrites. But 
while Christian torments his people, Madalena builds 
and dresses and runs in debt too ; for in 1739 we find 
a letter, dated Hirschholm, addressed to the minister 
Schulin, in trouble and tribulation. Her debts amount 
to 33,000 dollars, her pension a modest 18,000. What 
can she do ? The king orders her income to be stopped 
until the debt is discharged — 15,000 annually, leaving 
her a mere nothing. The money she must have ; 
how Schulin got her out of her difficulties chroniclers 
inform us not. Old Horningsholm must now come 
down — Horningsholm, where she spent her early mar- 
ried life, with her four old frights the ladies of honour 
— and a new Versailles erected, to be styled " Hirsch- 
holm," in honour of a stag shot by Madalena's own fair 
hands — you may see its antlers still preserved in the 
castle of Rosenborg. "But, your Majesty, it's a 
morass ; you must drive in piles ; the expense will be 

* This custom of closing the gates during Divine service was prevalent 
in Christian V.'s time. 


enormous ! " " Let the piles be driven ; the expense, 
forsooth, at Baireuth ! " (Madalena ! Madalena ! you 
forget the only two pair of silk stockings you brought 
over with you from Germany ; don't talk to us of the 
splendours of Baireuth.) So piles without number were 
driven in, and the walls of Hirschholm rose from the 
morass below. Study the Danish Vitruvius, and you 
will see it was a glorious palace, and decorated with all 
that wealth and taste could supply : pictures, gems of 
art, within ; gardens, woods, and lakes without ; all 
contrived to make life a paradise. We hear once how, 
during the absence of King Christian VII. on his travels 
in Germany and elsewhere, the three queens* passed 
their time " very comfortably together " in good fellow - 
t ship at Hirschholm. Then Madalena had built Sophien- 
berg, by the sea-side, on the banks of the sparkling 
Sound, and a hermitage in the deer-park, — as much 
a hermitage as the Monument on Fish Street Hill ; 
goes and dines there in summer occasionally, and at 
the change of courses the table disappears below, 
carrying away the ladies' fans and kerchiefs, the salt- 
cellars, &c, and then another appears, all fresh deco- 
rated with the succeeding course^ 

But Madalena has her troubles — troubles of her own 
making too: she is stern and repulsive with King 
Christian — bores him for money, for places, and what 
not, for her German followers — German, all German, 
even the doctors : in all we imitate the court of 
Saxony, except in its morals. And though Christian 
occupied himself with the reformation of his people, 
he did not set them an example. There came over 

Madalena, Juliana, and Caroline Matilda. 


to Denmark about this time a certain Hanoverian 
duchess — 0st Friesland, I think they called her, 
the queen's own sister. Christian had known her 
in former days, and would have liked her better 
than the stately Madalena; but the duke was still 
living.. Madalena found it out, and became jealous. 
And now, a widow in her trouble, not a penny in 
her purse, she arrives ; and Christian, like a good 
brother-in-law, assigns her a pension, as well as an 
apartment at Fredensborg. Tongues wag; the brow 
of Madalena becomes more clouded; she leads her 
architects and lady's-maids a terrible time of it. 
The poor dear duchess falls sick ; the king becomes 
more attentive ; she refuses all medical advice ; people 
shake their heads ; Majesty insists ; she is persuaded to 
consult the court physicians (not Madalena's, you may 
feel sure) ; and, after a cure which entailed a short 
seclusion, derives infinite benefit from his remedies, and 
is restored to society more radiant and lovely than ever. 
About this time I find the king's confessor, Frunen, 
a very low-bred man, preaching a sermon before the 
court, all about King Herod and John the Baptist. 
How Madalena and her ladies must have looked and 
winked, and how Majesty must have fidgeted on his 
chair in the royal closet ! Greatly incensed at such 
conduct, the king, forgetting his wisdom, desired 
Frunen for the future not to be personal, but to preach 
about drinking, Sabbath-breaking, or any fault he was 
exempt from. On the following Sunday the preacher 
made matters worse by selecting for his text Gal. iv. 16, 
" Am I now then become your enemy, because I tell 
you the truth ? " This was more than the king could 
stand : he peremptorily dismissed Frunen from the 


office of Eoyal Confessor, and caused an edict to be 
read to him by the Council, forbidding him to perform 
his office as a clergyman, but to employ himself in the 
instruction of youth for the future. So much for re- 
buking sovereigns from the pulpit in the eighteenth 
century. But to finish the story. In the year 1766 
good King Christian died ; * the fascinating duchess f 
had gone to her last account. Madalena was now 
" Enkedronning " (widow queen) ; she could no longer 
build palaces, so she lived in them, and cottoned 
together much with her German daughter-in-law, in- 
triguing Juliana. Then appeared there suddenly at 
the court of Denmark a " Qvinde" person, who declared 
herself to be daughter of the defunct sovereign and 
her of the ravishing eyes, the widow-duchess of 0st 
Friesland. Count Danneskiold received her papers. 
The offspring of royalty declared herself born in 1744 
(year of King Herod and her Grace's indisposition), and 
styled herself Anne Sophia Madalena Frederica Ulrica 
— why, her name alone proclaims her a princess. How 
she was delivered over to Countess Schack, sent later 
to Norway, thence to Amsterdam, where a merchant 
treated her as his own daughter ; how she first became 
acquainted with her parentage ; how she had possessed 

* Old people at Hirsckholm, ever delighting in the marvellous, 
wonld assert, up to a few years since, that Madalena, in her jealousy, 
made use of some charmed drug, which she applied with a camel's- 
hair brush to King Christian's lips when asleep, in the hope of re- 
gaining Ms affections, and thereby caused his death. 

f A portrait of this fascinating duchess, or may be a copy by Tyroff, 
hangs in the Rosenborg collection, — engravings of which may be found 
in the before-mentioned Midler collection. Without being endowed 
with any extraordinary beauty, she appears what she was, " a charming 

VOL. I. Z 


her father and mother's portrait enriched with diamonds, 
and a pension of four hundred dollars yearly till their 
death, when she went down with a run, and became 
maid-of-all-work to an apothecary ; she then sold her 
diamonds to come to Denmark. The Council examined 
her claims, and pronounced her an impostor. It was 
not likely during the life of Madalena her claims, if 
true, would be allowed. She was condemned to be 
scourged as an adventuress, and branded with a B as 
an impostor (Bedragen). Her sentence was, however, 
remitted to perpetual confinement in the prison of 
the island of M0en, one hundred dollars yearly being 
allowed to procure her better food. So much for claim- 
ing a royal descent. 

And now Madalena is growing old ; her palmy days 
are over ; she makes her will and a list of her jewels 
in a red-morocco-bound book. I have seen it in Kosen- 
borg, — plain, clear, fair German characters, no blots, 
and, what is more rare, correct spelling into the bar- 
gain. Her house was now in order : she must resign 
her palaces, her plaisaunces, and her pomp ;* she dies 
in her castle of Christiansborg, 27th March, 1770, in the 
seventieth year of her age, two years before the story 
of Caroline Matilda. By her will she bequeathed her 
jewels to the country, and begs her descendants to 
preserve the buildings she has erected, as such works of 
art add to the glory of the nation who possesses them. 

Hirschholm increases in beauty, and queens love it 
much. Louisa, our English princess, the darling of 

* This she kept up in her widowhood, for when she visited Slesvig, 
in 1751, to meet her brother the margrave, her suite consisted of 300 


the Danish people — " good Queen Louisa," as she is still 
called — passed many happy days here before Frederic 
grew faithless : not that he ever ceased to love her — 
but his heart, like that of many other men, was capa- 
cious, had room for her and other women too. Frederic 
was a roi galant ; conjugal fidelity was not the order of 
the day; and Louisa, though the court of her father 
George was far from pure, really did suffer from her 
husband's conduct. On her marriage, when she arrived 
at Altona, she dismissed all her English attendants ; 
not a word of Danish did she know, but she surrounded 
herself by Danes, learnt quickly the language, which 
again became the fashion at court after the lapse of 
half a century. 

It was, writes an eye-witness, a touching sight to see 
some thousand people every day on their bare knees 
(paa bare knae) in the court before the castle, imploring 
Heaven to save her. She was willing to die, for her 
husband's infidelity had embittered her life. The 
effects of the birth of a dead son* terminated her 
existence in the winter of 1751. She was in her 
twenty-seventh year. Kequiescat in pace. And now 
Juliana rules the roast and her besotted king, and 

* In the Miiller collection I found a curious engraving of the 
" barsel " of Queen Louisa, dated 1749, by Haas of Hamburg. The 
queen, whose troubles are just over, is represented in her bed, the 
footboard carved with her cipher. On one side the new-born child 
(later mad King Christian) in a cradle, in the act of being crowned by 
an angel ; by his side stands the nurse, with a basin of caudle on the 
table before her ; while above appears the stork, bearing a swathed 
child in his beak. On the other side, the king and his courtiers offer 
their congratulations to the queen ; above, an angel who blows some- 
thing from his trumpet in High Dutch, which, as I do not understand 
the language, I regret being unable to translate. 

z 2 


fine stories they tell of her ; but she too becomes a 
widow, and retires to the pleasant shades of Fredens- 
horg, and Caroline Matilda, fifteen years of age, reigns 
in her stead, wife of Christian VII., a debauched half- 
maniac prince, who has, however, at first the good taste to 
admire his English wife, and would have done so longer 
had he remained uninfluenced by Ins worthless favourites. 
Like Queen Louisa, she dismissed on her arrival her 
English attendants, but she never loved the Danish 
language. Caroline Matilda is thus described by a 
Danish writer of the day : "A majestic person, with 
well-shaped head and pretty complexion ; clear blue 
eyes, large and shining ; good mouth, full underlip ; 
hair, silvery white, in profusion :" an heirloom trans- 
mitted to her son (does not this vindicate Juliana ?) ;* 
a tendency to embonpoint already visible. Molbech, who, 
after the fashion of the day, shows her little favour, 
continues : " She had good abilities, flighty, fond of 
pleasure (fifteen years of age!), friendly and loveable 
when she chose, a quick comprehension, indifferent 
to politics and intrigue ; when aroused, passionate and 
vindictive (she had reason to be so), quite astonishing 
for a person of her phlegmatic temper. She liked her 
own way and to rule (I should think so, a queen !) in 
her own circle, and had no real religion about her." 
Such is the description given of her. Unprotected, 
without a friend in the most dissolute court of Europe, 
she was ill fitted to war against the venom of her 

A road to the right, across the forest, leads to the 
country place (Frydenlund) of Struensee, sacked by the 

See p. 318. Frederic inherited the white hair from his mother. 


enraged populace at the period of his execution.* One 
avenue still bears the name of Matilda's Koad. 

At Hirschholm King Frederic VI. passed his early youth, 
running about shoeless, barefoot, like a peasant boy, in 
company with a farmer's son. He was delicate from 
his birth, and Struensee, a doctor by profession (hence 
dates Ins intimacy with the queen shortly after the 
marriage), insisted, by way of fortifying his constitution, 
on relieving him from all the trammels of royalty, and 
allowing him to run wild in the meadows and forests of 
__ , 


* Struensee and Brandt were both arrested, and detained in the most 
rigorous confinement. The former was loaded with chains about his 
arms and legs, and at the same time attached to the wall by an iron bar. 
With Count Brandt the Icing had previously quarrelled at the palace 
of Hirschholm, and challenged him to fight. This the count naturally 
declined. When next they met the king repeated the defiance, and 
called him "coward." Brandt behaving with temper, as befitted a 
subject, the half-mad king became ungovernable, thrust his hand into 
the count's mouth, seized his tongue, and nearly tore it out, half 
choking him; Brandt in self-defence (as who would not?) bit the 
king's hand. A reconciliation however was effected by Struensee, and 
Christian promised never again to allude to the subject. The crime now 
charged against Brandt was that of having lifted his hand against the 
" sacred person of his sovereign ;" the punishment for which by the 
laws of Denmark was "death."' His lawyer is said, to have made an 
admirable speech in his defence: — "Frederic II.," he remarked, 
* when he unbent among his nobles, as he frecpiently did, was accus- 
tomed to say ' The king is not at home,' then all etiquette was banished 
from the court ; but when it pleased him to resume his royal dignity, 
he again exclaimed ' The king is at home,' and the courtiers at once 
comprehended that all licence was at an end. But what," added he, 
" must we now do, when ' the king is never at home' ?'' A bold speech 
for a lawyer of the last century ; it is needless to add, he never rose 
to the high office of Chancellor of the kingdom of Denmark. Struensee 
and Brandt were both beheaded, their right hands first amputated ; and 
their skulls and bones, in 1775, when Wraxall visited Copenhagen, were 
still exhibited at one mile distance from the city : later the scaffold 
was disposed of, and the wood now forms the staircase of a small 
country house near the spot where it once stood outside the town. 


Hirschholm.* He grew up, lived to the age of seventy, 
hale and active to the last, though thin as a skeleton. 
In 1808 Frederic ascended the throne of his maniac 
father. One of his first acts was to destroy and raze 
to the ground the splendid palace of Madalena. He 
hated its very name ; he had been too strictly kept there 
in his youth. All Denmark grieved. A sale took place. 
Fearful was the sacrifice of works of art; furniture, 
china, once the property of three successive sovereigns, 
sold for a song, many since repurchased at a heavy 
price as historic relics for the castle of Rosenborg. 
Much of the Vieux Danois china was purchased by our 
late minister Sir H. Wynn, and sent to England. All 
collectors and artists continue to deplore the ruthless 
sacrifice of the collected treasures of Hirschholm. From 
time to time objects turn up, and I have seenf a 
splendid timepiece, of ebony, inlaid with Bristol stones 
— a present to Queen Caroline Matilda on her marriage, 
either from some English corporation or from her brother 
King George III. — purchased for a trifle from a peasant 
in the island of Bornholm. Nothing now remains but 
the " chapelle expiatoire " — I can call it nothing less — 
built from the stones of the outraged building. 

But the sun is about to set : we must move on. 
Supper in the garden of the hotel awaited us at Rong- 
sted. Before leaving we scrambled up the Ewalds 

* There exists a series of engravings of Frederic VI. and his sister 
Louisa Augusta, Duchess of Augustenborg and mother of her Majesty 
the Queen Dowager, playing in the rooms and gardens of Hirschholm, 
when under the domination of Queen Juliana. Nothing can be more 
ungraceful than the costume or the children. 

t In the possession of Mr. Rainalls, English vice-consul at Copen- 


li0i, where the poet of that name once sat inspired. I 
know nothing about him, but understand him to be very- 
fine and a favourite ; he died, as poets do, early in life. 
Our stuhlwagen waits ; a fine pair of Jutland horses, 
new to harness, carry us off along the Strandvei at a 
rattling pace. We pass Sophienberg — what remains of 
it, a one-storied wing. The nightingales answer each 
other in the beeches ; we stop to listen ; the croaking 
of the frogs overpowers their notes. A huge fox, with 
such a brush, runs across in direction of a farmhouse 
hard by — give a "View halloo!" if you will: no use, 
he doesn't understand you. " G-are mes oies ! " We 
pass by Eostgaard and its bees, now asleep — queen, 
drones, and all ; Egebseksvang, the pretty Dahlsborg, 
where lodgings may be had, adjoining the wood, in 
summer season, — Bois de Boulogne of Elsinorers ; the 
black cross, "where many sailors have found rest," 
cast up drowned on the coast. A new proprietor dared 
to disturb their allotted cemetery ; scarce had the 
plough cut the first sod, when a fit of apoplexy removed 
him from this life. On, on ! it has struck eleven by 
Kronborg time, and was past midnight before we gained 




Giant's Grave — Sphorg, the chateau-fort of Zealand — King Valdemar 
and Tovelil — Her death — Valdeinar's grief, and imprisonment of 
Queen Hedvig — Anne of Jutland — Birth of Queen Margaret — Her 
meeting with her futhe? — His paternal wish and death. 




June 1st. — The season now opens. A general bustle 
for the last three clays has pervaded Marienlyst; de- 
tachments of waiters from Hamburg — a new importa- 
tion of housemaids— such a suspending of lamps, and 
such regulations ! A band of music played this morning 
under our window from six till eight. Then there is to 
be a grand opening dinner to-day, with speechifications 
and jollifications of all sorts. 'Tis quite time for us to 
% plier bagage " and depart. For the last five weeks 
we have enjoyed the palace to ourselves, " monarchs 
of all we survey,"— look on it as our sole property : 
now, in the eleventh hour, the bustle commences; 
we meet strange faces on the staircase; hear the 
tinkling of a piano not our own; smell the savour 
of dressed cutlets for others' eating ; nay, occasionally 
the whiff of a cigar, smoked upon the balcony, invades 
our salon. All which doings appear to our despotic 
minds as personal insults to our dignity: had we ar- 
rived after the commencement of the season, all this 
would have been as a matter of course ; now we look 


upon ourselves as injured mortals, much to be com- 

To avoid all hubbub and toasts, we determined to 
make one last excursion from Elsinore, and see Nakke- 
hoved, taking SfJborg lake and castle on our way home. 
All the world had recommended us to see Nakke- 
hoved ; what there was to be seen I could never clearly 
understand. A " paradise among the sand," one termed 
it, " an oasis in the desert," " a giant's grave ;" the 
■proprietor's father buried there. A two hours' drive 
along the sea-shore, pine-woods, and heather — quite a 
change — brought us to our destination. Some twenty 
years since Nakkehoved was a barren waste, and the 
father of the present proprietor amused himself with 
planting and bringing the adjoining tract of land 
into cultivation with the most perfect success. It is 
situated on a promontory, as its name Nakkehoved 
(nape of the neck) implies, commanding a glorious view 
of the Kattegat — superior far to that of Odinsh0i. By 
the edge of the cliff he has constructed a summer- 
house, furnished with a large table, where visitors are 
allowed to picnic. Here we dined, the master of the 
place kindly furnishing us with dishes, plates, &c. 
After dinner we walked to the " Giant's Grave," one of 
the numerous stone sepulchres formed of detached 
rocks placed together to be met with in this country. 
The father of the proprietor caused himself to be buried 
on this spot, not wishing in death to be separated from 
the scene of his earthly creation. 

A flock of wild geese, tamed, as well as ducks, dwell 
happily established in houses on a small pond ; each 
morning at sunrise they fly out to sea ; at sunset return 
to roost. 


46 S0BORG. Chap. XXIII. 


After bidding adieu to our civil host we drove on to 
Spborg, whose village stands at some three miles dis- 
tant from Nakkekovecl. No ruins of the castle were 
visible, so we got out at the church-gate, and endea- 
voured to persuade a small white-pated child to con- 
duct us to where the " gammel slot " once stood. He 
hesitated, consulted with another urchin, and hand in 
hand, as if for protection, they preceded us to the de- 
sired spot. I found nothing but the foundations and 
court-pavements, but, expecting nothing, was not disap- 
pointed. The king some nine years since, 1850, made 
considerable excavations here ; and when I was at Fre- 
deriksborg, his Majesty did me the honour to show me a 
collection of old sword-blades, javelins, keys, &c, he had 
himself discovered during the progress of his excava- 
tions. S0borg Slot, as well as S0borg Lake, possesses 
no intrinsic interest in its present state beyond the 
romance attached to a site so famous in Denmark's 
story. The castle and its surrounding forests are no 
more, and the lake may soon be erased from the map 
of the country, the greater part being already re- 
claimed and brought under cultivation — somewhat 
sedgy it must be owned, and emittiug towards night- 
fall miasmas, telling of fever, and highly prejudicial 
to the health of the surrounding villages; but before 
many years elapse corn will grow and wave where the 
fishes now swim and the moor-frog croaks. Last night 
it appeared a very Vale of Tempe, so floweryfied, bril- 
liant with blossoms of the globe ranunculus,* called 

* Trollius Europteus. 


in Denmark Engblomme, or meadow bloom, shaking 
their golden heads to the evening breeze, and other 
marshy treasures — a California to the botanist. If 
the prosaic Danes continue to destroy their forests and 
drain their lakes for filthy lucre's sake, their country 
will lose half its charms ; in these consists their 
strength. I have often thought, were mankind less 
farinaceously inclined, how much more beautiful a world 
we should live in. 

We entered the village-church, — the door was open ; 
and allow me to recommend it especially to the notice 
of the ecclesiologist — not for its external gabled quaint- 
ness, but for its internal arrangement. It consists of 
two aisles, without nave ; three massive columns, running 
down the centre of the building, support the double- 
vaulted roof; the whole terminated by a small, short, 
obscure apse or chancel. This arrangement is new to 
me at any rate. 

So now, as I have a long story to tell you about 
S0borg, let us at any rate remove from the misty neigh- 
bourhood of the morass, Jack o' Lantern's kingdom. We 
have a three hours' drive before us through Esrom and 
the forest, and, if you are not afraid of sheet lightning, 
I shall have plenty of time to finish my story before 
we are safely housed at Marienlyst. 

Of the origin of S0borg I can tell you but little. It 
was standing strong, fair to gaze upon, in the year 
1270, at which period of our northern history Erik 
Glippiug, or the Winker, in a peck of troubles, occupied 
the throne of Denmark; he sometimes honoured this 
ancient castle with his presence. S0borg can never 
have been accounted among the plaisaunces of her 
native sovereigns rather as a state prison, built on an 

348 S0BORG. Chap. XXIII. 

island, surrounded by water and almost impenetrable 
forests. It was the strongest "chateau fort" in the 
island of Zealand, a most convenient lock-up house for 
successively turbulent Counts of Holstein (Adolf of the 
Milk-Can, in 1201, among the number) and contuma- 
cious archbishops, like Jens Grand, a most mischievous 
prelate, who tasted a little wholesome incarceration 
within its towers towards the latter end of the 13th 
century, 1294-5. It was reckoned by far the most 
ancient castle of Zealand, and over its gateway — an 
entrance about as palatable to those who passed within 
as that of the far-famed Traitor's Gate in our own 
White Tower of London — was seen inscribed — 

Vixit Anstoteles, et Alexander dommatiir, 
Dum per gentiles castrum S0borg fabricator. 

A sad fib, the first hexameter ; but mark well in the 
second the term " gentiles." Denmark, like England, 
Brittany, and Hungary, had her untitled nobility — her 
"gentiles homines " — by birth, not raised to the honour 
by patent, like the noblesse of France and Germany. 
" Gentilis homo " is the expression still used in Brittany 
by law, when speaking of the members of her most 
illustrious families. 

When I related to you the story of Gurre, I 
mentioned how that castle had been the favourite 
residence of King Valdemar Atterdag, and how his 
name stood connected with a certain Tove — not the 
Tovelil of the ballad, as some supposed her. Since 
then, after a careful examination of various most con- 
fused authorities, obscure enough to drive a man 
demented, I see my way clear through the romance, 
and here give it, for it is as much connected with 


S0borg as elsewhere. King Valdemar Atterdag suc- 
ceeded his father Christopher II. after most trouble- 
some times. There had been an interregnum, and a pre- 
tender, a Valdemar of Slesvig, Duke of South Jutland, 
proclaimed, and then deposed— all manner of disagree- 
ables; so, to make matters straight and comfortable, 
thev married King Valdemar to Princess Hedvig, the 
ex-crowned pretender's sister — an alliance most politic, 
but at the same time most disagreeable to the prince : 
he hated her, and she was jealous ; also had she reason, 
as we shall later see. 

Previous to his marriage the king had a love affair 
with a certain Tove, a lady of noble birth, a Putbus 
of the island of Eugen, to whom he was most tenderly 
attached. At the time of the king's marriage Tove 
resided at Hjortholm (near Frederiksdal, one mile from 
Copenhagen) ; later she removed to Gurre. During 
the absence of King Valdemar in one of the numerous 
warlike expeditions in which he was engaged, Tove- 
lil is said to have died, having met with foul play, it 
is supposed, at the hands of Queen Hedvig. 

Now the chronicle relateth, when the king came 
home from the wars he felt quite sure that the queen 
was guilty of the death of Tovelil ; proofs, however, 
were wanting, so he bided his time, and sought a speedy 
opportunity to avenge her. For that reason he sent 
Queen Hedvig's favourite, Folquard Lovmands0n, on 
horseback to Nyborg with a letter ; and from the 
instructions contained therein, he no sooner arrived 
than he was put into irons, and forced to jump into 
a barrel studded with sharp nails, in which he was 
turned round until death released him from his agony. 
The queen, who was compelled to witness the execu- 

350 S0BORG. Chap. XXIII. 

tion of her favourite, as well as his subsequent funeral, 
exhibited such excessive grief, and spoke in so incon- 
siderate a manner on the occasion, that King Valde- 
mar, who only sought for a convenient opportunity 
to gratify his vengeance, accused her of infidelity, and 
condemned her to perpetual imprisonment in the castle 
of S0borg — an unjust sentence in the opinion of all 

In former days there was shown in the castle of Nyborg 
a prison which went by the name of Folq' Lovmand's 
room, in which, according to the local tradition, he had 
been confined for an adventure with some princess or 
queen, and afterwards put to death ; the queen, forced 
to witness his execution, had been immured alive, and 
her restless spirit still haunted the castle as a punish- 
ment for her misdeed. Queen Hedvig is now safe 
locked up in Soborg — not bricked up ; so there we must 
leave her, and turn again to Bang Valdemar, overpowered 
with grief at the loss of the " Dove :" so excessive was 
his sorrow he could by no means be persuaded to part 
from the dead body. He caused it to be laid in a rich 
cofiin, and carried it about with him wherever he went, 
and had it every night placed in his bed. This conduct 
might well excite suspicion, and indeed in much later 
times would have been ascribed to witchcraft. One of 
the courtiers then undertook, during the king's absence, 
to examine the corpse, and found an amulet, which Tove's 
mother had given her, suspended around her neck. 
This amulet he removed, and, strange to say, from this 
moment the king would never see the corpse more, but 
ordered it to be buried directly. His affection was 
now transferred to the courtier, whom he never allowed 
to leave his side. This constant attendance, flattering 


though it might be, became at last insupportable, and 
to rid himself of such an uninterrupted attendance he 
cast the amulet into the waters of a lake near Vordin- 
borg. From this moment Vordinborg became dear to 
Valdemar, and he built a new castle there on the site 
of the old. His affections were now divided between 
Vordinborg and Gurre, which occasioned frequent jour- 
neys betwixt these places. The remains of a long- 
paved road constructed by him — an atrocious pave it 
is too — running through the whole length of Zealand, 
from Vordinborg to Gurre — still exist in the neighbour- 
hood of the latter castle, as well as in other places, and 
are called by the peasants " Valdemar's Koad." 

The spot where the courtier cast away the amulet, 
among the morasses in the neighbourhood of Vordin- 
borg, Valdemar caused to be filled up, and here he 
built his "Lille Gurre." His affection for the places 
where he had lived with his beloved Tove continued 
until the day of his death, some twenty-three years 

And now we must return to jealous Queen Hedvig, 
like our own Eleanor of Aquitaine, held in durance 
vile for her supposed iniquities. She had borne to 
her lord and king since the time of her marriage five 
children, of whom two only survived — one, Christopher, 
Duke of Lolland, a miserable, half-grown stripling, to die 
some ten years later (we are now in 1352) a maniac* 
In 1350 a second heir, a Valdemar, appears — to the 

* See p. 116. An earlier Margaret reached her fifth year and died. 
Ingeborg came to life's estate; married Duke Henry of Mecklen- 
burg ; became mother of unhappy Albert of Sweden, who dared to 
oppose himself against the will of the lioness of Calmar, Then came 
Catherine, who died an infant. 

352 S0BORG. Chap. XXIII. 

joy of Denmark, who fear for young, puny Christopher, 
and love not the Mecklenburg succession : he too is 
carried off; the nobles of the realm look grave. The 
king has quitted his royal consort, and will not allow 
her name to be mentioned before his face. 

According to the chronicle, one fine day as the 
king was about to mount his horse he fell into deep 
thought, and continued to stand with one foot in the 
stirrup. At last one of his servants ventured to 
inquire why he was thus standing. The king replied 
somewhat impetuously, "Either discover what is now 
passing in my mind, or never appear again before 
my sight." So much for indiscreet curiosity. The 
servant, in a despairing mood, fearful of " warning," 
wandered forth into the forest, and there fell in with a 
man seated by a large fire, probably a charcoal-burner. 
The man inquired why he was so downcast ; and 
when he had heard the story, desired him to tell the 
king "that Sweden would perhaps come to Denmark 
if he would again see his cast-off queen." The servant 
brought the message to his sovereign ; but Valdemar 
waxed wroth, and vowed he would never see her more. 
One day, as the king was hunting near S0borg, where 
Queen Hedvig was at this time incarcerated, he met 
with a beautiful girl in a green dress, of whom he 
became enamoured. This girl, Anna of Jutland, was in 
the queen's service, and, by previous concert between 
the nobles and Hedvig, arranged to change clothes 
and rooms with her mistress; it was not until some 
time after that Valdemar discovered the deception. In 
due time Margaret, destined later to unite under one 
sceptre the crowns of Scandinavia, made her appear- 
ance. Queen Hedvig gained little, by this addition to 


her family, in her husband's affection ; he only hated 
her the more. She remained a prisoner within the 
turrets of S0borg for twenty-one more long, weary 
years, when she was released by death, in 1374. She 
lay buried for many a year in the churchyard of S0borg 
— " she, a queen, among the peasants of low degree. Over 
her grave was placed the trunk of a timber-tree, rudely 
fashioned, as large as a coffin (such as you still may see 
in the remote villages of Jutland). On this humble 
memento was carved with a knife the figure of a queen, 
bearing a crown upon her head, and a long veil ;" at 
which old Hvitfeldt is greatly scandalised, remarking 
how in his days even burghers' wives have monuments 
of alabaster. 

King Yaldemar never loved his daughter Margaret any 
more than his imprisoned queen. Nor did he ever set 
eyes upon her until she was six years old, when, riding 
through the forest of S0borg, he met a little girl with 
black eyes and brown hair, busily wreathing herself a 
garland of flowers. Struck by her appearance, the king 
took her up and placed her upon his horse before him. 
" Now where shall we go to ? " said the king. " Let 
us go to court," replied the child, "to see that bad 
king who so ill-treats my mother, a prisoner in the 
castle of S0borg." "Who art thou?" inquired the 
king. " I am Margaret." The king then entered the 
castle gates, saw his queen for once and the last time, 
and had the child, of whom he had taken no notice, 
removed to Copenhagen. He used to declare that 
Nature's wits had gone a wool-gathering when she 
formed his daughter Margaret,— she should, he said, 
have been a "Karl," but somehow or other by a small 
oversight she came into the world a woman. He is 

vol. i. 2 a 

354 ' S0BORG. Chap. XXIII. 

related, on his death-bed, to have regretted that he had 
not suffocated her when an infant in her cradle ; after 
the expression of which paternal wish he turned his face 
to the wall and died — the only event of his long, check- 
ered life he was unable to defer " atterdag," or, in 
plain English, till the day after. 

Queen Margaret, on her accession to the throne of 
Denmark, caused the remains of her mother to be 
removed from their humble resting-place in S0borg 
churchyard, and laid within a stately tomb in Esrom 
cloister. But the reed bends to the storm when the 
giant oak is uprooted. The glories of Esrom are de- 
parted long since — the whirlwind of the Reformation, 
and Frederic's craving after " old materials " for his 
new castle of Frederiksborg, compassed the abbey 
church's destruction. The cemetery of S0borg is green 
and smiling — flowery too its garden graves — its ancient 
church as quaint as ever. Queen Hedvig might have 
still slept here in peace. Where is she now ? — no man 
can tell ; the very dust which now rises from the turning 
of our wheels may be perchance her particles. 



The Palace of Frederiksborg — The mermaid, Isbrand, foretells the 
birth of Christian IV. — The crowned herrings and S0 monk — 
Household economy of Christian IV. — Punishment of his peculating 
minlnnaster — Royal battues — The Riddersaal. 


It was high time to leave Marienlyst : the season had 
commenced — an army of waiters arrived from Ham- 
burg. The restaurant was now open ; visitors poured 
in by the steamers — called for bottle-beer and beef- 
steaks, and, what was more, smoked on the staircase ; 
to add to our annoyance, a brass band commenced 
to play from six to eight every morning. Not that 
we could complain of its disturbing our rest, for the 
sun does that long before — comes tumbling into our 
bed-rooms before three, a living river of light. In 
England it rises calmly and sedately; here, on the 
contrary, it gets up in a hurry, and I now perfectly 
understand the old Danish belief, that, if you rise early 
on Easter-morn, "you will see the sun dance in the 

All this movement and bustle would have been well 
enough had we not looked on Marienlyst as our own 
property for the last six weeks ; so, though I was sorry 
to leave the glorious bathing in the Sound, we packed 
up, and started for Fredensborg, where we passed one 



night, and the following evening made for Frederiks- 
borg, a drive of three quarters of an hour. 

No palace existed on this spot previous to the reign 
of King Frederic II., who exchanged the lands of the 
suppressed convent of Skov Kloster with the celebrated 
Admiral Herluf Trolle for the manor of Hillerod, on 
which he caused the earlier castle of Frederiksborg to 
be constructed. How he built this castle I have else- 
where told ; pulling down for the sake of the materials 
half the historic strongholds of Ins ancestors, to say 
nothing of abbey churches winch had fallen to the 

Of this building little now remains ; its site is occupied 
by the royal stables and outhouses ; stout stumpy towers, 
one at each corner of the moat, it has, wreathed round 
with iron cramps bearing the date 1562, and the motto 
in German of the pious Queen Sophia.* 

Frederic II. was, when we consider the age he lived 
in, a right-minded, honourable man. In early life he 
was much attached to a young and beautiful girl, 
Dagmar Hardenberg by name, who, though of noble 
birth, belonged to no princely house ; make her his 
queen he could not, and he was too high principled to 
take advantage of her youth, so he remained a bachelor 
until he was thirty-eight years of age, when, yielding 
to the entreaties of his advisers, he much against his 
will contracted an alliance with the Princess Sophia 
of Mecklenburg. Tradition relates how Dagmar was 
present at the coronation of the queen, which took place 
in the Frue Kirke of Copenhagen, but, overcome by 
her feelings, fainted away, was carried out of the church, 

* See p. 282. 


and died shortly after broken-hearted. Two daughters 
were the produce of Frederic's marriage, and, in despair 
at the non-arrival of an heir to the crown, he began to 
regret he had yielded to the desire of his nobles. 

Now, in these early Protestant days, AVhitsuntide was 
a great festival in Denmark, and throughout the whole 
of Northern Europe ; theatres there were none, but the 
students of the university of Copenhagen were accus- 
tomed to come clown to the court residing at Frederiks- 
borg, and play before the king and queen dramas on 
sacred subjects, chiefly derived from the Old Testament, 
resembling the mysteries still prevalent in the remoter 
villages of the primitive duchy of Brittany. 

During: the celebration of these festivities, in the 
spring of the year 1576, there appeared at court an 
aged peasant from the island of Sams0, who informed 
the king that, when ploughing his field by the sea-shoic, 
he was accosted by a mermaid, who ordered him to 
go direct to court, and announce to the king that the 
queen should bear him a son within the succeeding 
year, adding — " Tell his Majesty my name is Isbrand, 
and I am granddaughter of the mermaid who protected 
the birth of his ancestress, Queen Margaret." 

When the king and queen heard this good news they 
were greatly rejoiced, and all the court with them, and 
the aged peasant returned to his home laden with 
presents. And now time rolled on, the hopes of the 
nation were verified, and great was the joy thereat. 

It was the 12th of April, 1577, that Queen Sophia, 
when walking with her ladies of honour somewhere on 
the Roeskilde road, was suddenly taken ill, and, before 
aid and assistance could be procured, the youthful 
Pagan, later Christian, heir to the crown of Denmark, 


made his appearance, not under the blue canopy of 
heaven, but under a hawthorn-tree, which of course 
happened to come into full flower just one month before 
its usual period of blooming, — a very graceful compli- 
ment on the part of Dame Nature to the new-born 

It is astonishing the sort of way in which great ladies 
did lie-in in former days — here, there, and everywhere. 
Francis I. made his first appearance under a walnut- 
tree near the brandy-burning city of Cognac, and his 
rival, the Emperor Charles V., in a strange place in 
the palace of Ghent ; and now Christian IV. first sees 
the light in an open field under a hawthorn-tree. I am 
afraid arithmetic was at a very low ebb ; ladies might 
know that two and two made four, but beyond that 
their powers of calculation were very limited. 

Well, great was the joy of the whole nation at the 
birth of the wished-for heir, but the hilarity of the 
court was somewhat disturbed by a second visit from 
the aged peasant of Sams0, with a message from the 
mermaid to the king, telling him that, if he did not 
at once cease from his habits of inebriety, he would 
never live to see his son a grown man ; at which 
Frederic became exceeding wroth, and dismissed the 
messenger this time with no presents, but with threats 
and menaces. 

Frederic believed the warning to be true, for he was the 
most superstitious of men, and had a terrible fear of omens 
and apparitions. Some years before his death " two 
crowned herrings" (I can find no better description of 

* This thorn was destroyed towards the commencement of the 
present century. 

Chap. XXI V. THE S0 MONK. 359 

them) were taken by some fishermen in their nets 
while fishing in the Sound, and brought to the king as 
curiosities. Frederic chose to consider these fishes as 
omens of some great misfortune, so he caused them to 
be bottled and sent to Lund, where all the learned 
professors and soothsayers were desired to ascertain 
what the misfortune was they predicted. 

The sea, too, seems to have been singularly productive 
in these days. The capture of the celebrated S0 monk in 
the Kattegat greatly disturbed his peace of mind, and 
I don't wonder at it, if he imagined the expelled friars 
had gone and established themselves in the depths of 
sea below : then there would be an end to all commerce 
and shipping ; such storms as they would raise — more 
dangerous far than when above water! This monk 
was taken in the year 1554, and you may see an en- 
graving of him in a book by Eousselet of Lyons, ' De 
Piscibus Marinis.' The original drawing was given to 
him by no less a person than " that virtuous lady Mar- 
garet de Valois, Queen of Navarre," who had it from 
a Danish nobleman. He certainly had the cowl of a 
monk, and a very ugly face beneath, with all due 
piscatory appurtenances. What it really was I can't 
say, not being learned in ichthyology ; it made, how- 
ever, Frederic and his superstitious court feel very un- 
comfortable. The prophecy of the mermaid came to 
pass after all, for Frederic quitted this world a victim 
to his inebriety before the youthful Christian had at- 
tained his eleventh year. On the whole he was one of the 
best and wisest sovereigns Denmark ever possessed — a 
little arbitrary in his ordinances. He is said, during 
the course of his life, to have read the Bible through 
twice " from Genesis to Eevelations/' which, consider- 


ing what a deal he had to do, and that reading was 
somewhat of an effort in those days, was very much to 
his credit. 

The earlier castle of Frederic II. was of small dimen- 
sions, and his son Christian IV. determined to erect on 
the same site a building of unprecedented splendour. 
When the plans were submitted to his council, they all 
exclaimed at the extravagance of the design, and pro- 
phesied that the king would never be able to put int 
execution so expensive an undertaking ; but Christian 
laughed at their fears, and not only completed his 
palace, but, with a sort of bravado, erected a summer- 
house in the adjoining forest, which he termed his spare 
penge, the produce of his economies. There can be 
no doubt he did things at a cheaper rate than most 
sovereigns, for he was a practical man — saw to every- 
thing, even to the most minute details : he employed 
no master of the works ; he every Saturday night paid 
his workmen their wages himself, seated on a stone in 
the wood hard by, which is still pointed out to the 
visitor. In the volume of the correspondence of Chris- 
tian IV., lately published at Copenhagen, you will find 
many curious letters showing how he, the Louis XIV. 
of Denmark, did not disdain to enter into the smallest 
details of household economy, turning everything to 
the best account ; though, on the other hand, whenever 
he did anything, he did it well, and the monuments 
of his reign remain still untouched by the ravages of 
time, while those of his successors have long since 
passed away. 

In the year 1615 Christian wrote to the Chamber- 
lain, enclosing him sundry packets, marked A, B, and 
C, containing diamond and ruby hatbands and buckles — 


one mounted like an oak-leaf, the other in the form 
of a leopard — for the three princes his sons ; at the same 
time he sends an order for the hatter to make a band 
of silk to fix them on, and gives many directions about 
their sword-hilts. Later he writes instructions for the 
court-mourning to be worn by the princes for Duke 
Adolf of Holstein : — " I send you black cloth, and 
other stuffs, to be used for Prince Frederik and Ulrik. 
The cloaks are not to be made too long, and the cuffs 
to be lined with green." N.B. — He sends an old bed- 
gown of his own, to cut up for lining. If any of their 
scarlet stockings are faded or discoloured, you may send 
them to the dyer to be dyed black, as we cannot get 
them so small here. If there be any left of the cloth, 
Christian Ulrik may have a black suit also of the same." 
(Christian Ulrik was his eldest natural sou, at that 
time only five years of age, so his going into mourning 
was a matter of little or no consequence.) Again, he 
sends three ells of sable for collars for the children's 
cloaks, and a piece of silk, out of which they are to get 
more than one suit of clothes ; a piece of lace, out of 
which four collars are to be cut the same size and 
manner as Prince Ulrik's Spanish ; they must contrive 
to get two pairs of manchettes out of the same. Clearly 
there was little chance of cabbaging in the royal esta- 
ment in Christian IV.'s time ; not only does he look after 
the material, but he also keeps the tailors in order — 
" complains that they give the work out to the journey- 
men and boys, instead of doing it themselves ;" so desires 
each tailor to be had to the palace, and locked up in a 
separate room until the work is completed. 

To his numerous offspring in early life he appears 
to have been an affectionate father, looking after their 


health and ailments with a most motherly interest. 
He sends medicine for Prince Christian to Antvorskov, 
" Christellinum Tartari," when he is sick, but cannot 
get the pomegranates. "The doctor ought to have 
such things with him, particularly as his journey is 
paid ; that is what we keep him for, and nothing else." 
He thanks God the measles are well out ; should the 
children catch the small-pox they are to be placed 
separate from Kirstine Munk, his " heart's dear Kirsten," 
as he now" terms her ; and do not forget to tell the 
" little drummer-boy " he must not go into their room. 
When the hofmesterin complain that the food given to 
the children is not as good as it should be, he orders it 
tolbe " looked into ;" and, afterwards, a new clerk of the 
kitchen is engaged (he had trouble enough in getting a 
cook), who isTrequired to take a solemn oath "to keep 
a truthful account of fish, butter, flesh, &c, and to see 
that no followers are allowed in the kitchen, or broken 
victuals carried out into the town." 

But, melancholy to relate, the children of Christian 
IV. scarcely appreciated the paternal anxiety of their 
father, as regards their health, greater far than that of 
mere common mortals ; for I find a letter in which he 
writes word :-. — 

" As Doctor Arsenius thinks it proper that Duke Ulrik 
and Frederic shall take medicine, and I hear they 
do not like it, and do not take it with a good will 
(twenty-four pills before breakfast is the favourite pre- 
scription of a modern Danish Esculapius),* and as I 

* The early Danish doctors were nothing to speak of. The remedies 
of a certain Master Henno Harpestreng, a very celebrated physician of 
his day, are published ; where, among all manner of "dragon's blood 


cannot go to them before Monday at noon, you will see 
that it is already taken before that time. Tell them 
that they must take it, and be pleased with it." The 
latter order appears somewhat arbitrary. 

There is no detail which he considers beneath his 
royal dignity to notice. On Christmas-day the prince 
is to go to Fredensborg, but only one page is to accom- 
pany him ; this page is not to take his bed, but may 
have one suit, and a change of linen. Dr. Jasper, the 
tutor, may go where he pleases during the children's 
vacation, but must be back by New Year's Eve. The 
chamberlain is to take great care the children do not 
drink cold water after playing, when they are warm. 
Frederic may drive in the little carriage with the 
prince. " You will come down after church, and bring 
the tailor with you ; as for the new-appointed equerry, 
he can sleep in the stable to be near at hand." 

When a monarch condescends to enter into such 
small details as these, there can be no doubt that his 
money will go further than when he trusts everything 
to the hands of others, and such was the case with 

Who was the real architect of the existing palace 
none can say. It may be inferred that Christian 
employed many different artists to design plans, and 
adopted them according to his pleasure. In the church of 
the adjoining village of Slangerup hangs the epitaphium 
of John of Fribourg, which declares him to have been 
the architect of Frederiksborg, followed up with a 

and devilries," may be found " a cure for eye-sickness :" — " Mix up the 
white of an egg with soot from the stove, and rub your eyes with it 
night and morning " — a favourite remedy still, and most efficacious, say 
tbe old women of the country. 


modest remark, that, when the palace no longer exists, 
his name Avould be remembered. In all probability 
John of Fribourg, Steenwinkel, David Balfour, Inigo 
Jones, all in the yearly service of the Danish king, 
shared alike in its construction.* 

We arrived by the long avenue to the gate-house, 
passing to the left the old-fashioned garden which runs 
down to the edge of the lake, from which the palace 
rises imposing with its lofty towers. These towers of 
Christian IV.'s clays are unique in Europe, with their 
lofty caps, half spire, half cupola, spitted with crowns, 
and surmounted by turning vanes. 

The gate-house under which we now pass is of stone 
and connected with the castle by a corridor supported 
on six arches, which traverses the moat, in the style 
of Chenonceaux : this is the only portion of the building 
constructed in stone-work. In a room close to the gate- 
house was situated the mint of Christian IV., for he 
coined his money under his own eyes, and, when 
struck off, the gold was brought in sacks to his own 
apartment, whence he saw it poured down a shaft, 
which still exists, into the treasure-room below. Mon- 
strous sharp was King Christian, as his mint-ma ster? 
John Engelbrecht by name, of peculating mind, found 
to his cost ; for, convicted of cheating his royal master, 
Christian made no trial, no fuss, but ordered out the 
culprit into the courtyard of the castle, and there on 

* Many English and Scotch were in the service of Christian IV. : 
among them David Balfour, a Scotchman of noble family, was director 
of the dockyard ; Rubbens (Robins), an Englishman, at a salary of 60 
rix dollars for house-rent, and 900 yearly pay ; James Dunbar ; Patrick 
Dunbar (whose portrait I found in the Muller collection, 1593) ; and 
many others too numerous to mention. 


an improvised block of stone (which the custode will 
point out) chopped off his head with his own royal 
hands. A royal executioner! few malefactors are so 
honoured. The skull of the unlucky mint-master was 
shown us in the treasure-room below, which we visited 
— walls of Cyclopean thickness, and iron-banded doors — 
divided in two pieces. Whether the king " en amateur" 
gave the head an extra chop, splitting it in twain, as a 
cook does a lobster's body, tradition does not relate ; 
he composed, however, a doggrel on the subject, which 
being translated signifies- — " Our mint-master would 
have cheated us ; but we have cheated him, for we have 
cut his head off." 

Passing along the moat-side, we arrived at another 
gateway into the outer court, built of red brick, stone 
niullions and copings, much in the style of Hampton 
Court Palace. To the right, in face of the castle, 
stands the lofty clock-tower, and then, turning to 
the bridge, you arrive at the splendid Renaissance 
gateway, richly ornamented and decorated with the 
shields and armorial bearings of Christian himself, and 
those of his Queen Anne of Brandenburg ; the latter 
with unicorn supporters. On the sides of this arch 
are engraved numberless child's shoes — a jeu d'esprit 
of the monarch-founder as heavy as the stones them- 
selves. His advisers called his palace " Child's-play," 
and declared he could never put so expensive a plan in 
execution ; when the building was completed, to show 
that he was no longer an infant, and had put away his 
playthings, he caused the gateway to be so ornamented 
— or something of the kind. Christian's " rebus" was 
too deep for me. A screen-work of brick, enriched with 
twelve niches, each containing a stone statue, separates 


the " cour d'honneur" from the moat. Very grand is the 
inner court : to the right stands the chapel, above which 
is placed the Riddersaal ; in front an ornamented marble 
loggia, rilled with statues of the same material, and 
richly ornamented with coj3per. This gallery is known 
to have been erected from the designs of Steenwinkel. 
Christian seems to have had no idea of allowing the 
artists engaged in his service to remain unemployed, 
for I find in one of his letters he sends orders " to Hans 
Steenwinkel to make at once two copper cheese-tubs, 
the size of a common salver-dish " — a strange order, at 
which a royal architect of the present century would 
be considerably affronted. In former days the mul- 
lions of the windows were gilded ; two or three have 
been restored some years since — a barbarous taste, 
imitated in later days by the Eussian Empress at her 
palace of Tzanko Celo. 

Turning to the right, we now enter the chapel through 
its highly- wrought doorway. The sacred edifice is long 
and narrow, too narrow perhaps for the beauty of its pro- 
portions, and is surrounded by a gallery : it is gorgeous 
in Renaissance fret-work, gorgeous in its gilding and 
colour, all of which tone down together, one with an- 
other, into a harmony which commands your admiration. 
The royal closets below are of exquisite marqueterie ; 
the high altar a chef-d'oeuvre of ebony, mother-o'-pearl, 
and goldsmith's work ; the pulpit a gem of richness. 

Above, adjoining the organ, richly carved, painted, and 
gilded — all in character with the building — is the royal 
closet, lined with ebony, marqueterie, and empanelled 
pictures by Dutch artists of merit (Peter Lastmann, 
A. von Neelland, Werner van der Falkaert, and Peter 
Isaacs) — chiefly sacred subjects, with the exception of 


one by Eeinhold Timm, a drawing-master of Sor0, 
in which Christian is represented clad in his shroud, 
praying before our Saviour, who appears in the clouds 
above. The artist had first portrayed the king in his 
robe of state, but Christian ordered it to be changed, 
and the crown and sceptre may still be discerned 
peeping out from beneath the paint. The ceiling is 
of ebony, from which hang pendants of ivory, many 
the handiwork of Christian himself. 

In this closet stands a table of Florentine mosaic, in 
which you will observe a round hole pierced on one side, 
the work of Czar Peter. He could not believe it was 
inlaid ; so, practical and disagreeable (what a nuisance 
the man must have been!), he bored a hole with his 
dagger, just as a child pulls to pieces the works of his 
watch, or some toy set in motion by simple mechanism. 
On the window you will see engraved, by the hands of 
King Christian VI. himself, the words — " Make haste 
and save your soul." Here in this royal chapel is 
solemnised the coronation of each Danish sovereign. 
The silver lions from Rosenborg come down for the 
occasion, as well as the chairs of silver and the horn of 
the narwal. 

The favourite reward of the house of Oldenborg was a 
gold medal with the image of the sovereign, which was 
attached to a gold chain and suspended round the neck 
of the wearer, such as you may frequently see in the 
ancient portraits of the sixteenth century. Many of 
these are still preserved in the possession of the families 
to whom they belonged. A large collection may be 
seen in the Royal Cabinet of Medals at Copenhagen, 
some of them of the earlier sovereigns. That of Fre- 
deric II. was of great beauty, the portraits of the 


monarch and liis queen, as well as the light fretwork 
frame by which they are encircled, being white, taste- 
fully picked out in coloured enamel. Along the gallery 
up stairs are suspended the shields of the knights — " most 
noble order of the Elephant" * — one of the most ancient 
orders of chivalry existing, and of which all crowned 
heads, Highnesses Royal and Serene, together with the 
leading diplomatists of Europe, are members ; and fur- 
ther down those of the Grand Cross of the Dannebrog.f 
After the death of the knights the shields are removed 
to the Riddersaal below, a fine oblong room of Chris- 
tian IV. 's period, vaulted and supported down the centre 
with columns of marble, and hung with black and gold 
stamped leather : this once formed the banqueting hall, 
where after the great hunting parties King Christian 
dined, together with his brother huntsmen. 

It is still the custom at the dinner which succeeds a 

* Old chroniclers try to carry back its origin to tlie clays of 
Canute VI., in the 12th century, and declare it was instituted during 
his war in the East against the Saracens ; but this must be looked 
upon as a fable. Christian I. really did establish it ; but it was not 
till the time of Christian V. that it attained its highest splendour, was 
reorganised, and rules and regulations formed much after the manner 
of the Garter. This order was given to Philip Meadows, Cromwell's 
ambassador. Charles II. forbad him to wear it under pain of expulsion 
from the Council. To the great disgust of Christopher Parsberg, who 
writes three letters on the subject, Meadows endeavoured to sell the 
decoration, which was valued at 500L Parsberg, as he refused to 
return it, is ordered to pay the money. Meadows then asked 2000Z., 
but ended by accepting 1000?. 

t The Dannebrog ranks second in order ; and though it owes its real 
foundation to Christian V., is supposed by some antiquaries to date 
from the days of Valdemar the Great — about as true as the history 
of the Elephant. That decorations of this kind were given by earlier 
sovereigns is probable, just as Christian IV. constituted the Order 
of " the Armed Hand ;" but it was never, followed up by their suc- 


royal battue to call over the list of game killed by 
the sportsmen present, and fines are inflicted on con- 
scientious persons who fire not on foxes, or on blun- 
derers who shoot hen pheasants, which fines become the 
perquisite of the gamekeeper. 

Some hundred and fifty years since matters were 
differently arranged, as we read in Molesworth : — 

" Then proclamation is made, if any can inform 
the king (who is both supreme judge and execu- 
tioner) of any transgression against the known laws 
of hunting that day committed, let him stand forth 
and accuse. The accused is generally found guilty, 
and then two of the gentlemen lead him to the stag, 
and make him kneel down between the horns, turning 
down his head, and removing the skirts of his coat, 
which might intercept the blows ; then comes his Ma- 
jesty, and with a small long wand gives the offender 
several lashes, whilst in the mean time the huntsmen 
with their brass horns, and the dogs with their loud 
openings, proclaim the king's justice and the criminal's 
punishment : ,the whole scene affording diversion to 
the queen, ladies, and other spectators, who are always 
assisting, and stand in a circle about the place of execu- 
tion. This is as often repeated as there happen to be 
delinquents, who, as soon as the chastisement is over, 
rise up and make their obeisance." To which chase all 
the foreign ministers and strangers of distinction are 

Mounting a winding staircase, you now enter the 
Riddersaal — like all rooms of this date, long and 
somewhat low ; the ceiling a most elaborate work 
and one of exquisite beauty — gilded and painted after 
the manner of the clay. Twenty men were occupied 

vol. i. 2 b 


during seven years before this work was brought to a 
termination. The Swedes are accused of carrying off 
the silver capitals and bas-reliefs of the lofty black 
marble chimney-piece, as well as of destroying the 
" Minstrels' Gallery," during the war of 1659, but 
those who ought to be well informed declare they were 
melted down by the Danes themselves when in want of 
money. The tapestries have been removed, waiting until 
they can be repaired, but the room is hung round with 
full-length portraits of various potentates of Europe, 
perhaps the least interesting series of the collection. I 
may allude to some of them hereafter. 

One of the most beautiful apartments in the palace 
is that termed the council-chamber, gorgeously deco- 
rated in the taste of the last century, and hung with 
the portraits of the house of Oldenborg down to Chris- 
tian V., by Daguerre. 

It is in this and an adjoining room that his present 
Majesty keeps his private collection of Scandinavian 
antiquities — a collection of great interest — the greater 
part being the produce of Ins own researches. 

When I first went to Frederiksborg his Majesty graci- 
ously invited me to remain on a visit, and the following 
morning did me the honour to show me the collection 
in_person. The King is a zealous antiquary, and has 
lately published a small pamphlet on the means adopted 
by tbe ancient Scandinavians for removing those enor- 
mous stones used in the erection of their dolmens and 
giants' chambers. 

Externally the castle of Frederiksborg has suffered 
but little, and the good taste of the present King has 
caused to disappear the additions and alterations of suc- 
ceeding monarchs. But the interior has fearfully suf- 


fered at the hands of the fair Madalena, who tore up the 
marble floors and removed the chimney-pieces to adorn 
her phantom palace of Hirschholm. The fine pendent 
ceilings have mostly been covered over or destroyed, 
and beyond the Kidclersaal and the chapel — both gems 
of art — Frederiksborg can boast of little which calls to 
mind the artistic taste of its founder. 

But you may pass a pleasant time enough, lodged 
at the small hotel, wandering through the neighbour- 
hood of the castle. Mount to the extreme end of the fine 
old but somewhat neglected garden, and you will gain 
a glorious view of the palace and the lake : then there 
is the bath-house of King Christian, and the " rocking 
stone " which lies half imbedded in the earth by the 
forest side ; and further removed still, a site cleared out 
in the forest, with massive stones ranged round, where 
according to tradition some peace was signed, which I 
do not call to mind. 

2 b 2 



Gallery of Historic Portraits at Frederiksborg — King Christian I. and 
Queen Dorothea — Her strange head-dress — Adolf of Holstein, the 
suitor of Qu%en Elizabeth — Portraits of Queen Sophia of Meck- 
lenburg — Marlok of Christian IV. — Prayer-book of Christina 
Munk — -Family of Christian IV. — Christian IV.'s visit to England — 
Portraits of the Stuarts — James I. — ■ His Queen — Prince Henry — 
Elizabeth, the Queen of Bohemia — Charles I. and his three sons — 
Henrietta of Orleans — Electress Sophia — Air debonnaire of the 
House of Hanover — Caroline Matilda and her well-known verse — 
Sophia Amelia, the enemy of Eleanor Ulfeld — The Countess Viereck 
and the Keventlow Queen — Karen Sehested, the governess of the 
children of Christina Munk — The blue ribbon of Osten. 

Having finished with the castle and its history, let 
us now turn to the National Gallery of historic por- 
traits preserved within its walls. 

It was some nineteen years ago that the idea was first 
suggested of arranging the portraits of the various 
palaces of the kingdom of Denmark into one National 
Gallery, and placing them in the Palace of Fre- 
deriksborg, at that time unoccupied by the Eoyal 
Family. A valuable collection was at the same time 
bequeathed to the nation, brought together at a period 
when these objects were looked upon as little less than 
lumber and treated accordingly. 

Many of great value had been consumed in the 
conflagration of Chilstiansborg at the end of the last 
century; and the full -lengths which now adorn the 
Biddersaal were the few which were rescued from the 


flames. Professor Hoyne, who kindly accompanied me 
to Frederiksborg, and made known to me the masters 
— for there is no catalogue — received orders, in the year 
1831, to arrange the gallery in chronological order, 
putting aside all portraits of doubtful origin and authen- 
ticity ; since which time little or nothing more has been 

In the billiard-room, adjoining the Kiddersaal, hang 
a collection of small octagonal portraits of each succes- 
sive sovereign and his queen, placed there after their 
death : the earlier are by Dutch artists, Heinbach and 
Getton ; the later are by those of the period in which 
the death of the sovereign took place. 

Our list commences with Christian, first sovereign of 
the house of Oldenborg, and his Queen Dorothea of 
Brandenburg : these portraits are not original, but copies 
of very early date (from frescoes), previous to the year 
1500. Queen Dorothea is no beauty, and wears on her 
head a strange head-dress formed of linen, with a sort of 
gag of the same material across her mouth, such as is 
still worn by the peasant women of the island of Lees0, 
as well as in parts of Jutland, as a preservative against 
the injury caused to their lungs by the " flying sand." * 
The next portrait of merit is that of Christian Ill.f in 
a black velvet beret of the period, side by side with 
that of his Queen Dorothea, both by Binck, date 1550. 
Of Dorothea of Saxony we know but little, save that 
she refused the younger brother of her husband, Duke 
John, after Christian's death, a very wise determination 

* Of Christian II. and his queen there are copies from Hooernren- 
bout's portraits in the archives of Brussels, 
t With his motto, " Aller von Gott." 


on her part, for he was much her junior. She it was 
who bequeathed a silver buckle to the Court-house of 
Copenhagen to be worn by the maidens of the town on 
their wedding-day. 

King Christian himself was one of the best sovereigns 
Denmark ever possessed; and when we consider the 
time in which he lived, when religious dissensions ren- 
dered all the world inhuman, too much cannot be said 
in his favour. His conduct to his cousin Christian II., 
as well as to the Eoman Catholic clergy, I have else- 
where alluded to ; and when at the last Copenhagen sur- 
rendered, after unheard-of privations, and he entered 
the city with his victorious army, he was so affected by 
the state of the inhabitants that he sent off his officers 
to the camp to procure provisions, and gave orders that 
none of his attendants should sleep that night until 
every one had partaken of a hearty meal.* Next on our 
list come his daughter Anne and Augustus of Saxony, 
by Lucas Cranach the younger, both admirably painted. 

No one who regards the portrait of the younger 
Adolf, first of the line of Holstein-Gottorp, and his 
sons' sons from generation to generation, can doubt for 
one moment from whom the late Emperor Nicholas 
derived his almost demigodlike beauty : splendid fel- 
lows they were — the finest race in Europe. Adolf the 
father, son of Frederic I., bears round his knee the 
garter of England, for he ranked among the most assi- 
duous of the suitors of our Virgin Queen ; who, though 

* It was in this siege that the burgomaster Hans the Bookbinder, 
when summoned to surrender, replied : " As long as the citizens have 
two arms left, they will fight .with one and rebuild the walls with the 
other." To the women of the town, who implored him to capitulate, 
he replied, " It is too soon ; you have not yet devoured your children." 



she declined him as a consort, was so touched at his 
disappointment she invested him with the order of the 
Garter as a consolation. 

The portrait of Frederic II. in a black dress and 
starched ruff, by Peter Isaacs, is highly characteristic 
of that monarch— he looks the very pattern of decorum, 
although his face, red and puffy, tells of strong liquor. 

Passing over the pendent portrait of his queen, 
Sophia of Mecklenburg, seated, with her emblazoned 
missal on a prie-dieu beside her, by the same artist, as 
well as a smaller one, taken when young, by Knuber,* 
we turn to the gem of the gallery, a third portrait 
of the queen, by Jacob van Dort, dated 1626, a half- 
length. She is here represented as an aged lady, 
with calm serene brow and pale blue eyes, her hands 
clasped before her; she holds in her hand a pair of 
green gloves with white gauntlets ; she is dressed in 
black, her jewels a few pearls, and her husband's 
cipher ; the crown lies on a table by her side. Nowhere 
have I seen so charming a portrait, so exquisitely 
painted, so true to the life and character of this pious 
queen. A widow before her son had attained his 
eleventh year, the regency was refused her by the 
nobles, and her son Christian IV. removed from her 
tutelage. Perhaps had she guided his early youth he 
might have proved a better man. In later days, when 
his fortunes became adverse, she built and fitted out, at 
her own expence, a large man-of-war, called the Sophie, 

* A Flemish painter from Antwerp, of whose works there are seve- 
ral, who was summoned ahout this period to Kronborg to prepare the 
cartoon of the tapestry now hanging in the upper rooms of the Northern 
Museum of Copenhagen. 


and gave it to the nation, and came to Ins aid, lending 
him the sum of 50,000 specie out of her savings.* 
So good a manager was she that she died worth up- 
wards of 2,000,000 of ready money, and was accounted 
the richest queen in Europe, according to Sir James 
Howell, who was English minister to Denmark at the 
time of her death, f 

I can well understand King Christian VIII. never 
visiting Frederiksborg without exclaiming, "Now I 
must go upstairs and pass half an hour in the society 
of Queen Sophia." 

Here is also an admirable portrait of her son Chris- 
tian IY. by the same artist, taken at the age of twenty. 
The earlier portraits of this sovereign by Peter Isaacs, of 
which we have one hanging in the Eiddersaal, together 
with his queen, painted at the period of his marriage, 
as well as others, of which engravings still exist in the 
Midler collection, though the originals have disappeared, 
are far more flattering to his personal appearance than 

* Queen Sopliia seems to have been the constant companion of her 
son in his journeys through his kingdom. In Christian IV.'s journals 
of the years 1614 and 1615 there are frequent notices of " Drog jeg 
met Frue Moder fra Frederiksborg til Koeskilde ;" and again, in the 
' Tegne Bok ' of Jensen the blacksmith, we find :— " 1623, Sept. 29th, 
came the king and his mother, Queen Sophia, with the young prince 
and his brothers, to Elsinore ; at the same time, the king's mother 
was borne on a little chair, with a canopy over it, through the town to 
Lundegaard's garden." 

t This picture was the property of her daughter, the Princess Augusta 
of Holstein-Gottorp, a great patroness of the arts, and was discovered 
by Professor Hoyne hanging in the Eiddersaal of the palace of Husum, 
together with many others — the room at that time used as a granary. 
To the love of this princess for the arts is to be attributed the recog- 
nition of many portraits in this historic Gallery ; for she caused a 
genealogy of the alliances of her house, as well as of her progenitors, 
to be executed from original paintings, which now remain as archives 
to the existing collection. 


those of later date. Fashions change too : the king in 
his younger days wore his hair frizzed up something 
in the Valois style, later hanging down curled, cut 
short over the forehead, and long at the sides. You 
observe that pigtail hanging down on the right side 
of the head, jauntily terminated with a red bow. 
Christian was affected by a sort of plica polonica, a 
lon«- mat of hair like a horse's tail distended with blood, 
which could not be cut off ; it grew larger as he grew 
older — Marlok it was called in Danish — so he made 
the best of it, tied it up coquettishly with red ribbon ; 
and his courtiers, although they could not improvise a 
plica, wore the same tress like their sovereign, and it 
is generally supposed that marloks were the fashion 
of the day. 

The most characteristic portrait of Christian here is 
that by Eoswyk, stepson of Carl van Mander. His pre- 
sent Majesty resembles greatly both in face and figure 
the portrait of his royal ancestor. Queen Anne, his 
queen, of whom we know and hear very little, hangs 
by his side, and near again his faithless spouse of the 
left hand, fair Christina Munk, a fine woman, with 
milkmaid face and gold-powdered hair, clearly an 
attractive person, by Jacob von Dort, 1624.* 

It is singular in this relic-loving land how few 
souvenirs of Christina Munk are to be met with. I 
only know of one, and that her prayer-book preserved 

* The journal of Christian himself, in which he noted down his 
daily expenses, helped much to identify the masters of the reign, who 
never signed their pictures otherwise than by a monogram ; but on 
referring to this journal (Christian wrote shorthand-fashion, very diffi- 
cult to decipher), entries are discovered, " Paid to the widow of Jacob 
von Dort, for the remaining sum due for the portraits "■ — so much — 
which led to the deciphering of the masters. 


in the Eoyal Library at Copenhagen — a book bound in 
gold and blue enamel ; in the centre is her coat of arms, 
supported by two golden enamelled lions, one of which 
holds in its claw the coronet of a countess over her 
escutcheon. On the first leaf the king has written his 
name, with the date 1617, Kronborg, 22nd September, 
and her own name under it. There is also in her own 
handwriting, "22 Nov. 1617, Kronborg: Oh Lord God, 
grant that token, that it may go well, so that those who 
hate and shame me may see that you are with me." 
Christina wrote this book herself in the space of two 
months. The autography is plain. Two leaves are 
written by her daughter Eleanor Ulfeld. Beyond, we 
find, " Dieu conforte mon cceur, 1638. — 1637, 5th of 
December, three-quarters before nine, was my son 
Christian born. God grant that he after this life may 
inherit eternity." 

Of the other children of Frederic III. we have, by 
Peter Isaacs, Prince Hans : he died young ; a charming 
face. Augusta, the patroness of the arts, a good por- 
trait by Jacob von Dort ; she is represented with a 
spotted carriage-dog couched at her feet ; the only proof 
we now possess of these dogs being of Danish origin. 

Her elder sister, our own Queen Anne, by Gerhardt : 
Anne, queen of all extravaganza and caprice in the 
way of starched ruff and monstrous farthingale, on 
which sits perched a small black terrier dog ; she wears 
a red powdered wig ; above is inscribed the motto, " La 
mia grandezza viene dal eccelso." * 

* I find a curious letter from Father Robert Arnherbenius, a Jesuit, 
dated Brunswick, 16th Sept. 1608, giving an account of the happy 
conversion of Queen Anne of Denmark to Romanism, addressed to 
John Stuart, Prior of the Scotch College of Ratisbon. 


We will now turn to the family of Christian IV., 
twenty-two in number they are said to have been. 
First on our list comes heavy Prince Christian, his 
son and heir, who died childless and before his father, 
a victim to inebriety, the besetting vice of the age ; 
this portrait is a copy after one by Carl van Mander, the 
original of which hangs in the Valdemerian Slot, in the 
island of Thorseng. Christian, who was elected heir to 
the throne and crowned during his father's lifetime, 
was a great favourite with the king, and never yet was 
prince so often painted. I was looking over a series of 
engravings of this besotted prince, first by P. Visscher, 
later by Haelwech, and found them as good as a ' Pake's 
Progress,' marking from year to year the progress of 
vice telling upon his countenance: first he appears a 
handsome lightsome boy ; gradually he swells out, 
bloated from the effects of drink; and later, before 
his death, pale and drawn, like a victim to delirium 
tremens. Then comes Frederic III., by Abraham 
Wuchter ; his brother Ulrik, youngest son of the first 
batch, who died at the age of twenty-two, killed by a 
shot in Slesvig, an interesting youth, by Strobel, a 
German artist of some celebrity. At the period of the 
second marriage of Christian IV., I find by his cor- 
respondence that the children of Queen Anne were 
kept separate from Christina Munk and her offspring, 
and Christian appears to have transferred his affec- 
tions to his second family, sufficient to cause jealousy 
between them. Prince Christian, the heir apparent, 
seems to have never been friendly towards his mother- 
in-law, and to have spoken disparagingly of her to 
the servants, counselling them to disobey her, — "Do 
what you will you will get no thanks." As long 


as tlieir father lived all went well ; Christina's children 
dined at the king's table in company with their 
governess Karen Sehested, bore the title of Count 
and Countess of Slesvig-Holstein, and were prayed 
for in church. The most interesting of tin's family 
by far are Count Valdemar and Eleanor Ulfeld, both 
of whose portraits by Carl van Mander are ex- 
quisite paintings. Valdemar, were the story of his 
misfortunes and his romantic life unknown to you, 
would not fail to attract by his grace and youth. 

Then we have the race of Gyldenl0ves, sons of the 
Karens, the Vibekes, and the other " Ladies of Rosen- 
borg," as fine a set of youths as you could wish to 
see — all of whom distinguished themselves more or 
less, especially the youngest, Ulrik Christian, who fell 
at the siege of Copenhagen in 1658 : they are painted 
mostly by Abraham Wuchter, who, by the pains he 
takes, evidently approves of his models. 

Other male offspring had King Christian, who do not 
form part of the royal collection ; among them the 
celebrated Don Gorgen Ulrik, a renowned adventurer, 
who turned pirate, and ended by getting his skull 
cracked in a fray with a brewer in the streets of 
Copenhagen. Christian's daughters were numerous — 
eight by Christina Munk, and two by other ladies — 
and all married to various noblemen of his Court. 

But any interest they may have inspired is so entirely 
swamped by the fortunes of their youngest sister, fair 
Eleanor, wife of the minister Corfitz Ulfeld, that 
their memory has almost become forgotten ; but as her 
story belongs to another reign, we will pass her over 
for the present. 

It was in the year 1648 that Christian IV. died, in 


that most oriental of chambers in the Castle of Kosen- 
borg. In Lam-its Jacobsen's journal I find noted, 28th 
of February, " the King sykkede more and more — spoke 
no more — and in the evening, at half past six, died, 
with his hand on my arm." He declared himself, on 
his death-bed, " a captive to God ; that he had always 
had God in his mind;" and he departed, so say the 
historians, with " a perfect consciousness, and as a true 
Christian." * 

Having now finished with King Christian and his 
family, we will turn to a series of portraits of the 
Royal House of England. 

The relations between Denmark and England had for 
centuries been most friendly, even before the sovereigns 
became connected by the ties of family alliance. 
Christian IV., however, as his ambassador Niels Krag 
writes him word, appears to have unintentionally 
wounded the feelings of the Virgin Queen, for she com- 
plains how he signs his letters only " Christian," while 
she on her side had always subscribed herself "your 
good sister Elizabeth ;" and how she intended for the 
future to change her signature, and sign in another 
manner. After much entreaty the queen allowed 
herself to be pacified, and the matter was satis- 
factorily arranged; and later at a ball the queen 
danced beautifully ; she said it was to show him that 
she could dance ; she had left it off for many years, 
but she wanted him to tell his king that she was not 
so weak, and that she could dance and be merry yet. 

* Frederic HI. was no favourite with his father. When, on his 
deathbed, Christian was asked if Duke Frederic, at that time at 
Flensborg, should be sent for, he replied, " No ; I have no desire to 
see him." 


From the time that James ascended the throne of Eng- 
land the greatest intimacy was kept up between the 
two Courts.* Christian twice visited his sister, and the 
stories of his drinking bouts were common enough : an 
English author says that never had so pleasant and 
friendly a monarch visited our shores, nor with so many 
servants who conducted themselves so well ; winding up 
that " blessed is the country who possessed such a 
king :" though at the same time I must not forget to 
mention that Christian left 30,000 dollars drink-money 
to be divided among the royal household. His journal 
of his visit to England is short and concise. " On Sun- 
day I and the king and queen heard service in the 
grand hall ; in the evening a comedy was played in the 
same halL On Saint James's day had to go to church, 
and wear the collar of the Garter." But two days 
afterwards he attends a bear and bull fight ; plays in 
the Tennis Court, and drinks much liquor in the 
evening with the King of England. On the 2nd of 
August Prince Charles attended him to Gravesend on 
his departure, and his sister, the queen, sends him a 
beautiful diamond ring by her chamberlain Kerri (Carr, 
Earl of Eochester) ; and on the 10th instant he lands 
in Halland, and drives to Elsinore. 

.First on our list comes James VI., " King of Scot- 
land," as it is named, in the costume of the period, his 

* The Parliament, say the historians, were at that time pretty well 
satisfied with King James, and granted him a considerable sum of 
money to pay the expenses of the reception of his brother-in-law : the 
presents given to the embassy amounted to 4G55Z. Admiral Skeel, 
who accompanied lung Christian in 1G06, and had previously visited 
England as governor to Prince Ulrik, received a chain value 100Z. 
from King James. 


head capped by a beret, a sickly frightened boy of some 
twelve years old, such as you may have imagined 
him to be — well flogged by the Puritan birch of 
Buchanan, and snubbed by cross old Lady Mar. Then 
comes a family group of three full-lengths— James, King 
now of England, really a well-looking man with a 
comfortable air of prosperity about him, in health too, 
and free from care ; and his partner Queen Anne, who 
hangs beside him in a white dress, with a feathered fan 
in hand, and a flaxen wig, this time almost albino, 
stands outrageous in the extravagances of her far- 
thingale, King James himself does his best to vie 
with his royal consort in the amplitude of his galligas- 
kins. These two paintings are by Soniers, and must have 
been sent over as presents to his brother-in-law by the 
king soon after his accession to the throne of England. 
James can now afford to make presents, no longer 
writes letters in most elegant Latin to borrow money of 
his Danish relatives, which said letters King Christian 
heaps into his rubbish-basket, to be picked up by a 
curious secretary, and preserved by his descendants in 

There is a third portrait of James I., not equal to 
those by Somers as a work of art, probably a copy sent 
over to Denmark — a half-length — in a white dress; 
perhaps the most characteristic of the three : he is now 
an aged man, with a discontented sawny expression of 
countenance, most unprepossessing. 

Of Henry Prince of Wales, his eldest son and short- 
lived heir, there are three portraits — first as a sickly 
child, borne down by the weight of his long brocaded 

* Later in the possession of Kammerherr <le Bornemann. 


dress; again as a youth, still sickly, with long effile 
fingers and transparent hands, this time arrayed in full 
suit of armour damascened in gold. The third portrait 
forms one of the family group above mentioned, by 
Somers ; here he is arrayed in the dress of the period — 
red stockings ; he bears the garter round his knee, the 
George hangs suspended from his neck : a change 
for the better has come over him, he is lightsome and 
joyous, with hidden laughter in his eye — perhaps it was 
merely the flickering of the candle. 

His sister Elizabeth, Princess Eoyal of England, first 
appears as a girl of fifteen, in a costume similar to 
that usually worn by her mother, with gold powdered 
hair, a small dog at her feet — no Stuart could be 
painted without a dog — by some unknown artist of no 
merit, probably when on a visit to her brother at 
Ham House, as both the portraits are executed at the 
same period. Then after a long lapse of years she 
reappears (date 1634), in an exquisite portrait by Hont- 
horst, who was] master to her daughter the Princess 
Elizabeth, many of whose works, in the days of the 
Palatine's poverty, he is reported to have disposed of 
under his own name. Elizabeth here is represented 
as Queen of Bohemia — a widow of two years — an 
exquisite portrait ; her eyes are large and sad — true 
Stuart eyes — like those of her brother Charles; 
her hair is frizzled on each side of her face ac- 
cording to the fashion of the day ; a black widow's 
veil hangs down from her head behind, her linen 
secured with small black rosettes, her ornaments, 
earrings, and necklace of pearls. This portrait of 
the highminded but unhappy queen was painted 
at the very moment when her troubles were at their 


climax, and when the French agents of Kichelieu, 
taking advantage of her sorrow, endeavoured to per- 
suade her " for the interest of her sons " to join 
the party in England against her brother Charles I. 
" Bather," she exclaimed, " than act so, I would see 
them dead at my feet." This must have been the last 
of the royal portraits sent over to King Christian IV. ; 
indeed all the previous ones mentioned must have 
been forwarded before the death of hi,s sister Queen 
Anne. Then we have a third portrait of Elizabeth — 
Honthorst the younger (William), an inferior artist to 
his brother — taken at that time of life when no woman 
should ever be transmitted to canvas, the intermediate 
period of life when women are no longer young and still 
refuse to appear old ; her troubles, her anxieties, have 
now done their worst, her features are pinched and 
drawn, and she looks — oh ! so discontented. 

Of Charles I. a small cabinet picture; as a young 
boy, in gilded armour, caracolling on a small white 
pony among the courts of the old palace of White- 
hall; and later a most exquisite full-length of a 
young man, with moustache naissante, in age twenty 
or thereabouts ; the face is pale and delicate, soft me- 
lancholy eyes, a sad expression, hair short cropped ; he 
is attired in black, the George suspended from his 
neck, the jewelled garter round one knee, the other 
encircled by a blue and silver ribbon with tie and 
hanging ends ; similar rosettes adorn his shoes ; his 
gloves trimmed with deep gauntlets of gold embroi- 
dery ; a guipure ruff around his throat : in the back- 
ground through an open window appear ships of war 
in the distance. Great doubts exist as regards the 
authenticity of this portrait. If it be not Charles Stuart, 

vol. i. 2 c 


it must be Villiers Duke of Buckingham, Lord High 
Admiral of England : he was, as you know, an especial 
favourite of Queen Anne of Denmark, and Christian 
may have brought over his portrait on his visit to Eng- 

Charles II., James II., and their younger brother 
Harry of Gloucester, who died almost immediately after 
the restoration : a true Stuart the latter, with large ex- 
pressive eyes. The three brothers are all dressed alike, 
clad in black armour, under which appear orange- 
coloured tunics. James, then Duke of York, in the exu- 
berance of his affection to his sister Mary — for their por- 
traits must have been painted at the Hague during the 
visit of the three brothers in 1655-6 — bears upon his 
helm a splendid panache of orange-coloured feathers; a 
badge, in later days, he was not likely to regard with 
approbation. Then we have Mary, their sister, by 
Honthorst the younger ; and Mary Princess of Orange, 
mother- of King William, a widow at nineteen. 

From this time — indeed I may say from the period 
of Christian IV. — the portraits degenerate. The Dutch 
school of itself, as well as the Danish, formed under Carl 
van Mander, A. Wuchter, and others, gives way to the 
Court painters of the French school, showy, and at- 
tractive if you will ; but against the first of these painters 
we must not complain, for in the portrait of Henrietta of 
Orleans, daughter of Charles I., by Daguerre, we have 
a very gem of beauty. Her fate is too well known to re- 
quire commentary, poisoned by the Chevalier de Lorraine 

* By referring to engravings in England I have since discovered 
this portrait to be that of Buckingham ; as well as a smaller one in the 
Stuart Chamber, supposed to be a member of the Palgrave family. 


in a cup of chicory -water. She sits dressed in a loose robe 
of velvet and point lace ; behind her a velvet curtain 
powdered with fieurs-de-lys ; with one hand she beckons 
(and such a hand too and arm !) to a negro page, while 
a second, gorgeously arrayed, sits crouching at her 
feet: her eyes are perhaps somewhat far apart, her 
hair dressed in bouffant curls. No wonder she has 
been the heroine of each successive chronicler — so 
beautiful in life, her fate so sad. 

Prince Eupert of Pfalz is coarse and heavy : others 
of the Palgrave family, unfortunately not named, are 
more Stuart-like in eye and feature. Next comes 
the old Electress Sophia, grand-looking, with arched 
brow ; though the blood of her Palatine father has 
obscured her Stuart beauty : a noble old lady she was ; 
her conduct towards the exiled son of James II. was 
admirable. Queen Anne of England as a girl, gay and 
sprightly looking, before she became heavy and stupid. 
George of Denmark, by Aaron Straalt. 

King George II. and his glorious Queen Caroline of 
Ansjiach. With George II. died out any family resem- 
blance to their ancestors of the house of Stuart ; and 
from Queen Caroline — here painted, they say, by Kneller, 
in a scarlet robe slashed with ermine— our English royal 
family inherited that " air debonnaire " for which they 
were so distinguished — an air accompanied with great 
beauty of countenance for three generations, and still 
extant in the person of a living princess, H.R.H. the 
Princess Mary of Cambridge. Of the daughter of Queen 
Caroline, Queen Louisa of Denmark, I have often 
elsewhere spoken : there is also her sister, the beautiful 
Princess of Hesse-Cassel. 

This characteristic beauty of the earlier house of 

2 c 2 


Hanover is again transmitted to the daughters of 
Queen Louisa and King Frederic V., the fair Queen of 
Sweden,* and the Landgravine of Hesse.-f- George III. 
in his robes of state, by Ramsay — as fine a young 
man as you may wish to see — air moutonnier ; and 
again, later in life, with Queen Charlotte. Charlotte 
of Mecklenburg — old Queen Charlotte — in her early 
youth was not without her charms — see her portrait in 
the Palace of Herrenhausen, near Hanover — well made, 
but no features beyond her eyes, teeth, and complexion. 
Had she been a Frenchwoman and a coquette, the 
queen would have been a fascinating woman till late in 
life — still, as fascinating women of that kind always 
turn out, a plain old woman ; but Queen Charlotte was 
quiet and domestic ; she loved her husband and her 
children, was " awfully proper " and straitlaced ; and 
as a matter of course became hideously ugly. 

Last comes Caroline Matilda, here done justice to, an 
earlier painting by Juel, rather inclined to embonpoint, 
joyous and buxom, decidedly a very pretty woman ; again 
in a winter costume, trimmed with fur, and a mob cap, 
most unbecoming to her Majesty 4 In an adjoining 
cabinet you see inscribed upon the window frame the 
well-known verse, " Oh keep me innocent, make others 
great." Only gaze at her portrait, at the innocent 
bonhommie of her face, and you may see at once 

* See p. 257. 

t The Landgravine bore a striking likeness to lier grandmother 
Queen Caroline. 

X The engravings of Queen Caroline Matilda, by Cotes (1766), 
published in England after her death, are unlike the jovial character 
of this unhappy queen ; they were evidently " sentimentalised " to 
suit the feeling of the day. 


that her very joyousness of disposition, her very love of 
fun and thoughtlessness, would prove her ruin in the 
corrupt court into which she was thrown at the early 
age of fifteen. More Englishwomen lose their reputa- 
tion on the Continent by actions proceeding from the 
liberty they enjoy in their own native country than 
from any real guilt. 

With Caroline Matilda and her mad spouse Chris- 
tian VII.* terminates our series of portraits of the royal 
family of England. 

I do not think we have yet alluded to Sophia Amelia, 
the imperious consort of Frederic III., a Brunswicker by 
birth, and aunt, if I recollect right, to our own sove- 
reign George I. of England ; here she stands, painted 
by Abraham Wuchter, in a scarlet dress, fan in hand, 
as though dictating and laying down the law to some- 
body ; she liked herself to be called " the beautiful 
Queen of Denmark " in foreign parts ; she is tall and 
fair, but a wishy-washy sort of woman, and high- 
shouldered ; and from her the present royal family of 
Denmark inherit the projecting chin and under jaw 
which characterise the house of Oldenborg. She was, 
however, a woman of great courage, and during the 
siege of Copenhagen she rode together with her hus- 
band, armed as a man, the bullets whistling around her 
head : her gun and sword are still shown in Rosenborg, t 
With all her masculine courage she was at heart a 

* When Christian VII. was in London the Duke of Northumber- 
land invited him to his country house (Sion, I suppose, not Alnwick), 
and caused the whole of the road to be lighted with coloured lamps. 
He became also a goldsmith, as well as a Doctor, in Oxford. 

t The best portrait of Frederic extant is by Carl van Mander, en- 
graved by Haelwech. 


woman, and a bad woman too : she it was who com- 
passed the ruin of poor Eleanor Ulfeld, her unlucky- 
sister-in-law ; she could never pardon her grace, her 
attractive manners, and her supreme beauty. 

It is related how, some few days previous to the 
coronation, Eleanor, when in the queen's dressing-room, 
in her gaiety of heart took up the royal crown, which 
had just arrived from Paris, and placed it girl-like upon 
her own head, admiring herself in the polished mirror 
before her ; perhaps she thought how much better the 
royal circlet would become her brow than that of 
Sophia Amelia. " Be quick — take it off!" exclaims one 
of the affrighted attendants, — " the queen, the queen !" 
Eleanor in her agitation let fall the crown; in its 
unlucky tumble one neuron was broken. Now the 
goldsmiths of Copenhagen were not skilful in their 
art; no one was found capable of mending it; there 
was no time to send it to Paris, and Queen Sophia 
was compelled to wear it patched up as best it could be, 
clumsily too, for the damage was plainly visible to the 
eyes of the bystanders. 

So many of these royal personages have already 
come before our notice, that Ave may pass them over 
without comment. Frederic IV., by Kigaud, painted as 
a young man when on a visit to Paris ; again we have 
him by Solomon Wahl, also later by Denner. Louisa 
of Mecklenburg, first queen of Frederic IV., by 
Dawren, a German painter of no worth, but highly the 
fashion in lus day : he possessed more medals, orders, 
chains, and decorations than any field-marshal in 
Europe. Then comes the Reventlow Queen, by Wahl — 
pretty, silly doll of a woman, highly characteristic. 
Louisa is dead, and she, "crowned queen in her stead," 


caresses with lier pretty taper fingers the royal circlet. 
Another of Queen Louisa, as a young woman, is well- 
looking enough, large round eyes, fine complexion, and 
good figure ; she was four years older than her hus- 
band, and, in her early days of matrimony, jealous 
as a tigress. She knew well he had previously enter- 
tained in his early youth a deep passion for a virtuous 
Italian lady of high family, a Countess Velo, and 
would have married her, but she was of the Roman 
Catholic persuasion. The recollection of this affair 
only rendered the queen more furious: when she 
suspected him of infidelity, she is said to have threat- 
ened him with a " loaded leaden pistol " pointed against 
his head. Blatters went on well enough as long as 
Louisa was young and fresh ; a pretty woman with a 
loaded pistol — desperately jealous — flatters a man's 
vanity; but when Louisa, as you may see by her 
later portrait, lost the eclat of her youth and turned 
yellow, Frederic would stand it no longer ;* he became 
desperately enamoured of the daughter of the Prussian 
Minister Viereck. Queer morals certainly were those 
of the eighteenth century. In the presence of her 
father, of the cabinet ministers, and councillors of state, 
the king espoused his love with the left hand, and created 
her Countess of Antvorskov : this was called a "con- 
science marriage " — most people would call it bigamy. 
She died in childbirth the following year.-f- Then 

* The earlier portraits of Louisa of Mecklenburg, engraved after 
Peter Schenck, are very pretty ; the best of her rival, Anne Sophia, 
are by Larguilliere. 

t In a letter from her father to Count Wartenberg, explaining the 
contract of marriage between the King of Denmark and his daughter, 
to be submitted to his sovereign, he says — " The marriage has been 


later came the affair of the Eeventlow Queen, as dis- 
graceful a history as ever occurred in the annals of any- 
civilised country. 

Christian VI., by Krock of Flensborg, with one leg 
stuck out, looks as though about to do the thing he 
most condemned in this world — dance a minuet. 

We trace many persons of historic notoriety : Anne of 
Austria, the Grande Daupkine, by Mignard ; the Grande 
Mademoiselle, by Rigaud ; Elizabeth and Catherine of 
Russia, by Vigilius Ericsen, a court painter of Saint 
Petersburg, much in vogue in his day. Passing over 
Sophia Madalena, that Queen of Queens ; Frederic V. 
and Juliana, by Pilo, a Swedish artist, much given to 
drinking, like his royal patron, with whom he loved to 
carouse, we come to the last room but one — dramatis 
person* of Carlyle's last history : Frederic II. and his 
queen, " eldest of the Beverns," fat and pretty ; he had 
no reason to make a fuss about marrying her. Her 
father, the choleric King of Prussia, and Queen Sophia, 
sister to George I., ever intriguing after the English 
marriages. The Prince of Brunswick-Bevern himself; 
George II. and Caroline of Anspach ; and last, not 
least, Wilhelmina of Baireuth — Wilhelmina the witty, 
the spirituelle, writer of memoirs ; she was not strictly 
a beauty, but very clever-looking ; she wrote down 
everything that came into her head ; judged people on 

consummated in presence of the Ministers and Councillors. He hopes 
the king will not have ' mauvais sentiments ' on the subject ; that he 
has consulted the Bible, and he does not find a single word by which 
a king and sovereign prince is forbidden to have more than one wife — 
it is only the obstinacy of the Church. His Excellence has no idea 
how the conduct of his daughter is approved of by everybody," &c. 
One of the arguments brought forward was, that Luther and Melanc- 
thon had allowed an Elector of Hesse to have two wives. 


the spur of the moment, not always justly ; but it is 
to be wished people would only write memoirs half as 
amusing. And then the royal collection terminates 
with the brown-eyed wife of the Arveprinds, father 
of Christian VIII., and the members of the present 
royal family now riving. 

Along the corridors of the same etage hang the por- 
traits of Denmark's worthies, all who are illustrious by 
name, by land and by sea — senators, men of science, 
poets, painters, divines, statesmen, from the time of the 
Reformation downwards. Hans Tausen, the so-called 
Danish Luther. Then come all the ministers of Fre- 
deric II.'s times : Niels Kaas,* the virtuous Chancellor 
of Frederic II. ; Gyldenl0ves, and Rosenkrantz, and 
Bjielke — names well known in Denmark's history. 
Tycho Brahe, as illustrious by his talents as by his 
birth ; there he hangs with his long moustachios 
and his golden nose, the joint plainly visible. Look 
at that hideously ugly woman, red-haired and richly 
dressed in black velvet and gold buttons, the cos- 
tume of the sixteenth century — that is Karen Sehested, 

* When Niels Kaas was dying, the young King Clnistian, who es- 
teemed him greatly, visited him some hours previous to his decease. 
The Chancellor told him that he had promised his father when on 
his deathbed that he would do his best to see the crown firmly seated 
on his son's head ; " but death," he said, " prevents me from satisfying 
my desire. I am, however, proud before my death to give to your 
Majesty the key of the cabinet where, since the death of your father, 
the crown, globe, and sceptre are preserved. As I am about to quit 
the world, I will hand them over to your Majesty alone. Keceive 
them as from God. And wear in your season the crown with honour 
and glory ; hold the sceptre with wisdom ; bear the sword with 
justice ; and preserve the globe with judgment." Christian was 
greatly affected at the time, and perhaps later forgot the good advice 
of his dying Chancellor. Niels Kaas was interred in Viborg cathedral. 


gouvernante des enfans of Christina Munk ; a strong- 
minded woman she was, of noble birth and great 
possessions ; in her hand she bears a birch rod, all 
ready for action — a rod which I have no doubt in its day 
struck terror into the hearts of Prince Valclemar and 
fair Eleanor Ulfeld ; still, with all her ugliness, she was- 
a favourite with the elder princes.* 

Griffenfeld, by Abraham Wuchter : he is of a handsome 
countenance, with long flowing locks, a bright clever 
face ; this portrait has been lately well engraved. Then 
there is a portrait of Maria Motzfelt, old Mrs. Schu- 
macher, his mother, the beau ideal of a femme bour- 
geoise of the period ; she lived to see her son rise to 
the highest honours of the state ; but she lived too long, 
for she lived to witness his downfall. 

Old acquaintances too now turn up : parson Gerner, 

* I find a curious letter of Prince Frederic (then Archbishop of 
Bremen) to his old governess, not very episcopal : — 

"Dear old Karen Sehested. — My messenger being in Denmark, I 
cannot but write to you thes*e lines. I should like to be with you my- 
self, and speak with you and others. I am now just prevented, but 
hope soon to be there. I thank you much for the goose, sausages, 
and corned goose, as well as the white biscuits and gruel and other 
good things, also for the hypenen ort. 

" Dear little Karen Sehested, send me some of your strong water, if 
you have some. Give my compliments to your sister, with a thousand 
good-nights, and wish all my friends good-night. I have no more to 
write you, save that I am your affectionate old 


" Nieuhuus, 9th April, 1635. 

" P.S. I hope you will answer this. I feel the want of the Copen- 
hagen ladies' society here ; here there are none but old and worn-out 
things. Heaven knows how I long to go to a wedding in Copen- 

| " My compliments to Corfitz Ulfeld, and others you know to be my 
good friends. 

" God be with you." 


the companion of Kostgaard, and his wife ; he lived to 
die a bishop. Old Pontoppidan, Archbishop of Tronyem, 
without whom we should have known but little of 
Denmark and her dominions, with his long moustache, 
ruff, and flowing locks, by Abraham Wuchter : there 
is much character in his countenance and beetling brow, 
well engraved by Haelwech. Niels Juel, the gallant 
admiral, in full gala costume as Knight of the Elephant. 
Then later we have the ministers and admirals of the 
day, Tordenskiold and others, all by Denner, painted, 
as you may imagine, in full powdered wigs to the very 
life. Among them is the portrait of Osten, a diplomat 
of Christian VII.'s time, Knight of the Dannebrog, 
Knight also of the Elephant : as regards the blue ribbon 
there hangs a tale. When Christian VII. was in one 
of his fits of madness, his delight consisted in being 
wheeled about by his courtiers in a barrow. Osten one 
day was requested by the monarch to give him "a ride." 
To preserve his hands from injury the diplomat fastened 
his white ribbon round one handle of the barrow : the 
vehicle, unequally poised, nearly upset, and the king 
cried out, "Why, Osten, you'll overturn me!" — "How 
can I roll your Majesty properly," replied he, " when I 
have only one ribbon to attach to the handle of the 
barrow ?" So the king took off his own blue ribbon and 
presented it to the minister. When the ride was at an 
end, Christian asked for his ribbon back again. "No," 
says Osten ; " what's once given can never be taken 
away : I'm Knight of the Elephant :" and so he re- 
mained. More riff-raff of the period : Schimmelmann ; 
le petit Hoik ; Guldberg, enemy of Caroline Matilda. 
Struensee, fine featured, but of a discontented expression; 
his memory should be popular with a certain party in 


England, for he it was who, on his own responsibility, 
without consent of the clergy or even their advice, 
published a decree authorising the " marriage with a 
deceased wife's sister" — a law still in effect, provided 
always both parties can produce their certificates of 
vaccination. Torfaeus the Icelander ; Vitruvius ; Weide- 
welt the sculptor ; Thorvaldsen, loaded with orders : 
when the artist first saw his portrait he exclaimed, 
" Why, you've dressed me out like a Christmas tree." 
Holberg, Ewald, and Oehlenschlager, the poets ; admirals 
and generals by the dozen ; authors of each successive 
age ; a room full of doctors and physicians ; sculptors, 
poets, men of science, authors — all have their place 
in this most complete of national portrait galleries. It 
is to be regretted, however, whilst they were about it, 
they did not procure better copies, even of these men 
unknown to the world at large. Ask for whom you may, 
you may have some trouble in finding him, as there is 
no catalogue, but he is there somewhere. 

When we, however, think of our own fifty-seven na- 
tional portraits, we cannot help feeling ashamed of our 
backwardness, and grateful to Lord Stanhope for the 
energy he has shown in arousing the spirits of the 
nation to the advantage of so necessary an addition to 
the national collection of the countrv. 



Frederiksvserk — Scourge of flying sand — Marriage, and murder of 
a bride — Giant's grave of Udleire — White doe of King Frode — 
Hiarne, the poet king — The bridge of Vaerebro. 


Tuesday, June 6th. — Left Frederiksborg early so as to 
avoid the midday heat and breakfast at Frederiksvaerk, 
a drive of three hours, and not an interesting one either. 
Our road ran near the banks of the Arre-S0, the largest 
as well as the ugliest lake in Zealand, bare and deboise, 
the few oak copses we did pass by entirely unleaved, 
as though November, by the ravages of the cockchafers. 
These insects, it appears, make a triennial descent upon 
Denmark, and then disappear for the two succeeding 
summers. That they have greatly increased in number 
in latter days is to be attributed to the wanton war 
made by the farmers against that most useful of all 
animals, the hooded crow, which destroys their grubs. 
The waters of the Arre-S0 are not cerulean, like those of 
her sister lakes, but of a muddy yellow. They have 
never recovered their natural complexion, strange to 
relate, since the scourge of " flying sand " — a sort of 
geological epidemic, which takes place occasionally in 
Denmark, but which, luckily, has not visited Zealand 
since the reign of her second Frederic. A whirlwind of 
flying sand — like the simoon in the deserts of Sahara — 
spreads devastation around, ruining for years to come 


pasturage, garden, and all possible cultivation. We 
were growing tired of our drive when we arrived at the 
village of Kregome, whose churchwardens, with the tra- 
ditional good taste of that valuable body of men, have just 
painted the tower of their quaint gabled church a bright 
salmon colour, and the body white. Here we first caught 
a peep of the Roeskilde fiorde, and then hurried down 
through a shady wood, postilions jagging the horses' 
mouths all the way, to the town, if so it can be called, 
of Frederiksvffirk, once celebrated as a royal manufac- 
tory of arms, now sold and turned over to the hands of 
common mortals. Christian VI. had a tiny palace 
in the woods hard by — where had he not one ? — lately 
purchased, with its adjoining gardens, by a Danish mer- 
chant for the sum of 1000/. Were I an intelligent indi- 
vidual, which I don't pretend to be, I should have forth- 
with visited the manufactories and written about the 
highly interesting processes of forging, burnishing, and 
what not, screwed a ha'porth of statistics out of the di- 
rectors who conducted me round, and been most proud 
as well as pleased at imparting my knowledge to you and 
other people who care, in all probability, as little about it 
as myself. I did, however, no such thing. J'ai fait mes 
preuves. For the last thirty years have inspected two- 
thirds of the manufactures of Europe — bouche beante — 
from the scrunching of copper at Fahlun to the polishing 
of sword-blades at Toledo ; am just as wise as ever ; could 
make nothing if I tried, and don't want to — it's not my 
business — I never yet understood the principle of the 
knife-grinder's wheel. 

When we had discussed our fresh prawns and coffee 
— N.B. said prawns in Denmark do not taste of the salt 
sea, like our own — we permitted ourselves to be lionized 


over the woods, and along the endless lime avenues : were 
pointed out the Arre-S0, much improved by a beechen 
framework, and then scrambled up a h0i — Maglehpi they 
term it — commanding the Eoeskilde as well as the 
Ise fiorde, its opposite coast, even to E0rvig, a place of 
note in bygone days, where the ancient sovereigns of 
the land were elected. 

A curious history is related in the archives of the 
police to have occurred at E0rvig in the middle of the 
last century. 

A Kussian man-of-war anchored one day at the en- 
trance of the fiorde. Denmark was at peace with all 
countries, so its appearance excited no remarks. The 
fishermen of the village examined it through their 
glasses, and then thought no more about the matter. 
The parson went to his bed as usual, when suddenly 
he was awakened by armed men in masks standing 
round his couch. Holding a loaded pistol to his head, 
they ordered him to dress and follow them to the church, 
where there was a marriage to perform. Trembling he 
accompanied them to the church, which he found to be 
already brilliantly illuminated, and many personages as- 
sembled around the altar. And now the bride and bride- 
groom make their appearance ; a man richly dressed, evi- 
dently a person of consequence — he looks gloomy and 
abstracted ; the bride a fair young lady of great personal 
attractions, sad and pale as alabaster. The ceremony 
is commenced, the marriage-ring placed on the lady's 
finger, vows exchanged, " until death do them part ;" all 
is now over, when suddenly a flash, followed by the 
report of a pistol, resounds through the sacred edifice — 
a shriek, one piercing shriek, from the scarcely married 
bride, who falls dead in the arms of the surrounding 


attendants. The worthy pastor saw no more. Horror- 
struck, he allowed himself to be hurried home, more 
dead than alive, to his humbled welling, where he re- 
mained a prisoner in his chamber until released by his 
female domestic. When he rose and gazed on the placid 
waters of the fiorde, the Eussian frigate was no longer 
visible ; she had weighed anchor before sunrise, and a 
fresh breeze had borne her from the coast. Without 
delay the affrighted priest posted off to Copenhagen to 
relate the mysterious event to the bishop. A purse of 
gold left beside the pastor's bed — the blood still visible 
on the church-floor — the extinguished lights in the 
corona — all affirmed the truth of his assertion, and no 
more, for the affair to this day has never been elucidated. 
Queen Dagniar once possessed a castle in these parts 
— Dronningholm by name — later pulled down by King 
Frederic II. to help in his picnic castle of Frederiks- 

We had intended proceeding on to Frederikssund 
by steamer ; but arrived the day of its nondeparture. 
Not caring to remain, though an artist might find amuse- 
ment for days in the vicinity, and could not be more 
agreeably lodged and fed than in the small hotel of the 
place, we ordered horses — sun high in the heavens — and, 
at the imminent risk of ruining our complexions, again 
started on a two hours' drive ; a breeze from the fiorde, 
however, refreshed the air, and we reached Frederiks- 
sund, a dull little town. After dinner we again started 
for Udleire to visit a certain " giant's grave," as they 
here call it. Dolmen after dolmen we passed, some 
tumbled over, others in good preservation, surrounded 
by a circle of stones. 

The cave of Udleire is situated a stone's throw from 


the road, within the bowels of an ordinary barrow, in no 
ways distinguished from its numerous brethren. Two 
small urchins appeared, key and fat-lamp in hand, to 
unlock and conduct us within the chamber; but we 
ourselves were provided with wax candles. The door is 
unclosed ; on bended knees we creep through a narrow 
passage, and suddenly find ourselves within a stone 
chamber of considerable extent, lofty, seven paces long, 
perfectly dry, all interstices between the large stones 
being filled up with a solid masonry of rubble. 


And now we drive on to Frodsborg, where, within a 
neighbouring barrow, are said to repose the remains of 
King Frocle the Good, who flourished about the period 
of our Saviour's birth — a time when, says the historian, 
all the world was at peace and all the monarchs " Good." 

The peasants still talk about King Frode ;* his repu- 
tation for goodness having resisted the course of ages. 
Not that they know much about him ; but he is a house- 
hold word amongst them. Christian IV., who was always 
seeing visions, is related one day to have met, while 
hunting near Fredensborg, a white doe of exceeding 
beauty in the forest. He was prepared to fire, when 
the animal marched right up to him and showed round 
her neck a collar bearing a Kunic inscription : — " You 
must not injure me, for King Frode the Good spared 
my life and gave me peace." The country people 
place implicit faith in this story. 

* " Frode God og Kong Valdemar, 
Del van el segli L^vepar." 

VOL. I. 2d 


Erode raay have been very good at home in Den- 
mark, but he committed terrible ravages in England, 
and mercilessly thrashed the wild Irish of his day. 
When he died, so great was the grief in Denmark, they 
could not elect a successor ; but later they came to the 
determination that he who composed the best epitaph 
to his memory should be considered the person most fit 
to succeed him. Here was a pretty state of things — a 
kingdom going for a song. The bards and the Skalds 
from all parts tried their talents, and, after much argu- 
ment, the prize — Denmark and her dependencies — was 
adjudged to the poet Hiarne. Erode the Good was laid 
under the hill on which we now stand — Frode-li0i it is 
called — a heap of stones raised to his memory. The 
epitaph composed by Hiarne, inscribed on them in 
Eunic characters, runs as follows : — 

The Danes carried the body three years round the land, 

King Frode the peaceful and the good ; 

So willingly would have seen both woman and man 

That he longer should have reigned over the land. 

There lies buried the warrior, so strong. 

By Va3rebro these stones are seen. 

Under open Heaven, in the wild field, 

There repose the lord's bones. 

The stones exist no longer. They were removed some 
two hundred years since to repair the bridge of Vaerebro, 
concerning whose erection there hangs a story: — All 
well-educated people are aware that, when the devil 
does talk in Denmark, he never speaks anything but 
German, and that very bad German too. It appears, in 
early times, just after the Eeformation, the Lutheran 
priests were in the habit of keeping pet devils con- 
fined in a box to aid them in their arduous duties. No 


wonder, poor fellows ! for the church had been cut 
down, and her revenues seized. Now, one of the 
neighbouring priests wrote to his brother of Veerebro to 
beg the loan of his pet, which the worthy pastor willingly 
accorded, tied him up in his box, and confided him to the 
care of a peasant, with strict injunctions not on any 
account to open the box. The curiosity of the bearer 
being excited, the temptation proved too strong for him : 
he would only just take one peep — out sprung the devil. 
" Vas sol ich makken ? Vas sol ich makken ?" exclaimed 
he ; and as the affrighted peasant did not at once reply, 
he set to beating him black and blue. "Build a sand- 
hill as high as Eoeskilde domkirke," roared the man. 
That was soon done. " Vas sol ich makken ?" aa-ain 
inquired the impatient demon, and fell to with his 
thumps. "Build anew bridge over Vserebro." The 
devil complied, selecting as the keystone the epitaphium 
of Frode the Good. The bridge was soon completed. 
" Vas sol ich makken ? Vas sol ich makken ?" " Jump 
into the box !" exclaimed the alarmed peasant, lest he 
should be beaten to death. In jumps the devil, down 
closes the box, the string is quickly pressed round the 
cover, and the box, devil and all, conveyed to the neigh- 
bouring priest, its destination — the peasant only too 
glad to be quit of his burden. Such is the fate of King 
Frode's stones. 

As we drove back, the sun was sinking behind the 
roof of Frederikssund. Even that insiomifieant-lookin<r 
place looked picturesque, irregular, running out on a 
promontory into the water. Now cross the ferry, and 
leave marsh and moor for forest scenery. A horse- 
man appears in sight mounted on an iron gray, who 

2 d 2 


much objects to our passing him, rears on his hind legs ; 
the rider tightens the reins — over they go — no harm 
done — up again ; rider loses his temper and gallops 
furiously by, and when we arrive at the somewhat un- 
promising " kro," or roadside inn, we find him safe and 
sound, and speaking English too, and he orders us horses 
for the nest day from Frederikssund, returning good for 
evil. "Where does not " la proprete se niche " in Den- 
mark ? We mount a ladder into an imaginary hayloft, 
where we find small clean bed-rooms with whitest of 
linen, and we go to bed with open windows ; the night- 
ingales in the adjoining wood singing us to sleep. 



Jsegerspriis — Ingeborg and Erik— Danish cemeteries — Swan with the 
golden eggs — Draxholm, the prison of Earl Bothwell — How he 
came to end his days there — The church of Faareveile, where he is 
buried — Bonfires on St. John's Eve — Sacred well of St. Helena — 
The " Meiri "— Gigantic tun of cream. 


Wednesday, June 7th. — The more modern chateau of 
Jsegerspriis succeeded to a building of very early date 
on the ancient manor of Abrahamstrup, a hunting-lodge 
and favom-ite abode of Danish royalty. It was while 
here residing that Queen Ingeborg — whose sepulchral 
brass, with that of her husband Erik Menved, we saw 
at Ringsted — lost her only child of fifteen weeks old, 
last of a numerous family. It was accidentally thrown 
from the chariot in which she was driving, and some 
authors report that King Erik, furious at the death 
of his son and heir, mounted the chariot, and, seizing 
the reins himself, drove his unlucky queen to the 
convent, where she ended her days shortly after, a 
prisoner for her fault. It is much more probable that 
Queen Ingeborg herself, brokenhearted, retired to the 
monastery of her own accord, after the fashion of the 
day. It is a nice old place Jsegerspriis, reminding 
you of some English Elizabethan manor-house, with 
moat and stagnant water. After the year 1846, when 
the crown lands of Denmark were made over to the 

40 G SKIBBY. Chap. XXVII. 

nation, his present Majesty purchased the chateau and 
its dependencies, and presented it to his wife, the 
Countess Danner, whose arms and coronet, a bunch of 
lilies on an azure ground, with the device " La fidelite 
est ma gloire," appears sculptured above the entrance. 

The apartments are not shown to the public ; but the 
countess had good-naturedly sent us an order to visit 
them, and a more enjoyable residence, fitted up with all 
that modern luxury and good taste can desire, cannot 
be found in any country. That the Northman has not 
forgotten his cunning in the art of carving we were here 
made aware of in an exquisite cabinet of some pale- 
coloured Avood, executed by an artist of the town of 
Frederiksborg. With the exception of the king's " fu- 
moir," hung with ancient stamped gilded leather, all is 
here of modern clays. The gardens are extensive, with 
summer-houses and fish-ponds ; the temperature of the 
former really leads one to imagine they were constructed 
for winter residences. Jsegerspriis was one of the dower- 
houses allotted to our English Queen Louisa, who never 
lived to enjoy its possession ; later to Juliana and her 
son the Arveprinds, grandfather of his present Majesty, 
who erected within the pleasure-grounds a series of 
monuments to the memory of Danish worthies, giving 
the whole the appearance of a suburban cemetery. 


It was a six hours' drive to Holba?k. Our first halt 
was at the village of Skibby, where our horses stopped 
to water. While some sought the shade and protection 
of a lime charmille, I clambered over into the church- 
garden, for such I must term it, gay with flowers. 


Still the Danes do not shine in cemeteries. Above 
each grave they raise an oblong mound of earth, — a 
Scandinavian custom, handed down to them from their 
forefathers ; in the middle of this they plant their 
flowers, leaving the borders unedged and most untidy. 
In some places, in the centre of each grave they form a 
medallion of sand, like the bottom of a bird's-cage : 
what for, I never could divine. Later they become 
neglected, tended only once a year, on All Saints' 
Day.* The small gravestones are in good taste — a 
crucifix or a square tablet, resting on a heap of 
rocks, with ivy planted round. And now, as we 
proceed, passing by the ancient manorial mansion of 
Krabbesholm, the country improves : not beautiful, but 
richly cultivated, undivided by hedge or fence ; patches 
of corn, patches of peas, grass, and the inevitable mose, 
give a varied colouring to the landscape. The flat land 
undulates its little best ; a barrow or stray menhir adds 
to the excitement. Then we have peeps at the hordes 
— very blue — and sunny woodlands. Koeskilde's spires, 
too, rise trim up always when least expected ; villages 
and gaards, churches and cattle ; she-storks astride 
upon their nests, evidently on the look-out for the 
return of their mates from a foraging expedition. We 
saw him — foraging, indeed! much more like amus- 
ing himself — whilst his wife waits dinner at home. 
All the feathery tribe appeared assembled in gala : 
wagtails and wheatears, finches and larks, sandpipers 
and webfooted bipeds beyond my ornithology. And 

* In 835 Pope Gregory established All Saints'-day, to be kept on 
November 1st, and decreed that people on that one day of the year 
should visit the tombs of their relatives. 

403 SKIBBY. Chap. XXVII. 

once we missed our way — the postboy was new to the 
road, and signposts exist not in Zealand — and came 
down to a place termed Deepmill, a site to have sent a 
landscape-painter wild ; and then, leaving blue fiorde, 
green forest, birds, meadows, and villages, we tumbled 
into the old high road, dusty and tiresome, and in 
an hour arrived at Holbsek. Not far from Holbaek is 
situated the hill on which dwells the swan who sits 
brooding over three golden eggs, each egg the value of 
a king's ransom (en Konge Z0sen). This swan may 
be ofttimes seen in the neighbourhood ; but no one dare 
pursue it, for once, when a man spied it, he followed 
early and late, and at last fired a shot at it near the hill ; 
but he missed the bird, and when he returned he found 
his house burnt to the ground in ashes. A dinner, and 
horses on to Faareveile. But where did we intend 
sleeping ? inquired the host. At Faareveile kro. Im- 
possible ! too small, no accommodation. We would, 
then, try the kro of Svinninge and go on to Adelers- 
borg next morning. Determined to have our own way, 
we at last arranged to travel all night, and keep on our 
carriage to take us to Ivallundborg the following day. 
The kro of Svinninge looked highly promising with its 
neatly-kept garden when we stopped to bait. We then 
left the high road, and before long the imposing chateau 
of Adelersborg appeared in sight, well placed among 
the surrounding woods. We are now in a private de- 
mesne, pass through lodges ; numberless cows graze on 
very coarse grass, but the cream is rich, the butter 
excellent : what more can you desire ? As we approach 
the borders of the fiorde — calm and tranquil are its 
waters — on a little promontory jutting out into the sea 
stands "a whitewashed gabled church and its spire of 


Vol. I., p. 409. 


ancient date, simple and unadorned, but made to paint, 
the village church of Faareveile, within whose walls 
repose the mortal remains of the Earl of Bothwell, the 
so-called husband of Mary Stuart, who died a prisoner, 
some say a maniac, within the Avails of Draxholm,* 
where he had been privately removed by the King of 
Denmark. I had written previously to Baron Adeler 
Adelsborg, possessor and lord of the barony of Ade- 
lersborg, requesting permission to visit the vault and 
inspect the remains of the Scottish earl. On our 
arrival, before adjourning to the hotel, or rather kro, 
we called at the parsonage house, to inquire at what 
hour we could visit the church on the following morning. 
We were kindly received by M. Garde, the worthy 
pastor, who would not allow of our going to the inn, 
and informed us that we were expected at the castle by 
Baron Adeler, who had returned that very day. We 
arranged the matter at last. The ladies remained at 
the parsonage, and I was driven up, in the carriage of 
the minister, to Adelsborg, where I was most kindly 
received, and reproached for allowing the rest of the 
party to remain at the village below. It appears that 
the Baron had written to invite us to Adelersborg ; the 
letter had arrived some days after our departure from 
Elsinore ; so it was settled that I should remain till the 
following evening and accept for all the hospitality so 
kindly proffered. 


June 9th. — Tbe ancient castle of Draxholm, or 
Dragon's Island, was, in former days, the property of 

* In the year 1578. 

410 , DRAXHOLM. Chap. XXVII. 

the Bishops of Roeskilde ; the huge mass of buildings 
are still something ecclesiastical in their appearance, 
surrounded by a moat, and of no architectural beauty. 
The great tower, which I see in the old engravings of 
Resen, was destroyed by the Swedes in 1658 ; the chapel 
gutted during the War of the Counts, 1533. It is the 
intention of Baron Zeutphen Adeler to restore it to its 
former state, and, from what 1 have seen of his buildings 
elsewhere, there is no doubt it will be executed in a 
creditable manner. The appellation of Draxholm be- 
came later merged in the barony of Adelsborg, created 
in favour of a descendant of the illustrious Admiral Carl 
Adeler, whose portrait by Carl van Mander,* in black 
armour, decorated with the orders of the Dannebrog and 
St. Marens, adorns the walls of the lately-restored chapel 
of the castle. Of an ancient Norwegian family, he 
was Admiral in the Venetian service, commanded the 
galleys of the Republic against the Turks, and was 
later summoned to Denmark to take the command of 
the navy. The Zeutphens are of Dutch extraction ; a 
family who distinguished themselves in the Spanish ser- 
vice fighting against the Moors of Murcia and Granada. 

Before we proceed to visit the church of Faareveile, 
I may as well explain how Bothwell came to end his 
days within the prison of the castle of Draxholm. 

It was in the year 1567 that sentence of death was 
passed by the Scottish Parliament on the Earl of Both- 
well, at that time resident in the Orkney Islands, having 
under his command a squadron of five light-armed 
vessels of war, with which he performed such direful 
acts of piracy as to cause a general consternation 

Engraved by Haelwecb, and also in the present time. 


among the English merchants. In their endeavours, 
during a terrific storm, to escape from an armament sent 
in their pursuit, two of his vessels managed to enter the 
harbour of Kanisund, in Norway. Bothwell here de- 
clared himself to be the husband of the Queen of Scots, 
and demanded to be conducted into the presence of 
the King of Denmark. Such is the account given by 
Enolish historians. Now, however, that Bothwell is 
safe arrived in Norway, it is as well to consult the ac- 
count given by the Danes themselves. In the ' Liber 
Bergensis Capituli ' we find the following notice: — 
" Sept. 2, a.d. 1568, came the King's ship ' David,' 
upon which Christian of Aalborg was head man ; she 
had taken prisoner a count from Scotland of the name 
of Jacob Hebroe of Botwile, who first was made Duke 
of the Orkneys and Shetland, and lately married the 
Queen of Scotland, and after he was suspected of having 
been in the counsel to blow up the king : they first 
accused the queen, and then the count, but he made 
his escape, and came to Norway, and was afterwards 
taken to Denmark by the king's ship ' David.' ' 

The accusation of piracy made against the Scottish 
earl was never credited by Frederic II. or his ad- 
visers. Bothwell had hired two " pinks" when in Shet- 
land of Gerhard Hemlin, the Bremois, for fifty silver 
dollars a month, commanded by David Wodt, a noted 
pirate, in which he arrived on the coast of Norway, in a 
miserable plight, his own vessel having returned to 
Shetland with his valuables on board to fetch his people. 
Erik Bosenkrantz, the Governor, thought necessary to 
summon a jury of the most respectable people of the 
town, " twelve brewers of the bridge," to inquire into 
the earl's case, and how it Avas he had become associated 


with so well-known a pirate. Some of the crew affirmed 
they knew of no other captain than one Wodt, to whom 
the pink belonged. The commission add, that this 
Hamburger (as Bothwell styles him in his narrative) 
was a well-known pirate. 

Still they suspected the earl was about to go over to 
Sweden, a country at war with Denmark: they ac- 
cordingly recommend that he should take an oath that 
he would keep peace towards his Danish Majesty's sub- 
jects, as well as towards all those who brought goods to 
his Majesty's dominions. On this account only Erik 
Eosenkrantz sends him a prisoner to Copenhagen. This 
was no doubt the origin of the accusation of piracy 
made by the Earl of Murray against Bothwell by the 
mouth of the infant king, aged eighteen months. The 
earl had come to raise men in the north to aid the royal 
cause. Indeed, so satisfactory was his examination on 
this point, it is mentioned in the ' Liber Bergensis ' that 
two days after his examination — 

" 28th Sept. Erik Eosenkrantz gave to the earl and 
his noblemen a magnificent banquet;" and again, "the 
earl repaired to the castle, and Erik received him with 
great honour." 

On the 17th of the same month, however, is noted a 
circumstance of a less agreeable kind : — 

" Mrs. Anna, Christopher Trancls0n's daughter, 
brought a suit against the Earl of Bothwile, for having 
taken her away from her native country, and refusing 
to treat her as his married wife, although he by hand, 
word of mouth, and by letters, had promised her so to 
do, which letters she caused to be read before him. 
And inasmuch as he had three wives living — first herself ; 
then another in Scotland, of whom he had rid himself 


by purchase ; last of all, the Queen Mary — Mrs. Anna 
was of opinion that he was not at all a person to be de- 
pended on ; he therefore promised her the yearly allow- 
ance of one hundred dollars from Scotland, and gave 
her a pink, with anchors, cables, and other appurten- 

The Lady Anna resided in the palace of the Go- 
vernor, her kinsman : under existing circumstances the 
meeting must have been singularly unpleasant. 

On the 30th of September comes our last notice — 
" The earl was conducted to a ship and led prisoner to 
Denmark, that is MalmO-huus." This assertion is not 
quite correct, as Bothwell remained in Copenhagen until 
the 30th of December, when he was consigned to the 
custody of Bi0rn Kaas, Governor of Malm0-huus, together 
with his companion, Captain Clarke. Here he remained, 
well treated, with a liberal allowance from the King 
of Denmark, indulging in potations with his comrade 
which later brought him to death's door. Many 
were the requests from the Queen of England and the 
Scottish lords to Frederic, demanding that the earl 
should be handed over to then* custody, to which the 
Danish Sovereign always replied by a refusal. " If 
they chose to proceed against him, they were at liberty 
so to do, but judged he must be by Danish laws." It 
is related how, after a season, being brought to a state 
of weakness from the effects of a dangerous illness, his 
conscience tormented by anguish and remorse, he made, 
in the presence of several witnesses, a confession of 
his share of Darnley's assassination, exonerating Queen 
Mary from any participation or knowledge of his crime. 
Mary, in a letter to her ambassador on the subject, 
writes the names of those before whom the attestation 


was made, to be — " Otto Braw, of the castle of Elcembre ; 
Paris Braw, of Vasku ; Monsieur Gullensterna, of the 
Castle of Fulkenster ; Baron Cowes, of Malinga Castle :" 
so Miss Strickland gives them. I have this morning 
consulted a Danish nobilier to see whether I can, among 
the manors once in possession of these families, find 
any names similar to those here given. The spelling is 
obscure, but really not worse than that of a foreigner of 
the 19th century, if he attempted to write down the 
names by ear. 

" Otto Braw, of the Castle of Elcembre," stands for 
Otto Brahe, of the Castle of Helsingborg, of which he 
was governor, — father of Tycho Brahe. He died, how- 
ever, in 1571. His son Steen was at that time alive, 
and resident near Malm0 — indeed, the whole province 
of Skaane teemed with his family, lehnsmend and 
governors, high in authority. " Paris Braw, of Yascu," 
I take to be Brahe of Vidskovle, a chateau near 
Christianstad ; " Gullensterna of Fulkenster," Gylden- 
stierne of Fuletofte, probably Axel, son of Mogens 
Gyldenstierne, stadtholder of Malm0, and himself a 
governor ; while for " Baron Cowes, of Malinge," read 
Bi0rn Kaas, Governor of Malm0huus, whose son J0rgen 
was possessor of Meilgard in Jutland. 

In the copy of BothweH's confession preserved in the 
Scotch College in Paris these names are again differ- 
ently written. The Swedes, to whom Skaane now be- 
longs, possess again an orthography different from the 
Danes. You will not find them written in two books 
alike. After a lapse of fifty years nothing can be more 

It was in the year 1573, after the confession, that 
Bothwell was removed to Draxholm, and treated as a 


criminal : though, of that no documentary evidence 
exists, it may turn up some day. M. de Dantzay writes 
word to Charles IX. that the King of Denmark, up to 
the present time, had well treated the Earl Bothwell, 
but a few days since had caused him to be put "en 
une fort maulvaise et estroite prison." In the month 
of November, the same year, he again annoimces, "le 
Comte de Baudouel, Ecossais, est aussi decede." Both- 
well, however, did not die till April 19th, 1578. Ac- 
cording to the chaplain of Draxholm, Frederic, tor- 
mented by the demands of Queen Elizabeth and the 
Scotch Begent for his deliverance into their hands, 
allowed the report of his death to be circulated, and so 
put an end to all worry on the subject.* 

In the chronicle of Frederic II.'s reign, Besen, under 
the year 1578, after stating that Frederic II. caused 
the dead body of his father to be removed from Odense 
to Boskilde, continues, " At that very time the Scottish 
Earl Botwell also died, after a long imprisonment at 
Draxholm, and was buried at Faareveile." t 

That the Scottish queen, in her damp prison of 
Fothermgay, receiving her intelligence in secret, should 
have been misinformed as to the Christian names of the 

* I. Les Affaires du Comte de Bodwel, Due des Isles d'Orquenay, 
ou Kelation, adressee au Eoi de Dannemark, de sa Persecution et de 
ses Aventures, avec les causes des Troubles en Ecosse depuis 1559 
jusqu'en 1568, donne'e a Copenhaguen la veille des Hois 1568. 

t According to an old MS. in the Eoyal Library at Copenhagen, 
Captain Clarke died in the month of May, 1576, also at Draxholm ; this 
it is siipposed may have added to the confusion as regards the date of 
Bothwell's decease. In the archives (De la Gardie collection) there aro 
letters from James I., Anne, her secretary Fowler, as well as the two 
Melvilles, dates 1594 and 1595, to Charles Barnekow, governor of 
Malm0, about the Bothwell rebellion. " Bothwell s'est retire' en 
France," writes James. Was that Bothwell's natural son? 


Danish noblemen who were summoned to the sick-bed 
of Bothwell, is not surprising ; — such a confusion, too, 
as exists in these ancient genealogies ; such an inter- 
marrying between the families of Kaas, Gyldenstierne, 
and Brahe ; such a changing and exchanging of manors 
by sale, by dowry, by gifte maal and morgen gaffue 
(marriage settlement) — my head, before we had finished 
our researches, became a very chaos.* 

The prison of Bothwell is now the wine-cellar of the 
castle, and the iron ring to which he is reported to have 
been attached a maniac stands inserted in the wall 
between two shelves of the wine-bins : on one lies crusty 
port, in the lower Chateau Lafitte. What a tanta- 
lizing sight for his wine-loving spectre, should he by 
chance revisit the seat of his former prison'! Bothwell 
died at Draxholm two years after his removal thither, 
and was interred in the parish church of Faareveile. 

It is not my intention to enter on the defence of 
Queen Mary, be pathetic, and talk of her virtues. 
This has been ably done already : first by Prince 
Labanoff, and later in the charming work of Agnes 
Strickland.^ Every argument has been worn thread- 
bare to prove her innocence, except one, and that is 
the clumsy stupidity of the whole proceeding. To me 
it appears preposterous that Mary Stuart, a woman 
of talent and finesse, bred in the Court of France, 
own daughter-in-law to Catherine de Medicis, would 
ever have participated in so clumsy an affair as the 
barrels of gunpowder in the Kirk o' Field. We all 

* The very early Danes made these settlements the morning after 
the consummation of the marriage ; in our more matter-of-fact days 
ladies prefer having these little matters arranged beforehand, — hence 
our wealthy dowagers of the nineteenth century. 

Vol. I p, i 


know how subtle were the poisons in those days, and 
how easy would it have been for Mary, had she desired 
it, to have instilled death in a purple harebell or bunch 
of mountain heather, and have presented it to her 
lord when sick of the small-pox, through which she so 
tenderly nursed him. Of these subtle poisons the 
Scotch knew nothing, nor indeed the English either. 
Hemlock and simple infusions (King John, if I recollect 
right, was poisoned by a toad squeezed into his wine- 
cup by a doctor monk), easy of detection, were the 
climax of their art. In the present century adul- 
teration does more havoc than the Borgias did in the 
middle ages. 


At eisht o'clock the carriages come round, we drive 
to Faareveile, pick up the ladies of the party, and 
adjourn to the church. On the iron-bound door 
appears the dragon, titular patron, I suppose, of the 
place. The interior is simple, of good architecture, 
with pulpit and altarpiece of Christian IV. 's date, 
and in sound repair — telling of a resident landlord 
who prides himself in the prosperous appearance of 
all around him. And now they raise a, folding trap 
in the chancel ; a ladder leads to the vault below : on 
the right lies a simple wooden coffin encased in an 
outer one for protection; the lid is removed, a sheet 
withdrawn, uncovered within which lies the mummy- 
corpse of Scotland's proudest earl. The coffin in 
earlier times reposed in a vault of the chapel of the 
Adeler family, but was removed by the baron to its pre- 
sent place for the convenience of those who desire to 
visit it without intruding on the dormitory of the 

■1 E 

VOL. I. 


family. It had always for centuries been known as the 
tomb of " Grev Bodvell " by sacristan and peasant. 
When the wooden coffin was first opened the body was 
found enveloped in the finest linen, the head reposing 
on a pillow of satin. There was no inscription. 

Now I am no enthusiast, and take matters quietly 
enough, but I defy any impartial Englishman to gaze on 
this body without at once declaring it to be that of an 
ugly " Scotchman." It is that of a man about the 
middle height — and to judge by his hair, red mixed with 
gray, of about fifty years of age. The forehead is not 
expansive ; the form of the head wide behind, denoting 
bad qualities, of which Bothwell, as we all know, pos- 
sessed plenty ; high cheek-bones ; remarkably prominent, 
long, hooked nose, somewhat depressed towards the end 
(this may have been the effect of emaciation) ; wide 
mouth ; hands and feet small, well shaped, those of a 
hiirh-bred man. I have examined the records of the 
Scottish Parliament, caused researches to be made at 
the British Museum, — the copy of his " Hue and Cry " 
is not forthcoming : no description of Bothwell exists, 
save that of Brantome, who saw him on his visit to 
Paris, where he first met Mary during the lifetime of 
King Francis, and he describes him as "the ugliest 
and awkwardest of men." Concerning his grace I 
can say nothing, but I do not think his corpse belies 
the description of the French historian. And now, 
duly satisfied with the inspection, having first severed 
a lock of his red and silver hair as a souvenir, we 
let close the coffin-lid, and again mounted the stair- 
case. Bothwell's life was a troubled one; but had 
he selected a site in all Christendom for quiet and 
repose in death, he could have found none more peace- 

Chap. XXVII. VEIRH0I. 419 

ful, more soft and calm, than the village church of 


We now drove to the Veirh0i, one of the highest 
points in Zealand. Such a view met our eyes when 
we arrived at the flag-staff! On one side the Lamme- 
fiorde, the town of Eoeskilde, the rocks on the coast 
of Sweden, to the west ; the waters of the Great Belt, 
Kattegat, and Jutland, in the distance ; before us lay 
the island of Seir0, the property of a peasant; there 
was made the best silver "finde" of this new year. 
When in the Northern Museum of Copenhagen ask 
for the Seir0 finde — a rich wrought silver chain, to 
which hangs suspended en breloque the hammer of 
Thor ; several bracelets, some hung with ring-money ; 
two brooches or fibulae of quaint design, on one a 
dragon in the act of devouring a snake ; Cufic coins, 
and one Anglo-Saxon, date 950, fixing the epoch of 
the jewels.* 

I stood chapeau bas, from pure respect ; and then 
my eyes fell on a blackened stone. " That," said Baron 

* The peasants relate odd stories about the church bells of the island 
of Seir0, which were carried off by the Swedes in the great war under 
Christian V., and suspended in a steeple of the city of Gottenborg. 
Little good, however, came of it, — ring and peal hard as they would, 
they could never make them sound as long as they wanted them to 
ring for divine service ; but no sooner was the church door shut than 
" Ding dong bell " they set off, never stopping the livelong day ; so, to 
be rid of their bargain, they sent them off back again, and gladly paid 
the expenses. The clergyman of Gottenborg wrote thus : — " And I 
hope and trust, just as the bells have sounded in the foresaid town, 
they may henceforth during many years in their own homo be rung 
peacefully for the performance of the service of God : " which letter, 
says the Danish Aller, was long preserved " in originalis," by F. Rost- 
gaard and his heirs, in the last century the owners of Seir0. 

2 e 2 

420 VEIKH0I. Chap. XXVII. 

Adeler, "is the stone on which the bonfire is lighted by 
the peasants on St. John's eve — an old custom handed 
down to us from the earliest time. It is a beautiful 
sight ; on every hill a fire is lighted. We can from 
this spot count eighty or ninety at a time." How this 
bonfiring escaped the anathemas of the Eeformed 
Church I know not. The sacred well of St. Helena, 
near Tidsvilde, whose waters effected most marvellous 
cures, was a favourite place of pilgrimage to the simple 
peasantry on St. John's-day — a custom which, as well as 
the erection of small crucifixes by the well's side as 
thank-offerings, continued long after the Reformation 
was finally established in Denmark. In vain the pre- 
lates forbade, under pain of punishment and fine, the 
continuation of such Popish practices : it was of no use. 
" Why," exclaimed the boers, " should we pay for 
doctor's stuff when good St. Helena furnishes us with 
water much more efficacious, free of all expense?" 
As late as 1716 an edict from Roeskilde was published 
forbidding the erection of these obnoxious crosses 
under pain of I don't know what. The bonfires were 
winked at. 

We returned to the castle to lunch; a charming 
residence, fitted up with all possible comforts, nothing 
too fine for use — family portraits and collection of stone 
antiquities found in the barony itself. Then we visited 
the gardens, rich in roses ; in the potager I observed 
a row of the Helleborus viridis. This plant is found 
indigenous in some parts of England, near the ancient 
hunting-lodges of our Plantagenet sovereigns, and was 
used in the days of archery for poisoning the arrow- 

But the "Meiri" is the glory of the place — new 

Chav. XXVII. THE " MEIRI." 421 

constructed buildings in the national style of archi- 
tecture, highly ornamental — water running, hot and 
cold, in all directions. Three hundred and forty cows 
form the establishment; to each milkmaid is allotted 
twenty cows ; and the servants, farm dependants, and 
all, sit down to dinner each day, a hundred in number. 
120 lbs. of butter is made every morning in summer : 
pats as big as cart-wheels, yellow as saffron, though 
none is added. Near the doorway stood, colossal, a 
tun of cream — not quite as large as the Heidelberg, but 
fit to bathe a Koman empress or to drown some milk- 
and-water Clarence. 

And now the sun is set we bid adieu to our hospit- 
able host and his amiable daughter, charmed with their 
kindness, having spent a most pleasant day at Adelers- 
borg. A three hours' drive brought us to Kallundborg. 





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